Riksdag of the Estates
Riksdag of the Estates was the name used for the Estates of Sweden when they were assembled. Until its dissolution in 1866, the institution was the highest authority in Sweden next to the King, it was a Diet made up of the Four Estates, which were the lines of division in Swedish society: Nobility Clergy Burghers Peasants The meeting at Arboga in 1435 is considered to be the first Riksdag, but there is no indication that the fourth estate, the peasants, had been represented there. The actual first meeting is the one that took place at Uppsala in 1436 after the death of rebel leader Engelbrekt. At the Riksdag in 1517, regent Sten Sture the Younger and the Privy Council deposed archbishop Gustav Trolle. At Västerås in 1527 Lutheranism was adopted as the new state religion instead of Roman Catholicism. At Arboga in 1561, the term Riksdag was used for the first time. At Söderköping in 1595, duke Charles was elected regent of Sweden instead of king Sigismund, a Catholic and the king of both Sweden and Poland.
In 1612 the Riksdag gave the nobility the privilege and right to hold all higher offices of government, after successful lobbying by Axel Oxenstierna. The first open conflict between the different estates happened in 1650. At the Riksdag in 1680 a large scale reduction was enacted, Sweden became an absolute monarchy. In 1719, the Riksdag elected Ulrika Eleonora as heir in place of her older sister's son, Ulrika Eleonora accepted a new constitution restoring the powers of the Riksdag. In 1809, the Riksdag elected Charles XIII king after his nephew Gustav IV Adolf had been deposed, after the new king had accepted a new constitution that ended Sweden's second Autocracy. At the sessions in 1634, 1719, 1720, 1772 and 1809 new constitutions were adopted; the constitution of 1809 divided the powers of government between the monarch and the Riksdag of the Estates, after 1866 between the monarch and the new Riksdag. In 1866 all the Estates voted in favor of dissolution and at the same time to constitute a new assembly, Sveriges Riksdag.
The four former estates were abolished. The House of Nobility remains as a quasi-official representation of the Swedish nobility; the modern Centre Party which grew out of the Swedish farmers' movement, could be construed as a modern representation with a traditional bond to the Estate of the Peasants. Following the Finnish War in 1809, Sweden ceded its eastmost provinces to the Russian Empire. Comprising much of present-day Finland, these became a Grand Duchy under the Emperor, but the political institutions were kept intact; the Finnish estates assembled in 1809 at Porvoo to confirm the change in their allegiance. This Diet of Finland followed the forms of the Swedish Riksdag, being the legislative body of the new autonomous region. However, during the reigns of Alexander I and Nicholas I it was not assembled and no new legislation was enacted; the diet was next assembled by tsar Alexander II in 1863, due to the need to modernize the laws. After this the Diet met until 1905, when it passed an act forming a new unicameral parliament.
That assembly has been Finland's legislative body since then. The Finnish House of Nobility carries on the tradition of the Estate of Nobility, but no new families have been ennobled since 1906. History of Sweden History of Finland History of the Riksdag Riksdagsmusiken
States of Holland and West Friesland
The States of Holland and West Frisia were the representation of the two Estates to the court of the Count of Holland. After the United Provinces were formed — and there no longer was a count, but only his "lieutenant" — they continued to function as the government of the County of Holland; the Nobility was represented by the Land's Advocate of Holland or Grand Pensionary of Holland, who combined the votes of the ten members of the Ridderschap in the estates. The Commons consisted of representatives of eighteen cities, in ancient feudal order: eleven of the Southern Quarter: Dordrecht, Delft, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Schiedam and Brill. More powerful cities were allowed to send more representatives — Amsterdam had a delegation of four — but these together had only one vote. All members of the States were appointed officials, including the Land's Advocate or Grand Pensionary, appointed by the States themselves; the Land's Advocate or Grand Pensionary was nearly always a previous pensionary of a city.
Important matters, such as about taxation, had to be decided on unanimously but decisions were made by majority. This majority was not reached after a voting procedure, but by a summary at the end of the meeting by the Land's Advocate or the Grand Pensionary of the opinions expressed by the several members present, who would speak according to the feudal order: Dordrecht first, Purmerend last, he had both the first — as representing the nobility vote — and the last say in a meeting. Since the death of Johan van Oldebarnevelt any Prince of Orange being stadtholder indirectly had much power over the States, he had the right to appoint the mayors of all cities, out of one of two candidates suggested by the appointment college of a city. Mayors of cities with city rights chose the officials who served as representatives in the States of Holland; the States of Holland were disbanded during the reforms by the Batavian Republic. The States of Holland should not be confused with the States-General, or Staten-Generaal, the confederate government of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands as a whole.
Each of the Netherlands had its own States and Holland was just one of seven. This province was so dominant that a politician controlling the States of Holland by being Land's Advocate of Holland or Grand Pensionary, in fact controlled the Republic. Johan de Witt is a case in point, Johan van Oldebarnevelt another famous example. First mentioned in 1428, the States of Holland existed until 1795 when the Batavian Republic was established in the Batavian Revolution; the States of Holland were replaced by the Provisional Representatives of the People of Holland, which representative body took the place of the States in the States General of the Batavian Republic
The common people known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status those who are members of neither royalty, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy. In Europe, a distinct concept analogous to common people arose in the Classical civilization of ancient Rome around the 6th century BC, with the social division into patricians and plebeians; the division may have been instituted by Servius Tullius, as an alternative to the previous clan based divisions, responsible for internecine conflict. The ancient Greeks had no concept of class and their leading social divisions were non-Greeks, free-Greeks and slaves; the early organisation of Ancient Athens was something of an exception with certain official roles like archons and treasurers being reserved for only the wealthiest citizens – these class-like divisions were weakened by the democratic reforms of Cleisthenes who created new vertical social divisions in contrasting fashion to the horizontal ones thought to have been created by Tullius.
With the growth of Christianity in the 4th century AD, a new world view arose that would underpin European thinking on social division until at least early modern times. Saint Augustine postulated; the three leading divisions were considered to be the priesthood, the nobility, the common people. Sometimes this would be expressed as "those who prayed", "those who fought" and "those who worked"; the Latin terms for the three classes – oratores and laboratores – are found in modern textbooks, have been used in sources since the 9th century. This threefold division was formalised in the estate system of social stratification, where again commoners were the bulk of the population who are neither members of the nobility nor of the clergy, they were the third of the Three Estates of the Realm in medieval Europe, consisting of peasants and artisans. Social mobility for commoners was limited throughout the Middle Ages; the serfs were unable to enter the group of the bellatores. Commoners could sometimes secure entry for their children into the oratores class.
In some cases they received education from the clergy and ascended to senior administrative positions. There were cases of serfs becoming clerics in the Holy Roman Empire, though from the Carolingian era, clergy were recruited from the nobility. Of the two thousand bishops serving from the 8th to the 15th century, just five came from the peasantry; the social and political order of medieval Europe was stable until the development of the mobile cannon in the 15th century. Up until that time a noble with a small force could hold their castle or walled town for years against large armies - and so they were disposed. Once effective cannons were available, walls were of far less defensive value and rulers needed expensive field armies to keep control of a territory; this encouraged the formation of princely and kingly states, which needed to tax the common people much more to pay for the expensive weapons and armies required to provide security in the new age. Up until the late 15th century, surviving medieval treaties on government were concerned with advising rulers on how to serve the common good: Assize of Bread is an example of medieval law drawn up in the interests of the common people.
But works by Philippe de Commines, Niccolò Machiavelli and Cardinal Richelieu began advising rulers to consider their own interests and that of the state ahead of what was "good", with Richelieu explicitly saying the state is above morality in doctrines such as Raison d'Etat. This change of orientation among the nobles left the common people less content with their place in society. A similar trend occurred regarding the clergy, where many priests began to abuse the great power they had due to the sacrament of contrition; the Reformation was a movement that aimed to correct this, but afterward the common people's trust in the clergy would continue to decline – priests were seen as greedy and lacking in true faith. An early major social upheaval driven in part by the common people's mistrust of both the nobility and clergy occurred in Great Britain with the English Revolution of 1642. After the forces of Oliver Cromwell triumphed, movements like the Levellers rose to prominence demanding equality for all.
When the general council of Cromwell's army met to decide on a new order at the Putney Debates of 1647, one of the commanders, Colonel Thomas Rainsborough, requested that political power be given to the common people. According to historian Roger Osbourne, the Colonel's speech was the first time a prominent person spoke in favour of universal male suffrage, but it was not to be granted until 1918. After much debate it was decided that only those with considerable property would be allowed to vote, so after the revolution political power in England remained controlled by the nobles, with at first only a few of the most wealthy or well-connected common people sitting in Parliament; the rise of the bourgeoisie during the Late Middle Ages, had seen an intermediate class of wealthy commoners develop, which gave rise to the modern middle classes. Middle-class people could still be called commoners however, for example in England Pitt the Elder was called the Great Commoner, this appellation was used for the 20th-century American anti-elitist campaigner William Jennings Bryan.
The interests of the middle class wer
Suffrage, political franchise, or franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. In some languages, in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, the right to stand for election; the combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage. Suffrage is conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote; the utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally without extensive, full disclosure and public review. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write and vote on referendums and initiatives.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare. Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of linked countries or to certain offices or questions; the word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning "vote", "political support", the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with some sources citing Latin suffragari "lend support, vote for someone", from sub "under" + fragor "crash, shouts", related to frangere "to break". Other sources say; some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth, it does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25.
In 1819 60-80,000 men and women from 30 miles around Manchester assembled in the city's St. Peter's Square to protest their lack of any representation in the Houses of Parliament. Historian Robert Poole has called the Peterloo Massacre one of the defining moments of its age.. The film Peterloo featured; this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville. The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults. In 1893, when the Kingdom of Hawai'i was overthrown in a coup, New Zealand became the only independent country to practice universal suffrage, the Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893. Women's suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote; this was the goal of the suffragists, who believed in using legal means and the suffragettes, who used extremist measures. Short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jersey's first, 1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners.
"IV. That all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, have resided within the county in which they claim a vote for twelve months preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote for Representatives in Council and Assembly. New Jersey 1776 However, the document did not specify an Amendment procedure, the provision was subsequently replaced in 1844 by the adoption of the succeeding constitution, which reverted to "all white male" suffrage restrictions. Although the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted female suffrage in 1840, the right was rescinded in 1852. Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden and some western U. S. states in the 1860s. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. In 1894 the women of South Australia achieved the right to both stand for Parliament; the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire was the first nation to allow all women to both vote and run for parliament.
Those against the women's suffrage movement made public organizations to put down the political movement, with the main argument being that a woman's place was in the home, not polls. Political cartoons and public outrage over women's rights increased as the opposition to suffrage worked day and night to organize legitimate groups campaigning against women's voting rights; the Massachusetts Association Opposed to the Further Extension of Suffrage to Women was one organization that came out of the 1880's to put down the voting efforts. Many anti-suffrage propaganda poked fun at the idea of women in politics. Political cartoons displayed the most sentiment by portraying the issue of women's suffrage to be swapped with men's lives; some mocked the popular suf
States of Alderney
The States of Alderney is the parliament/council and the legislature of Alderney, part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The origin of the States has operated from the mediaeval period; the States of Alderney comprises ten Members, a President of the States of Alderney Stuart Trought, elected in 2010 to replace Sir Norman Browse who retired after eight years of presidency. The States of Alderney includes ten members elected for four years terms, with half of the members having to stand for election every two years so that the entire parliament is changed over a period of four years. There is a president who must stand for election every four years, although there is no constitutional limit on the number of terms they may serve. Routine government is performed by three committees and Finance, General Services, Building and Development Control, each of which works under a different mandate and has a separate budget. Extra committees are formed in order to deal with specific areas of policy, such as the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association Management Committee.
In addition, two members of the States are nominated as representatives to the Guernsey States of Deliberation. The island is a self-governing Crown Dependency, part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey since Elizabethan times. Certain services, known as'transferred services' are provided in Alderney by the Guernsey Government under an agreement entered into between the States of Alderney and the States of Guernsey in 1948. Defence and Foreign Policy are reserved to the Crown, which in modern constitutional terms means the relevant United Kingdom government (the Ministries of Defence and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; the UK liaises through the Ministry of Justices. Formally, ultimate legislative and judicial authority continues to vest in the Privy Council which approves all primary legislation passed by the States of Alderney, through its Judicial Committee, is its highest court of appeal. By constitutional convention, the British Crown does not involve itself directly in Alderney domestic government, although it retains a theoretical ability to do so if'good government' is at risk.
The President of the States of Alderney is directly elected every four years. Half of the ten States Members are elected every two years for a four-year mandate, which means that every four years the composition of the parliament changes completely; the election held on 6 December 2008 had a turnout of over 700 people produced a frequency of 65.6%. The whole island is a single constituency; the current members were elected in the elections of 2014 and elections of 2016. They are: Although the origins of the States of Alderney are unknown, it has functioned since the Middle Ages, making it one of the world's oldest parliaments. Less than 50% of Alderney's population had returned to the island after World War II; this led to the Parliament of the United Kingdom discussing what to do with Alderney as land ownership markers and official papers had been destroyed in the war and Alderney's economy was stagnating as a result of more than half of the islanders not returning. The United Kingdom's Home Secretary, Chuter Ede recommended "Guernseyfication" of Alderney.
In 1948 His Majesty's Privy Council decided that Alderney would become a part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey again. In the year, both the States of Alderney and the States of Guernsey voted through the Alderney Law which gave powers to the States of Guernsey in respect of certain "transferred services" in 1949; the law provided for a democratically elected President of the States of Alderney to be the Leader of Alderney as the Judge of Alderney had been superseded as the representative of the Crown on Alderney by the Lieutenant Governor of Guernsey. Official website
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms; the constitutional functions of the Riksdag are enumerated in the Instrument of Government, its internal workings are specified in greater detail in the Riksdag Act. The seat of the Riksdag is at Parliament House, on the island of Helgeandsholmen in the central parts of Stockholm; the Riksdag has its institutional roots in the feudal Riksdag of the Estates, by tradition thought to have first assembled in Arboga in 1435, in 1866 following reforms of the 1809 Instrument of Government that body was transformed into a bicameral legislature with an upper chamber and a lower chamber. The most recent general election was held on 9 September 2018; the Swedish word riksdag, in definite form riksdagen, is a general term for "parliament" or "assembly", but it is only used for Sweden's legislature and certain related institutions.
In addition to Sweden's parliament, it is used for the Parliament of Finland and the Estonian Riigikogu, as well as the historical German Reichstag and the Danish Rigsdagen. In Swedish use, riksdagen is uncapitalized. Riksdag derives from the genitive of rike, referring to royal power, dag, meaning diet or conference; the Oxford English Dictionary traces English use of the term "Riksdag" in reference to the Swedish assembly back to 1855. The roots of the modern Riksdag can be found in a 1435 meeting of the Swedish nobility in the city of Arboga; this informal organization was modified in 1527 by the first modern Swedish king Gustav I Vasa to include representatives from all the four social estates: the nobility, the clergy, the burghers, the yeomanry. This form of Ständestaat representation lasted until 1865, when representation by estate was abolished and the modern bicameral parliament established. However, it did not become a parliament in the modern sense until parliamentary principles were established in the political system in Sweden, in 1917.
On 22 June 1866, the Riksdag decided to reconstitute itself as a bicameral legislature, consisting of Första kammaren or the First Chamber, with 155 members and Andra kammaren or the Second Chamber with 233 members. The First Chamber was indirectly elected by county and city councillors, while the Second Chamber was directly elected by universal suffrage; this reform was a result of great malcontent with the old Estates, following the changes brought by the beginnings of the industrial revolution, was no longer able to provide representation for large segments of the population. By an amendment to the 1809 Instrument of Government, the general election of 1970 was the first to a unicameral assembly with 350 seats; the following general election to the unicameral Riksdag in 1973 only gave the Government the support of 175 members, while the opposition could mobilize an equal force of 175 members. In a number of cases a tied vote ensued, the final decision had to be determined by lot. To avoid any reccurrence of this unstable situation, the number of seats in the Riksdag was reduced to 349, from 1976 onwards.
The Riksdag performs the normal functions of a legislature in a parliamentary democracy. It amends the constitution and appoints a government. In most parliamentary democracies, the head of state commissions a politician to form a government. Under the new Instrument of Government enacted in 1974, that task was removed from the Monarch of Sweden and given to the Speaker of the Riksdag. To make changes to the Constitution under the new Instrument of Government, amendments must be approved twice, in two successive electoral periods with a regular general election held in between. There are 15 parliamentary committees in the Riksdag; as of February 2013, 44.7 percent of the members of the Riksdag are women. This is the world's fourth highest proportion of females in a national legislature—behind only the Parliaments of Rwanda and Cuba – hence the second-highest in the developed world and among parliamentary democracies. Following the 2014 elections, in which the share of Liberal female members of parliament plunged and the Sweden Democrats more than doubled their seats, the figure dropped to 43,5%.
Only the Left Party has a majority of female MPs. Members of the Riksdag are full-time legislators with a salary of 66 900 SEK per month. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Members of the Riksdag have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports; the presidium consists of three deputy speakers. They are elected for a 4-year term. After holding talks with leaders of the various party groups in the Riksdag, the speaker of the Riksdag nominates a Prime Minister; the nomination is put to a vote. The nomination is rejected only if an absolute majority of the members vote "no"; this means the Riksdag can consent to a Prime Min
States of Flevoland
The States of Flevoland are the States-Provincial for the Dutch province of Flevoland. It forms the legislative body of the province, its 39 seats are distributed every four years in provincial elections. Since 2008, it is chaired by Leen Verbeek. Since the 2011 provincial elections, the seats of the States of Flevoland are as following: Provincial politics in the Netherlands Official website