Magnum Force is a 1973 American action thriller and the second to feature Clint Eastwood as maverick cop Harry Callahan after the 1971 film Dirty Harry. Ted Post, who directed Eastwood in the television series Rawhide and the feature film Hang'Em High, directed this second installment in the Dirty Harry film series; the screenplay was written by Michael Cimino. The film score was once again composed by Lalo Schifrin; this film features early appearances by Tim Matheson and Robert Urich. At 124 minutes, it is the longest Dirty Harry film. Mobster Carmine Ricca drives away from court in his limo after being acquitted of a mass murder on a legal technicality. However, while his limo is on an isolated road and his three associates are murdered by an SFPD motorcycle cop. Inspector Harry Callahan visits the crime scene alongside his partner Earlington "Early" Smith, despite the fact that the two of them are supposed to be on stakeout duty. Callahan trades barbs with Lieutenant Neil Briggs. After he and Early stumble upon and foil an attempt to hijack an airliner, Callahan meets rookie cops Phil Sweet, John Davis, Alan "Red" Astrachan, Mike Grimes while practicing at an indoor firing range.
Callahan deduces that Sweet is an ex-Airborne Ranger and Special Forces veteran after loaning his gun to the rookie, being impressed by the rookies. Sometime after, a motorcycle cop slaughters a mobster's pool party using a satchel charge and a submachine gun; as Callahan and Early deal with an attempted armed robbery of a store, a pimp murders a prostitute, withholding money from him. The next day, the pimp is killed off by a patrolman. While investigating the crime scene, Callahan deduces what occurred and realizes that the culprit is a cop, he assumes it to be his old friend Charlie McCoy, who has become despondent and suicidal after leaving his wife, Carol. The motorcycle cop murders drug kingpin Lou Guzman using a Colt Python equipped with a suppressor. However, Guzman is under surveillance and Callahan's old partner Frank DiGiorgio, sees McCoy dump his bike outside Guzman's apartment just before the murders; the motorcycle cop, revealed to be Davis, encounters McCoy in the parking garage and kills him to eliminate a potential witness.
Harry learns of McCoy's death. At an annual shooting competition, a puzzled DiGiorgio tells Callahan that Davis was the first officer to arrive after the murders of Guzman and McCoy. Callahan purposely embeds a slug in a range wall, he retrieves the slug to have ballistics confirm it to match the bullets found at the Guzman crime scene. Callahan begins to suspect. Briggs insists that mob killer Frank Palancio is behind the deaths. Callahan forces Briggs to loan him Sweet as back up for a raid on Palancio's residence; however and his gang are tipped off via a phone call, resulting in a gunfight and the deaths of Palancio and Sweet. A search of Palancio's offices for incriminating evidence turns up nothing and only raises Harry's suspicions further; the three remaining rogue cops confront Callahan in his garage complex, presenting him with a veiled ultimatum to join their organization. While checking his mailbox, Callahan discovers a bomb left by the vigilantes and manages to defuse it, but a second bomb kills Early as Harry phones to warn him.
Callahan calls Briggs and shows him the bomb, only to learn that Briggs is the leader of the death squad. Briggs cites the traditions of frontier justice and summary executions, expressing disappointment for Callahan's refusal to join forces. Callahan and Briggs drive to an undisclosed location while being followed by Grimes. Callahan knocks him unconscious. Grimes gives chase and shoots out the car's rear windshield before Callahan runs him over. Davis and Astrachan appear, causing Callahan to flee onto an old aircraft carrier in a shipbreaker's yard; as they stalk Callahan through the darkened ship, Astrachan wastes his ammunition and Callahan beats him to death. Callahan runs onto the top deck and starts up Astrachan's motorcycle, leading Davis in a series of jumps between ships before the two run out of deck space. Callahan skids to a stop. Callahan makes his way back to the car. Briggs states his intent to frame Callahan for the murders rather than kill him; as Callahan backs away from the car, he surreptitiously activates the timer on the mail bomb and tosses it in the back seat.
Briggs is driving off. Clint Eastwood as SFPD Homicide Inspector Harry Callahan Hal Holbrook as SFPD Homicide Lt. Neil Briggs David Soul as SFPD Traffic Officer John Davis Tim Matheson as SFPD Traffic Officer Phil Sweet Kip Niven as SFPD Traffic Officer Alan "Red" Astrachan Robert Urich as SFPD Traffic Officer Mike Grimes Felton Perry as SFPD Stakeout Inspector Earlington "Early" Smith Mitchell Ryan as SFPD Traffic Officer Charlie McCoy Margaret Avery as the Prostitute Bob McClurg as the Cab Driver John Mitchum as SFPD Stakeout Inspector Frank DiGiorgio Albert Popwell as the Pimp, J. J. Wilson Richard Devon as Carmine Ricca Christine White as Carol McCoy Tony Giorgio as Frank Palancio Maurice Argent as Nat Weinstein Jack Kosslyn as Walter Bob March as Estabrook Ade
Dirty Harry is a 1971 American action crime thriller film produced and directed by Don Siegel, the first in the Dirty Harry series. Clint Eastwood plays the title role, in his first outing as San Francisco Police Department Inspector "Dirty" Harry Callahan; the film drew upon the real life case of the Zodiac Killer as the Callahan character seeks out a similar vicious psychopath. Dirty Harry was a critical and commercial success and set the style for a whole genre of police films, it was followed by four sequels: Magnum Force in 1973, The Enforcer in 1976, Sudden Impact in 1983 and The Dead Pool in 1988. In 2012, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally and aesthetically significant". A killer shoots a girl in a hotel rooftop swimming pool. Police arrive at the crime scene, where SFPD Inspector Harry Callahan finds a blackmail note signed "Scorpio" ordering the city to pay $100,000 or he will continue to kill; the mayor asks police officers.
During lunch, Inspector Callahan foils a bank robbery. He kills two of the wounds a third. Confronting the wounded robber, Callahan delivers the film's iconic line: I know what you're thinking:'Did he fire six shots or only five?' Well, to tell you the truth, in all this excitement, I've kinda lost track myself. But being this is a.44 Magnum, the most powerful handgun in the world, would blow your head clean off, you've got to ask yourself one question:'Do I feel lucky?' Well, do you, punk? The robber surrenders to Callahan, but replies that he needs to know if the gun is still loaded. Callahan pulls the trigger with the weapon pointed directly at the robber, laughs as it is revealed to be empty. Callahan is assigned Chico Gonzalez, whom he believes to be an inexperienced rookie. Scorpio is staking out potential victims near a public park, but is spotted by a police helicopter and runs away. Callahan and his new partner believe they see him that night on the streets, but in the course of tracing him to his home, Callahan looks into a window and watches a sexual encounter before being caught by neighbors who try to beat him up as a peeping Tom, until Chico intervenes.
Based on Scorpio's communications, the city decides. They set up a stake-out. Scorpio arrives and there is a shootout in which a policeman disguised as a priest is killed. Scorpio delivers a second ransom demand to the police, stating he has now kidnapped a teenage girl who he says will die if his demands are not met. Callahan is assigned to deliver a case full of money, he waits near a pier as directed by Scorpio who calls Callahan on a nearby pay phone, giving him instructions to go to another location in the city with another payphone, where he will call again. Callahan encounters Scorpio at the Mount Davidson cross. Scorpio beats Callahan into submission before telling him that he intends to let the girl die, his partner has been following them and there is a shootout in which Chico is wounded. After being stabbed in the leg with a hidden knife by Callahan, Scorpio escapes without the money and reports to a hospital; the police learn of Scorpio's hospital visit, a doctor recalls having met Scorpio and that he lives in a room at Kezar Stadium.
Callahan finds Scorpio there and after a chase he shoots and tortures Scorpio by standing on his wounded leg, demanding to know where the girl is being held. Scorpio confesses, but by it is too late and the girl is found dead; the district attorney tells Callahan that Scorpio's rights have been violated, they cannot hold him. Callahan continues to shadow Scorpio on his own time. Scorpio pays a man $200 to beat him then reports to a hospital claiming he is a victim of police brutality. Scorpio acquires a handgun, hijacks a school bus and contacts the police with yet another ransom demand for money and a flight out of the Santa Rosa airport. Callahan jumps onto the roof of the bus from an overpass. After Callahan forces Scorpio off the bus, the latter flees to a nearby quarry and holds a boy at gunpoint. Having shot Scorpio through the shoulder, Callahan reprises his line about losing count of his shots. Unlike the earlier encounter, Callahan does have one remaining bullet, with which he kills Scorpio when the latter goes for his gun.
Callahan throws it into the water before walking away. Clint Eastwood as SFPD Homicide Inspector Harry Callahan Andy Robinson as Charles "Scorpio" Davis Harry Guardino as SFPD Homicide Lt. Al Bressler Reni Santoni as SFPD Homicide Inspector Chico Gonzalez John Vernon as The Mayor of San Francisco John Larch as Chief of Police John Mitchum as SFPD Homicide Inspector Frank "Fatso" DiGiorgio Woodrow Parfrey as Jaffe Josef Sommer as District Attorney William T. Rothko Mae Mercer as Mrs. Russell Albert Popwell as Bank robber Lyn Edgington as Norma Gonzalez Ruth Kobart as Marcella Platt Lois Foraker as Hot Mary William Paterson as Judge Bannerman Debralee Scott as Ann Mary Deacon The script, titled Dead Right, by the husband-and-wife team of Harry Julian Fink and Rita M. Fink, was about a hard-edged New York City police inspector, Harry Callahan, determined to stop Travis, a serial killer if he has to skirt the law and accepted standards of policing, blurring the distinction between criminal and cop, to address the question as to how far a free, democratic society can go to protect itself.
The original draft ended with a police sniper, instead of Callahan. Another earlier version
Robert Francis Hoy, was an American actor and director. Hoy was raised in New York, he joined the Marines and served in World War II. Bobby Hoy's career spanned 55 years as first a stuntman an actor and director, he doubled for stars such as Tony Curtis, Charles Bronson, Audie Murphy, Tyrone Power, David Janssen, Telly Savalas and Jay Silverheels. He appeared in more than 67 films included Bite the Bullet, The Outlaw Josey Wales, The Legend of the Lone Ranger, The Gambler II, Nevada Smith, Bronco Billy, The Enforcer and The Great Race. On television, Hoy acted in more than 75 TV programs including The High Chaparral, where he portrayed Joe Butler from 1967 to 1971. Other credits include Wanted: Dead or Alive, Walker: Texas Ranger, JAG, The Wild Wild West, Wonder Woman, Magnum, P. I; the Young Zorro. In 1961, he became a co-founding member of The Stuntman's Association of Motion Pictures. Director and lifelong friend Raymond Austin put Hoy behind the camera as second unit director and stunt coordinator in Spain for the TV series Zorro and on the pilot of The Three Musketeers.
On January 28, 2010, Hoy was honored with a Golden Boot by the Motion Picture & Television Fund, commemorating his contribution to the genre of Western television and movies in all three award categories: acting, stunt work and directing. It was presented to him in the penthouse suite of Northridge Hospital, the first time a Golden Boot has been given to an honoree in the hospital. Bobby Hoy died on February 2010 at Northridge Hospital after a six-month battle with cancer, he was 82. He is survived by his wife of 22 years, a son, Christopher. Robert Hoy on IMDb
Ellen Tyne Daly is an American actress. She has won six Emmy Awards for her television work and a Tony Award, is a 2011 American Theatre Hall of Fame inductee. Daly began her career on stage in summer stock in New York, made her Broadway debut in the play That Summer – That Fall in 1967, she is best known for her television role as Detective Mary Beth Lacey in Cagney & Lacey, for which she is a four-time Emmy Award winner as Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series. In 1989, she starred in the Broadway revival of Gypsy and won the 1990 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical, her other TV roles include Alice Henderson in Christy, for which she won an Emmy in 1996 and Maxine Gray in Judging Amy, which won her a sixth Emmy in 2003. Her other Broadway credits include The Seagull, her Tony-nominated role in Rabbit Hole and her Tony-nominated role in Mothers and Sons, she played Maria Callas, in the play Master Class. She plays Anne Marie Hoag in Marvel Studios' Spider-Man: Homecoming. Daly was born in Wisconsin, to actor James Daly and actress Mary Hope.
Her younger brother is actor Tim Daly, she has two sisters, Mary Glynn and Pegeen Michael. She was raised in Westchester County, New York, where she started her career by performing in summer stock with her family, she studied at the American Musical and Dramatic Academy. Daly appeared in the CBS police-procedural crime drama Cagney & Lacey as Mary Beth Lacey, the married working mother, she won the Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series four times, in 1983, 1984, 1985, 1988, was a nominee in 1986 and 1987. Between co-star Sharon Gless and herself, they won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series six years in a row. In 1991, Daly guest-starred on her brother Tim's series Wings, playing a woman who dates Brian Hackett, brother of Tim's character Joe, she appeared as social worker Maxine Gray, the mother to the show's title character on the CBS drama Judging Amy, which ran from 1999 to 2005. Addressing a conference of the National Association of Social Workers in 2000, Daly said she had learned from social workers and social work texts to improve her portrayal of her character, she added: "I take from you because you are the ones dealing with all the bad institutions of our society: institutionalized poverty, institutionalized racism, institutionalized cynicism."Daly appeared in a made-for-TV movie for Lifetime in 2003 titled Undercover Christmas, as Anne Cunningham.
She played the role of a traditional mother and peacemaker at Christmas time in a wealthy family of lawyers, who disapproves of her FBI agent son's girlfriend. Among her television roles, Daly reunited with Cagney & Lacey costar Sharon Gless in a 2010 guest role on the series Burn Notice. In the fall of 2018, Daly joined the cast of the revival of the Murphy Brown series, playing the character of Phyllis, who runs the bar which Murphy and her coworkers patronize. Daly's first Broadway role was in 1967 in That Summer, That Fall. In 1988, Daly appeared on the Dolly Parton TV variety show Dolly, sang a duet with Parton. Broadway producer Barry Brown saw the show and, impressed by Daly's performance, decided to mount a revival of the musical Gypsy with Daly in the lead role of Rose. Cagney & Lacey had finished airing, Daly agreed, tried out for the part. In April 1989, the Daly-helmed Gypsy revival began a 14-city U. S. tour. This production was the second revival of the show to play Broadway, she won the 1990 Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical for her performance in Gypsy.
Daly left Gypsy in July 1990, with Linda Lavin playing Rose, returned in April 1991 through closing in July 1991. She appeared in the Broadway revival of the Anton Chekhov play The Seagull in 1992 as Madame Arkadina, she appeared as Sally Adams in the City Center Encores! Staged concert of Call Me Madam in February 1995. In regional theatre, she played Lola in Come Back, Little Sheba at the Los Angeles Theatre Center, Los Angeles, in April 1997, she appeared on Broadway in the 2006 play, Rabbit Hole, portraying the mother of the play's protagonist, played by Cynthia Nixon. In January 2008, she played the role of Mother in the world premiere production of Edward Albee's Me, Myself & I at the McCarter Theatre, New Jersey. In 2009, she appeared in the original cast of Love and What I Wore, she debuted the role of Judy Steinberg in It Shoulda Been You, at the George Street Playhouse, New Brunswick, New Jersey, which ran from October 4 to November 6, 2011. The musical ran on Broadway in 2015, she starred as Maria Callas in Master Class at the Manhattan Theater Club on Broadway, from June 14, 2011 to September 4, 2011.
Daly reprised her role as Maria Callas in the West End production of Master Class, which opened at the Vaudeville Theatre on February 7, 2012 in a limited engagement to April 28, 2012. Daly performed a cabaret act, Second Time Around, in January 2010 at Feinstein's at Loews Regency, New York City, she had performed at Feinstein's in May 2009. Daly appeared in John and Mary, the biker movie Angel Unchained, the movie adaptation of Play It As It Lays, The Adulteress, she was cast as Inspector Harry Callahan's first female partner, Kate Moore, in the 1976 Dirty Harry film The Enforcer. The film was critically panned. Daly's performance divided critics, with some calling it too "ma
Philip Kaufman is an American film director and screenwriter who has directed fifteen films over a career spanning more than six decades. He has been described as a "maverick" and an "iconoclast," notable for his versatility and independence, he is considered an "auteur". His choice of topics has been eclectic and sometimes controversial, having adapted novels with diverse themes and stories. Kaufman's works have included genres such as realism, fantasy, Westerns, underworld crime, inner city gangs. Examples are Milan Kundera's The Unbearable Lightness of Being, Michael Crichton's Rising Sun, a remake of Invasion of the Body Snatchers, the erotic writings of Anaïs Nin's Henry & June, his film The Wanderers has achieved cult status. But his greatest success was Tom Wolfe's true-life The Right Stuff, which received eight Academy Award nominations, including Best Picture. According to film historian Annette Insdorf, "no other living American director has so and made movies for adults, tackling sensuality, artistic creation, manipulation by authorities."
Other critics note that Kaufman's films are "strong on mood and atmosphere," with powerful cinematography and a "lyrical, poetic style" to portray different historic periods. His films have a somewhat European style, but the stories always "stress individualism and integrity, are American." Kaufman was born in Chicago in 1936, the only son of Elizabeth, a housewife, Nathan Kaufman, a produce businessman. He was the grandson of German Jewish immigrants. One of his grammar and high school friends was William Friedkin, who became a director, he developed an early love of movies and during his youth he would go to double features. He attended the University of Chicago where he received a degree in history, enrolled at Harvard Law School where he spent a year, he returned to Chicago for a postgraduate degree. In 1958 Kaufman married a year after they met as undergraduates, they had a son, Peter. Before graduating Kaufman became involved in the counterculture movement and in 1960 moved to San Francisco.
He took various jobs there, including postal worker, befriended a number of influential people, such as writer Henry Miller. He and his wife decided to travel and live in Europe for a while where he would teach. After spending time working on a kibbutz in Israel, he taught English and math for two years in Greece and Italy. During his travels he met author Anaïs Nin, whose relationship with her lover, Henry Miller became the inspiration and subject for Kaufman's film Henry and June, he met Saugus, Massachusetts-born Rose Fisher in 1957, when he was 21 and she was 18, both were undergraduates at the University of Chicago. A year in 1958, they married, they had Peter. Rose Kaufman was a screenwriter and had bit roles in two of her husband's films. After backpacking in Europe with his wife and their young son, they returned to the United States, his time in Europe influenced Kaufman's decision to become a filmmaker, when he and his wife would wander into small movie theaters showcasing the works of experimental new filmmakers such as John Cassavetes and Shirley Clarke, among others.
He recalls the effect of being exposed to those filmmakers as the "start of something new" which would inspire the European flavor of many of his films:I could feel the cry of America, the sense of jazz... So I came back to Chicago in 1962 and set about trying to learn as much as I could, seeing every foreign movie I could. Goldstein Kaufman returned to Chicago, he went around town looking for funding for his directorial debut, Goldstein, co-written and co-directed with Benjamin Manaster. Kaufman conceived of the story in an unfinished novel, but at the urging of Anaïs Nin he made it into a "mystical comedy" film, it was inspired by a story from Martin Buber's Tales of the Hasidim, was filmed on location in Chicago with a cast composed of local actors from The Second City comedy troupe. The film won the Prix de la Nouvelle Critique at the 1964 Cannes Film Festival, with French director Jean Renoir calling it the best American film he had seen in 20 years. François Truffaut, another leading French director, was visiting Chicago when the film premiered and he came to the opening.
Kaufman recalled that Truffaut "leaped to his feet" in the middle of the screening and began applauding. Fearless Frank Two years Kaufman went on to direct Fearless Frank, a comic book/counterculture fable, which he wrote and directed, it costarred Jon Voight in his film debut. Kaufman spent four years trying to find a distributor, but the film was a box-office failure when it played. While the movie didn't gain as much attention as Goldstein, it did help Kaufman land a contract in Universal Studios' Young Directors Program in 1969; the Great Northfield Minnesota Raid In 1972, Kaufman wrote and directed The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid starring Robert Duvall as Jesse James, in what was his first commercial film after the previous two independent ones. He spent a lot of time researching the real life characters when writing the screenplay, although the film took some liberties portraying some of the factual details; the Los Angeles Times wrote that "Kaufman is not an angry revisionist, but seems to be trying to tell it like it must have been, with an amused detachment, which sees the events as something close to an absurd spectacle."
The White Dawn Kaufman directed The White Dawn in 1974, a drama based on th
Harry Guardino was an American actor whose career spanned from the early 1950s to the early 1990s. Born to an Italian family on the Lower East Side of Manhattan and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Guardino appeared on stage, in films, on television, his Broadway theatre credits included A Hatful of Rain, One More River, Anyone Can Whistle, The Rose Tattoo, The Seven Descents of Myrtle, Woman of the Year. Guardino's other film credits include Houseboat, Pork Chop Hill, The Five Pennies, King of Kings, Madigan and Other Strangers, Dirty Harry and The Enforcer, he was nominated twice for the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. He guest starred on John Cassavetes's 1959–1960 series, Johnny Staccato, the story of a pianist/private detective in New York City. In 1960, Guardino appeared as Johnny Caldwell in the episodes "Perilous Passage", "The O'Mara's Ladies", "Daughter of the Sioux" in the NBC western series Overland Trail starring William Bendix and Doug McClure. McClure two years would join the long-running The Virginian series on NBC after a preceding stint on the CBS detective series Checkmate.
In 1964, he was cast in a CBS series entitled The Reporter, a drama about a hard-hitting investigative journalist named Danny Taylor. His principal co-star was Gary Merrill as city editor Lou Sheldon, he had co-starred with Merrill the year before in "The Human Factor" episode of The Outer Limits. In 1971 Guardino starred in the short-lived series Monty Nash. Guardino had a continuing role as Perry Mason's nemesis, Hamilton Burger, in the 1973 television series The New Perry Mason and a recurring role on Angela Lansbury's Murder, She Wrote, he made guest appearances in dozens of television series, including Studio One, Target: The Corruptors!, The Eleventh Hour, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Kraft Television Theatre, Playhouse 90, Dr. Kildare, The Lloyd Bridges Show, Route 66, Ben Casey, Hawaii Five-O, Twelve O'Clock High, American Style, The Greatest Show on Earth, The Streets of San Francisco and the Fatman and The Untouchables with Robert Stack, he had the lead role of Det. Lee Gordon in the 1969 made-for-television suspense film The Lonely Profession.
In 1993, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, Walk of Stars was dedicated to him. Guardino died of lung cancer in Palm Springs, California in 1995. Harry Guardino at the Internet Broadway Database Harry Guardino at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Harry Guardino on IMDb Harry Guardino at Find a Grave
Black Panther Party
The Black Panther Party the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966 in Oakland, California. The party was active in the United States from 1966 until 1982, with chapters in numerous major cities, international chapters operating in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s, in Algeria from 1969 until 1972. At its inception on October 15, 1966, the Black Panther Party's core practice was its armed citizens' patrols to monitor the behavior of officers of the Oakland Police Department and challenge police brutality in the city. In 1969, community social programs became a core activity of party members; the Black Panther Party instituted a variety of community social programs, most extensively the Free Breakfast for Children Programs, to address issues like food injustice, community health clinics for education and treatment of diseases including sickle cell anemia, HIV/AIDS. The party enrolled the most members and had the most influence in the Oakland-San Francisco Bay Area, New York, Los Angeles and Philadelphia.
There were active chapters in many prisons, at a time when an increasing number of young African-American men were being incarcerated. Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover described the party in 1969 as "the greatest threat to the internal security of the country." He developed and supervised an extensive counterintelligence program of surveillance, perjury, police harassment, many other tactics designed to undermine Panther leadership, incriminate party members and criminalize the Party, drain the organization of resources and manpower. The program was accused of assassinating Black Panther members, including Fred Hampton. Black Panther Party members were involved in many fatal firefights with police: Huey Newton killed officer John Frey in 1967, Eldridge Cleaver led an ambush in 1968 of Oakland police officers, in which two officers were wounded and Panther Bobby Hutton was killed; the party suffered many internal conflicts, resulting in the murders of Alex Rackley and Betty Van Patter.
Government oppression contributed to the party's growth, as killings and arrests of Panthers increased its support among African Americans and on the broad political left. Both groups valued the Panthers as a powerful force opposed to de facto segregation and the military draft. Black Panther Party membership reached a peak in 1970, with offices in 68 cities and thousands of members. After the leaders and members were vilified by the mainstream press, public support for the party waned, the group became more isolated. In-fighting among Party leadership, caused by the FBI's COINTELPRO operation, led to expulsions and defections that decimated the membership. Popular support for the Party declined further after reports appeared detailing the group's involvement in illegal activities, such as drug dealing and extortion schemes directed against Oakland merchants. By 1972 most Panther activity centered on the national headquarters and a school in Oakland, where the party continued to influence local politics.
Though under constant police surveillance, the Chicago chapter remained active and maintained their community programs until 1974. The Seattle chapter lasted longer than most, with a breakfast program and medical clinics that continued after the chapter disbanded in 1977. Party contractions continued throughout the 1970s, by 1980, the Black Panther Party had just 27 members; the history of the Black Panther Party is controversial. Scholars have characterized the Black Panther Party as the most influential black movement organization of the late 1960s, "the strongest link between the domestic Black Liberation Struggle and global opponents of American imperialism". Other commentators have described the Party as more criminal than political, characterized by "defiant posturing over substance". During World War II, tens of thousands of blacks left the Southern states during the Second Great Migration for Oakland and other cities in the Bay Area to find work in the war industries such as Kaiser Shipyards.
The sweeping migration transformed the Bay Area as well as cities throughout the West and the North, altering the once white-dominated demographics. A new generation of young blacks growing up in these cities faced new conditions, new forms of poverty and racism unfamiliar to their parents, they sought to develop new forms of politics to address them. Black Panther Party membership "consisted of recent migrants whose families traveled north and west to escape the southern racial regime, only to be confronted with new forms of segregation and repression". In the early 1960s, the Civil Rights Movement had dismantled the Jim Crow system of racial caste subordination in the South with tactics of non-violent civil disobedience, demanding full citizenship rights for black people. However, not much changed in the cities of the North and West; as the wartime and post-war jobs which drew much of the black migration "fled to the suburbs along with white residents", the black population was concentrated in poor "urban ghettos" with high unemployment, substandard housing excluded from political representation, top universities, the middle class.
Northern and Western police departments were all white. In 1966, only 16 of Oakland's 661 police officers were African American, representing less than 2.5% of the force. Civil rights practices proved incapable of redressing these conditions, the organizations that had "led much of the nonviolent civil disobedience" such as SNCC and CORE went into decline. By 1966 a "Black Power ferment" emerged, consisting of youn