Thomas Earl Petty was an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, actor. He was the lead singer of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, formed in 1976, he led the band Mudcrutch. He was a member of the late 1980s supergroup the Traveling Wilburys. Petty recorded a number of hit singles as a solo artist. In his career, he sold more than 80 million records worldwide, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time, he and the Heartbreakers were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2002. Petty died at the age of 66, of an accidental overuse of prescription drugs, one week after the completion of the Heartbreakers' 40th anniversary tour. Petty was born October 20, 1950, in Gainesville, the first of two sons of Kitty Petty, a local tax office worker, Earl Petty, who worked in a grocery store, he had a brother, seven years younger. His interest in rock and roll music began at age ten. In the summer of 1961, his uncle was working on the set of Presley's film Follow That Dream, in nearby Ocala, invited Petty to watch the shoot.
He became a Presley fan, when he returned that Saturday, he was greeted by his friend Keith Harben, soon traded his Wham-O slingshot for a collection of Elvis 45s. Of that meeting with Presley, Petty said, "Elvis glowed." In a 2006 interview, Petty said he knew he wanted to be in a band the moment he saw the Beatles on The Ed Sullivan Show. "The minute I saw the Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show—and it's true of thousands of guys—there was the way out. There was the way to do it. You get your friends and you're a self-contained unit, and you make the music. And it looked like so much fun, it was something. I had never been hugely into sports.... I had been a big fan of Elvis, but I saw in the Beatles that here's something I could do. I knew, it wasn't long before there were groups springing up in garages all over the place." He dropped out of high school at age 17 to play bass with his newly formed band. In an interview with the CBC in 2014, Petty stated that the Rolling Stones were "my punk music", he credited the group with inspiring him by demonstrating that he and musicians like him could make it in rock and roll.
One of his first guitar teachers was Don Felder, a fellow Gainesville resident, who joined the Eagles. As a young man, Petty worked on the grounds crew of the University of Florida, but never attended as a student. An Ogeechee lime tree that he planted while employed at the university is now called the Tom Petty tree, he worked as a gravedigger. Petty overcame a difficult relationship with his father, who found it hard to accept that his son was "a mild-mannered kid, interested in the arts" and subjected him to verbal and physical abuse on a regular basis. Petty remained close to his brother, Bruce. Shortly after embracing his musical aspirations, Petty started a band known as the Epics to evolve into Mudcrutch; the band included future Heartbreakers Mike Campbell and Benmont Tench and was popular in Gainesville, but their recordings went unnoticed by a mainstream audience. Their only single, "Depot Street", released in 1975 by Shelter Records, failed to chart. After Mudcrutch split up, Petty reluctantly agreed to pursue a solo career.
Tench decided to form his own group. Petty and Campbell collaborated with Tench, Ron Blair and Stan Lynch, forming the first lineup of the Heartbreakers, their eponymous debut album gained minute popularity amongst American audiences, achieving greater success in Britain. The single "Breakdown" was re-released in 1977, peaked at No. 40 in early 1978 after the band toured in the United Kingdom in support of Nils Lofgren. The debut album was released by Shelter Records, their second album, You're Gonna Get It!, was the band's first Top 40 album, featuring the singles "I Need to Know" and "Listen to Her Heart". Their third album, Damn the Torpedoes went platinum, selling nearly two million copies. In September 1979, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers performed at a Musicians United for Safe Energy concert at Madison Square Garden in New York, their rendition of "Cry to Me" was featured on No Nukes. The 4th album Hard Promises, released in 1981, became a top-ten hit, going platinum and spawning the hit single "The Waiting".
The album featured Petty's first duet, "Insider" with Stevie Nicks. Bass player Ron Blair quit the group and was replaced on the fifth album, Long After Dark, by Howie Epstein. In 1985, the band participated in Live Aid, playing four songs at John F. Kennedy Stadium, in Philadelphia. Southern Accents was released in 1985; this album included the hit single "Don't Come Around Here No More", produced by Dave Stewart. The song's video featured Petty dressed as the Mad Hatter and chasing Alice from the book Alice's Adventures in Wonderland cutting and eating her as if she were a cake; the ensuing tour led to the live album Pack Up the Plantation: Live! and an invitation from Bob Dylan—Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers joined him on his True Confessions Tour. They played some dates with the Grateful Dead in 1986 and 1987. In 1987, the group released Let Me Up which includes "Jammin' Me" which Petty wrote with Dylan. In 1988, Petty joined George Harrison's group, the Traveling Wilburys, which included
Jack Henderson Clement was an American singer and record and film producer. Raised and educated in Memphis, Clement was performing at playing guitar and Dobro. Before embarking on a career in music, he served in the United States Marines. In 1953, he made his first record for Sheraton Records in Boston, but he did not pursue a full-time career in music, instead choosing to study at Memphis State University from 1953 to 1955. Nicknamed "Cowboy" Jack Clement, during his student days, he played steel guitar with a local band. In 1956, Clement was part of one of the seminal events in rock-and-roll history when he was hired as a producer and engineer for Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Subsequently, Clement worked with future stars such as Carl Perkins and Johnny Cash. Most notably, he discovered and recorded Jerry Lee Lewis while Phillips was away on a trip to Florida. One of those recordings, "Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On", was selected in 2005 for permanent preservation in the National Recording Registry at the Library of Congress.
In 1957, Clement wrote the song "Ballad of a Teenage Queen", which became a crossover hit for Johnny Cash. Other Cash hits written by Clement include "Guess Things Happen That Way", No. 1 on the country chart and No. 11 on the pop chart in 1958, the comedic "The One on the Right Is on the Left", a No. 2 country and No. 46 pop hit in 1966. Clement produced Cash's No. 1 hit, "Ring of Fire," in 1963. Clement performed "Guess Things Happen That Way" on the "Johnny Cash Memorial Tribute" on CMT in November 2003. In 1958, Clement released the single "Ten Years", covered by Johnny Western, Rex Allen and Roger Mews. In 1959, Clement accepted an offer to work as a producer at RCA Victor in Nashville the most important label in the record industry. In 1961, he moved to Beaumont, joining the producer and publisher Bill Hall in opening the Gulf Coast Recording Studio and the Hall-Clement publishing company, he returned to Nashville permanently in 1965, becoming a significant figure in the country music business, establishing a publishing business, founding a recording studio, making records for stars such as Charley Pride and Ray Stevens.
In 1971, he co-founded the J-M-I Record Company. Clement wrote a number of successful songs that have been recorded by singing stars such as Johnny Cash, Dolly Parton, Ray Charles, Carl Perkins, Bobby Bare, Elvis Presley, Jim Reeves, Jerry Lee Lewis, Cliff Richard, Charley Pride, Tom Jones, Dickey Lee and Hank Snow, he was inducted into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1973. He produced albums by Townes Van Zandt and Waylon Jennings. Clement was involved in a few film projects as a songwriter of soundtracks, he produced the 1975 horror film Dear Dead Delilah, the last film performance by the actress Agnes Moorehead. In 1987, Clement was approached by U2 to record at Sun Studio in Memphis. Clement was oblivious to U2's catalog, but nonetheless agreed to arrange the session upon the urging of someone in his office; the result was a portion of the U2 album Rattle and Hum, as well as the Woody Guthrie song "Jesus Christ", included on the 1988 album Folkways: A Vision Shared—A Tribute to Woody Guthrie & Leadbelly.
Portions of the two sessions appear in the film Rattle and Hum. In 2005, a documentary about Clement, Shakespeare Was a Big George Jones Fan, was created by Robert Gordon and Morgan Neville, pieced together from Clement's home videos and interviews with peers, including Jerry Lee Lewis and Bono. Clement hosted a weekly program on Sirius XM Satellite Radio, he was inducted into the Rockabilly Hall of Fame, the Memphis Music Hall of Fame, the Music City Walk of Fame. On June 25, 2011, a fire destroyed his studio on Belmont Boulevard in Nashville. Clement was unhurt. On April 10, 2013, it was announced. Clement died at his home in Nashville, Tennessee, on August 8, 2013, he had suffered from liver cancer. He had two children, a daughter, Alison a singer and writer, a son, Niles, an engineer and photographer. Jack Clement on IMDb Nashvillesongwritersfoundation.com Sirius.com 3 part video interview with Jack Clement Music Row legend's home destroyed in fire Cmt.com
Brian Peter George St John le Baptiste de la Salle Eno, RDI is an English musician, record producer, visual artist best known for his pioneering work in ambient music and contributions to rock, pop and generative music. A self-described "non-musician", Eno has helped introduce a variety of conceptual approaches and recording techniques to contemporary music, advocating a methodology of "theory over practice, serendipity over forethought, texture over craft" according to AllMusic, he has been described as one of popular music's most innovative figures. Born in Suffolk, Eno studied painting and experimental music at the art school of Ipswich Civic College in the mid 1960s, at Winchester School of Art, he joined glam rock group Roxy Music as synthesiser player in 1971. After recording two albums with Roxy Music, he departed in 1973 to record a number of solo albums, coining the term "ambient music" to describe his work on releases such as Another Green World, Discreet Music, Music for Airports.
He collaborated with artists such as Robert Fripp, Harold Budd, David Bowie on his "Berlin Trilogy", David Byrne, produced albums by artists including John Cale, Jon Hassell, Talking Heads and Devo, the no wave compilation No New York. Eno has continued to record solo albums and work with artists including U2, Laurie Anderson, Grace Jones, Coldplay, James Blake, Damon Albarn. Dating back to his time as a student, he has worked in media including sound installations and his mid-70s co-development of Oblique Strategies, a deck of cards featuring cryptic aphorisms intended to spur creative thinking. From the 1970s onwards, Eno's installations have included the sails of the Sydney Opera House in 2009 and the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bank in 2016. An advocate of a range of humanitarian causes, Eno writes on a variety of subjects and is a founding member of the Long Now Foundation. In 2019, Eno was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Roxy Music. Eno was born on 15 May 1948 at Phyllis Memorial Hospital in Melton, the son of Catholic parents William Arnold Eno, who followed his father and grandfather into the postal service, his Belgian wife Maria Alphonsine Eno, whom William had met during his service in World War II.
The unusual surname Eno, long established in Suffolk, is thought to derive from the French Huguenot surname Hainault. Maria had a daughter, together William and Maria would have two further children: Roger and Arlette. Eno was educated at St Joseph's College, founded by the De La Salle Brothers order of Catholic brothers. Subsequently, Eno studied with cybernetic theorist Roy Ascott on the Groundcourse at the art school at Ipswich Civic College before going onto Winchester School of Art, from which he graduated in 1969. At Winchester School of Art, Eno attended a lecture by Pete Townshend of The Who and cites that lecture as the moment he realised he could make music though he was not a musician at that point. Whilst at school, Eno used a tape recorder as a musical instrument and experimented with his first, sometimes improvisational, bands. St. Joseph's College teacher and painter Tom Phillips encouraged him, recalling "Piano Tennis" with Eno, in which, after collecting pianos, they stripped and aligned them in a hall, striking them with tennis balls.
From that collaboration, he became involved in Cornelius Cardew's Scratch Orchestra. The first released recording in which Eno appears is the Deutsche Grammophon edition of Cardew's The Great Learning, as one of the voices in the recital of Paragraph 7 of The Great Learning. Another early recording was the Berlin Horse soundtrack, by Malcom Le Grice, a nine-minute, 2 × 16mm-double-projection, released in 1970 and presented in 1971. Eno's professional music career began in London when he became a founder member of the glam/art rock band Roxy Music. Eno did not appear on stage at their live shows, but operated the mixing desk, processing the band's sound with a VCS3 synthesiser and tape recorders, singing backing vocals, he did, however appear on stage as a performing member of the group flamboyantly costumed. He quit the band on completing the promotional tour for the band's second album, For Your Pleasure, because of disagreements with lead singer Bryan Ferry and boredom with the rock star life.
In 1992, he described his Roxy Music tenure as important to his career: "As a result of going into a subway station and meeting, I joined Roxy Music, and, as a result of that, I have a career in music. If I'd walked ten yards further on the platform, or missed that train, or been in the next carriage, I would have been an art teacher now". During his period with Roxy Music, for his first three solo albums, he was credited on records only as'Eno'. Eno embarked on a solo career immediately. Between 1973 and 1977, he created four albums of electronically inflected art pop: Here Come the Warm Jets, Taking Tiger Mountain, Another Green World, Before and After Science. Tiger Mountain contains the galloping "Third Uncle", one of Eno's best-known songs, owing in part to its being covered by Bauhaus and 801. Critic Dave Thompson writes that the song is "a near punk attack of riffing guitars and clattering percussion,'Third Uncle' could, in other hands, be a heavy metal anthem, albeit one whose lyrical content would tongue-tie the most slavish air guitarist."T
Rock and roll
Rock and roll is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, boogie woogie, rhythm and blues, along with country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954. According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U. S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was the lead instrument, but these instruments were replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s; the beat is a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, always provided by a snare drum.
Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars, a double bass or string bass or an electric bass guitar, a drum kit. Beyond a musical style and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion and language. In addition and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music, it went on to spawn various genres without the characteristic backbeat, that are now more called "rock music" or "rock". The term "rock and roll" now has at least two different meanings, both in common usage; the American Heritage Dictionary and the Merriam-Webster Dictionary both define rock and roll as synonymous with rock music. Encyclopædia Britannica, on the other hand, regards it as the music that originated in the mid-1950s and developed "into the more encompassing international style known as rock music"; the phrase "rocking and rolling" described the movement of a ship on the ocean, but was used by the early twentieth century, both to describe the spiritual fervor of black church rituals and as a sexual analogy.
Various gospel and swing recordings used the phrase before it became used more – but still intermittently – in the 1940s, on recordings and in reviews of what became known as "rhythm and blues" music aimed at a black audience. In 1934, the song "Rock and Roll" by the Boswell Sisters appeared in the film Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round. In 1942, Billboard magazine columnist Maurie Orodenker started to use the term "rock-and-roll" to describe upbeat recordings such as "Rock Me" by Sister Rosetta Tharpe. By 1943, the "Rock and Roll Inn" in South Merchantville, New Jersey, was established as a music venue. In 1951, Ohio, disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this music style while popularizing the phrase to describe it; the origins of rock and roll have been fiercely debated by historians of music. There is general agreement that it arose in the Southern United States – a region that would produce most of the major early rock and roll acts – through the meeting of various influences that embodied a merging of the African musical tradition with European instrumentation.
The migration of many former slaves and their descendants to major urban centers such as St. Louis, New York City, Chicago and Buffalo meant that black and white residents were living in close proximity in larger numbers than before, as a result heard each other's music and began to emulate each other's fashions. Radio stations that made white and black forms of music available to both groups, the development and spread of the gramophone record, African-American musical styles such as jazz and swing which were taken up by white musicians, aided this process of "cultural collision"; the immediate roots of rock and roll lay in the rhythm and blues called "race music", country music of the 1940s and 1950s. Significant influences were jazz, gospel and folk. Commentators differ in their views of which of these forms were most important and the degree to which the new music was a re-branding of African-American rhythm and blues for a white market, or a new hybrid of black and white forms. In the 1930s, swing, both in urban-based dance bands and blues-influenced country swing, were among the first music to present African-American sounds for a predominantly white audience.
One noteworthy example of a jazz song with recognizably rock and roll elements is Big Joe Turner with pianist Pete Johnson's 1939 single Roll'Em Pete, regarded as an important precursor of rock and roll. The 1940s saw the increased use of blaring horns, shouted lyrics and boogie woogie beats in jazz-based music. During and after World War II, with shortages of fuel and limitations on audiences and available personnel, large jazz bands were less economical and tended to be replaced by smaller combos, using guitars and drums. In the same period on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many developments. In the documentary film Hail! Hail! Rock'n' Roll, Keith Richards proposes that Chuck Berry developed his brand of rock and roll by transposing the familiar two-note lead line of jump blues piano directly to the electric guitar, creatin
Donald William'Bob' Johnston was an American record producer, best known for his work with Bob Dylan, Johnny Cash, Leonard Cohen, Simon & Garfunkel. Johnston was born into a professional musical family, his grandmother Mamie Jo Adams was a songwriter. Diane had written songs for Gene Autry in the'50s and scored a hit in 1976 when Asleep at the Wheel covered her 1950 demo "Miles and Miles of Texas". After a stint in the Navy, Bob returned to Fort Worth he and Diane Johnston collaborated on songwriting for rockabilly artist Mac Curtis, others. From 1956 to 1961 Bob recorded a few rockabilly singles under the name Don Johnston. By 1964 he had moved into production work at Kapp Records in New York, freelance arranging for Dot Records and signed as a songwriter to music publisher Hill and Range, he married songwriter Joy Byers with whom he began to collaborate. In years Bob Johnston claimed that songs still credited to his wife Joy Byers were co-written, or written by himself, he has cited old "contractual reasons" for this situation.
The songs in question include Timi Yuro's 1962 hit "What's A Matter Baby", plus at least 16 songs for Elvis Presley's films between 1964 and 1968, including "It Hurts Me", "Let Yourself Go" and "Stop and Listen". Two songs credited to Byers, the aforementioned "Stop and Listen" and "Yeah, She's Evil!" were recorded by Bill Haley & His Comets. Presley recorded "The Meanest Girl in Town" on June 10, 1964, while Bill Haley recorded his version a week on June 16, 1964. Johnston worked as a staff producer for Kapp Records for Columbia Records in New York, where he began producing a string of notable and influential albums, he was producing Patti Page when in 1965 he was successful in gaining the assignment to produce Bob Dylan, followed by Simon & Garfunkel, the Pozo-Seco Singers, Johnny Cash, Flatt & Scruggs, Leonard Cohen. His style of production varied from a'documentary' approach capturing a fleeting moment to providing subtle arrangements with strings, background vocals and seasoned session musicians.
After a couple of years in New York, Johnston became head of Columbia in Nashville, where he had known many of the session musicians, such as Charlie Daniels, for years. He produced three of Cohen's albums, toured with him and composed music to the Cohen lyric "Come Spend the Morning", recorded by both Lee Hazlewood and Engelbert Humperdinck. Bob Johnston was sophisticated, his hospitality was refined. It wasn't just a matter of turning on the machines, he created an atmosphere in the studio that invited you to do your best, stretch out, do another take, an atmosphere, free from judgment, free from criticism, full of invitation, full of affirmation. Just the way he'd move while you were singing: He'd dance for you. So, it wasn't all just as laissezfaire as that. Just as art is the concealment of art, laissezfaire is the concealment of tremendous generosity that he was sponsoring in the studio. At the beginning of "To Be Alone with You" on Nashville Skyline, Bob Dylan asks Johnston "Is it rolling, Bob?"
Dissatisfied with his salary earnings as a Columbia staff producer after several hit albums which earned him no royalties, Johnston became an independent producer, most with Lindisfarne on Fog on the Tyne, which topped the British album chart in 1972. In 1972 he toured with Leonard Cohen as a keyboard player, produced the resulting live album Live Songs. In 1978 he produced Jimmy Cliff's Give Thankx album, featuring "Bongo Man". In 1979, Johnston produced an album with the San Francisco band Reggae Jackson, titled Smash Hits that featured Jimmy Foot, Cheryl Lynn, Kenneth Nash, Wayne Bidgell. In 1985, Johnston produced an album Walking In The Shadow by the San Francisco band The Rhyth-O-Matics, for engineer Fred Catero's newly formed Catero label. Billboard magazine's "Pop Pick of The Week", the album's release was plagued with distribution difficulties. During a period of financial difficulty, when he was under scrutiny from the IRS, Johnston moved to Austin and did no record production for some time.
He returned with work on Willie Nelson's 1992 album The IRS Tapes: Who'll Buy My Memories?. In the mid 1990s, Johnston produced Carl Perkins' album Go Cat Go! which featured numerous guest stars including Paul Simon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, as well as unreleased recordings of Perkins' "Blue Suede Shoes" by John Lennon and Jimi Hendrix. This album's release was delayed until 1996. Towards the end of his life Johnston returned to working with fresh talent including singer-songwriters Natalie Pinkis, Eron Falbo and indie rock band Friday's Child. Falbo's album 73 was released in 2013. Johnston was in a memory facility and a hospice in Nashville for the last week of his life before dying on August 14, 2015, his wife Joyce Johnston died in May 2017. Patti Page: "Hush, Hush Sweet Charlotte" US #8, Patti Page Sings America's Favorite Hymns Bob Dylan: Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde, John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, Self Portrait, New Morning Simon & Garfunkel: Sounds of Silence, Sage and Thyme Marty Robbins: Tonight Carmen, Christmas with Marty Robbins, By the time I get to Phoenix, I Walk Alone, I
A double album is an audio album which spans two units of the primary medium in which it is sold records and compact disc. A double album is though not always, released as such because the recording is longer than the capacity of the medium. Recording artists think of double albums as comprising a single piece artistically. Another example of this approach is Works Volume 1 by Emerson Lake and Palmer, where side one featured Keith Emerson, side two Greg Lake, side three Carl Palmer, side four was by the entire group. Since the advent of the compact disc, albums are sometimes released with a bonus disc featuring additional material as a supplement to the main album, with live tracks, studio out-takes, cut songs, or older unreleased material. One innovation was the inclusion of DVD of related material with a compact disc, such as video related to the album or DVD-Audio versions of the same recordings; some such discs were released on a two-sided format called DualDisc. Due to the limitations of the gramophone record, many albums released on the format were under 40 minutes long.
This has led to record labels re-releasing two of these albums on one CD, thus making a double album. The same principles apply to the triple album. Packages with more units than three are packaged as a box set; the first double album was recordings from the Carnegie Hall Concert headlined by Benny Goodman, released in 1950 on Columbia Records, that label having introduced the LP two years earlier. Studio recordings of operas have been released as double, triple and quintuple albums since the 1950s; the first rock double album was Bob Dylan's Blonde on Blonde released on May 16, 1966. It was soon followed by Frank Zappa & the Mothers Of Invention's debut record, Freak Out!, released on June 27, 1966. The best-selling double album of all time is Michael Jackson's HIStory: Past and Future, Book I with over 33 million copies sold worldwide; the second best-selling double album and best-selling concept double album is Pink Floyd's The Wall with over 30 million copies worldwide. Other best-selling double albums are The Beatles' White Album, The Rolling Stones' Exile on Main St.
Billy Joel's Greatest Hits I & II, Bob Dylan's Blonde on Blonde, The Smashing Pumpkins' Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness. The double album has become less common since the decline of the vinyl LP and the advent of compact discs. A single LP had two sides, each of which had a capacity of up to 30 minutes, for a maximum of 60 minutes per record. A single CD has a capacity of 80 minutes: accordingly, many old double albums on LP have been re-released as single albums on CD. However, other double albums on LP are re-released as double albums on CD, either because they are too large for a single CD, or to retain the structure of the original. There are double-LP albums, such as Mike Oldfield's Incantations and Chick Corea's My Spanish Heart, for which some tracks were removed or shortened for a single 74-minute CD release, though both were re-released in their entirety when 80-minute CDs were developed. Though the average album length has increased since the days of LPs, it remains rare for an artist to produce more than 80 minutes of studio material for one album.
Thus, the double album is now more seen in formats other than studio albums. Live albums that either present all or most of a single concert, or material from several concerts, are released as double albums. Compilations such as greatest hits records can often comprise double albums. Soundtracks and scores are commonly released on two CDs; the double album format is frequently used for concept albums. The double album is not obsolete when it comes to studio albums, however; some artists still produce a large enough quantity of material to justify a double album. For example, progressive rock band The Flower Kings have released four double albums out of eleven studio albums. Barenaked Ladies recorded 29 songs for their first original album following the completion of their contract with Reprise Records, including several songs that were cut from past albums under that contract. Without needing to get a label's approval, they were able to release a 25-track "deluxe edition" double album Barenaked Ladies Are Me, as well as releasing the album as two separate single albums, as well as a variety of other formats.
Guns N' Roses famously insisted on releasing their Use Your Illusion I & II albums but separately so as not to burden their fans with the expense of having to buy a double CD set. Nellie McKay fought with her label to get her debut album, Get Away from Me released as a double album though the material would have fit on a single disc, she has been said to be the first female artist to have a double album as a debut. A recent development is the release of a double studio album in which the two discs contain different mixes of the sam
Henry Lawrence Garfield, better known by his stage name Henry Rollins, is an American musician, writer and radio host, comedian. He hosts a weekly radio show on KCRW, is a regular columnist for Rolling Stone Australia and was a regular columnist for LA Weekly. After performing in the short-lived Washington, D. C. band State of Alert in 1980, Rollins fronted the California hardcore punk band Black Flag from August 1981 until mid-1986. Following the band's breakup, Rollins established the record label and publishing company 2.13.61 to release his spoken word albums, formed the Rollins Band, which toured with a number of lineups from 1987 until 2003, during 2006. Since Black Flag disbanded, Rollins has hosted numerous radio shows, such as Harmony in My Head on Indie 103, television shows such as The Henry Rollins Show, MTV's 120 Minutes, Jackass, he had recurring dramatic roles in the second season of Sons of Anarchy, in the final seasons of the animated series The Legend of Korra as Zaheer, has had roles in several films.
Rollins has campaigned for various political causes in the United States, including promoting LGBT rights, World Hunger Relief, the West Memphis Three and an end to war in particular. Rollins was born in Washington, D. C. the only child of Iris and Paul Garfield. Rollins is of Jewish ancestry through his father, his great-grandfather Henry Luban fled from the East Latvian town of Rēzekne part of the Russian Empire, into the United States. When he was three years old, his parents divorced and he was raised by his mother in Glover Park, an affluent neighborhood of Washington; as a child and teenager, Rollins was sexually assaulted. He suffered from low self-esteem. In the fourth grade, he was diagnosed with hyperactivity and took Ritalin for several years so that he could focus during school, he attended The Bullis School an all-male preparatory school in Potomac, Maryland. According to Rollins, the Bullis School helped him to develop a sense of discipline and a strong work ethic, it was at Bullis.
In 1987, Rollins said he had not seen his father since he was 18. Rollins has said that he does not have religious or spiritual beliefs, though he does not consider himself an atheist, he has avoided recreational drugs throughout his life, including alcohol, but has admitted to trying acid. Rollins is childless by choice, has not been in a romantic relationship since he was in his 20s, he considers himself a solitary person, maintains few deep relationships outside of his professional ones. One of his closest personal friends is musician Ian MacKaye: the two have been close since they met as children in Washington, D. C. Rollins enjoys a friendship with the actor William Shatner which developed after he performed on Shatner's album, Has Been. After high school, Rollins attended American University in Washington D. C. for one semester, but dropped out in December 1979. He began working minimum-wage jobs, including a job as a courier for kidney samples at the National Institutes of Health. Rollins developed an interest in punk rock after he and his friend Ian MacKaye procured a copy of The Ramones' eponymous debut album.
From 1979 to 1980, Rollins was working as a roadie including Teen Idles. When the band's singer Nathan Strejcek failed to appear for practice sessions, Rollins convinced the Teen Idles to let him sing. Word of Rollins's ability spread around the punk rock scene in Washington. R. would sometimes get Rollins on stage to sing with him. In 1980, the Washington punk band the Extorts lost their frontman Lyle Preslar to Minor Threat. Rollins joined the others of the band to form State of Alert, became its frontman and vocalist, he wrote several more. S. O. A. recorded their sole EP, No Policy, released it in 1981 on MacKaye's Dischord Records. Around April 1981, drummer Simon Jacobsen was replaced by Ivor Hanson. At the time, Hanson's father was a top admiral in the US Navy and his family shared living quarters with the Vice President of the United States in the United States Naval Observatory; the band held their practices there and would have to be let in by United States Secret Service agents. S. O. A. Disbanded after a total of a dozen concerts and one EP.
Rollins had enjoyed being the band's frontman, had earned a reputation for fighting in shows. He said, "I was like nineteen and a young man all full of steam and loved to get in the dust-ups." By this time, Rollins had become the assistant manager of the Georgetown Häagen-Dazs ice cream store. O. A. EP. In 1980, a friend gave Rollins and MacKaye a copy of Black Flag's Nervous Breakdown EP. Rollins soon became a fan of the band, exchanging letters with bassist Chuck Dukowski and inviting the band to stay in his parents' home when Black Flag toured the East Coast in December 1980; when Black Flag returned to the East Coast in 1981, Rollins attended as many of their concerts as he could. At an impromptu show in a New York bar, Black Flag's vocalist Dez Cadena allowed Rollins to sing "Clocked In", a song Rollins had asked the band to play in light of the fact that he had to drive back to Washington, D. C. to begin work. Unbeknownst to Rollins, Cadena wanted to switch to guitar, the band was looking for a new vocalist.
The band was impressed with Rollins' singing and stage demeanor, the next day, after a semi-formal audition at Tu Casa Studio in New York City, they asked him to become their permanent vocalist. Despite some doubts, he accepted, in part because of MacKaye's encouragement, his high level of energy and intense personality suited the ban