CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
Innovation in its modern meaning is a "new idea, creative thoughts, new imaginations in form of device or method". Innovation is also viewed as the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, unarticulated needs, or existing market needs; such innovation takes place through the provision of more-effective products, services, technologies, or business models that are made available to markets and society. An innovation is something original and more effective and, as a consequence, that "breaks into" the market or society. Innovation is related to, but not the same as, invention, as innovation is more apt to involve the practical implementation of an invention to make a meaningful impact in the market or society, not all innovations require an invention. Innovation manifests itself via the engineering process, when the problem being solved is of a technical or scientific nature; the opposite of innovation is exnovation. While a novel device is described as an innovation, in economics, management science, other fields of practice and analysis, innovation is considered to be the result of a process that brings together various novel ideas in such a way that they affect society.
In industrial economics, innovations are created and found empirically from services to meet growing consumer demand. Innovation has an older historical meaning, quite different. From the 1400s through the 1600s, prior to early American settlement, the concept of "innovation" was pejorative, it was an early modern synonym for rebellion and heresy. A 2014 survey of literature on innovation found over 40 definitions. In an industrial survey of how the software industry defined innovation, the following definition given by Crossan and Apaydin was considered to be the most complete, which builds on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development manual's definition: Innovation is production or adoption and exploitation of a value-added novelty in economic and social spheres, it is both an outcome. According to Kanter innovation includes original invention and creative use and defines innovation as a generation and realization of new ideas, products and processes. Two main dimensions of innovation were degree of kind of innovation.
In recent organizational scholarship, researchers of workplaces have distinguished innovation to be separate from creativity, by providing an updated definition of these two related but distinct constructs:Workplace creativity concerns the cognitive and behavioral processes applied when attempting to generate novel ideas. Workplace innovation concerns. Innovation involves some combination of problem/opportunity identification, the introduction, adoption or modification of new ideas germane to organizational needs, the promotion of these ideas, the practical implementation of these ideas. In business and in economics, innovation can become a catalyst for growth. With rapid advancements in transportation and communications over the past few decades, the old-world concepts of factor endowments and comparative advantage which focused on an area's unique inputs are outmoded for today's global economy. Economist Joseph Schumpeter, who contributed to the study of innovation economics, argued that industries must incessantly revolutionize the economic structure from within, innovate with better or more effective processes and products, as well as market distribution, such as the connection from the craft shop to factory.
He famously asserted that "creative destruction is the essential fact about capitalism". Entrepreneurs continuously look for better ways to satisfy their consumer base with improved quality, durability and price which come to fruition in innovation with advanced technologies and organizational strategies. A prime example of innovation involved the explosive boom of Silicon Valley startups out of the Stanford Industrial Park. In 1957, dissatisfied employees of Shockley Semiconductor, the company of Nobel laureate and co-inventor of the transistor William Shockley, left to form an independent firm, Fairchild Semiconductor. After several years, Fairchild developed into a formidable presence in the sector; these founders left to start their own companies based on their own, latest ideas, leading employees started their own firms. Over the next 20 years, this snowball process launched the momentous startup-company explosion of information-technology firms. Silicon Valley began as 65 new enterprises born out of Shockley's eight former employees.
Since hubs of innovation have sprung up globally with similar metonyms, including Silicon Alley encompassing New York City. Another example involves business incubators – a phenomenon nurtured by governments around the world, close to knowledge clusters like universities or other Government Excellence Centres – which aim to channel generated knowledge to applied innovation outcomes in order to stimulate regional or national economic growth. In the organizational context, innovation may be linked to positive changes in efficiency, quality and market share. However, recent research findings highlight the complementary role of organizational culture in enabling organizations to translat
The Tape-beatles are a multi-media group that formed in Iowa City in December 1986. Its members have included Lloyd Dunn, John Heck, Ralph Johnson, Paul Neff, Linda Morgan Brown. Beginning with analog tape recorders, expanding to include digital technology and film media, the group has used collage techniques to create works that challenge the notion of intellectual property, their works make extensive use of materials appropriated from various sources through a process they call "Plagiarism®". The Tape-beatles' body of work consists of music and audio art recordings and performed cinema performances, printed publications, as well as works in other media, they produce and release work under an umbrella organization called Public Works Productions. Members of The Tape-beatles include Lloyd Dunn and John Heck. Former or occasional members of the group have included Linda Morgan Brown, Chuck Hollister, Ralph Johnson, Paul Neff; the group's initial focus was to create music that made use of techniques borrowed from musique concrète, but applied to a popular music context.
To this end, they eschewed conventional musical instruments, instead contending that tape recording and the recording studio itself was their'instrument'. The Tape-beatles consisting of Dunn and Johnson, put out their first major work, A subtle buoyancy of pulse in 1988. In keeping with the tape esthetic, the work was available only on cassette. Public response was sufficiently encouraging that the group began work on a new album, adding two new members along the way: Paul Neff and Linda Morgan Brown. A grant from Intermedia Arts Minnesota enabled The Tape-beatles to finish their second work in 1991, a CD for the Canadian label DOVentertainment, entitled Music with Sound; this was the record that put The Tape-beatles on the map to some extent, garnering favorable reviews in Keyboard, as well as putting them on the Top 10 Imports of the Year list in Pulse, the in-store magazine for the Tower Records chain. It remains the work. Music with Sound not only established the group's signature style and technique, it provided The Tape-beatles with a coherent soundtrack upon which to base a live public performance.
Using multiple image projection devices, as well as an array of strange and obsolete recording equipment culled from audiovisual surplus outlets. The presentation was a barrage of discarded educational and motivational material put to a musical score that varied from the bombastic to the delicate and subtly constructed; the climax of the piece found the audience being surrounded by a single room-sized tape loop. The year 1993 saw the release of The Grand Delusion, a bitter mediation on the U. S. Persian Gulf War and the historical context that created it. In addition, the group refined their presentation approach, distilling it down to just three 16 mm projectors, used in a configuration the group named'Polyvision', in honor of Abel Gance's pioneering movie techniques of the 1920s. In the meantime, Ralph Johnson moved to Calif. to study composition at Mills College. Lloyd Dunn suspended all zine production and went on a yearlong trip abroad, spending most of the time in France, but dropping in on John Heck living in Prague.
Upon Dunn's return to the United States, he and Ralph Johnson regrouped to form the duo Public Works. Using similar principles to the Tape-beatles, Public Works laid the focus on digital audio production, tightened the emphasis on the making of music, with a reduced emphasis on pure sound collage or'audio art'. 1997's Matter was the group's début recording. An'expanded cinema' performance of that name was created, the group performed that and The Grand Delusion in a dozen cities from San Francisco to Berlin, Germany. In 2000, Public Works released the EP Numbers on the Elevator Bath label, it explored the sounds of EVP recordings, purported to document paranormal phenomena, the so-called "numbers stations" that can be heard on the shortwave band. Some of the works sampled liberally from Akin Fernandez' "The Conet Project" recordings. John Heck rejoined the group to work on a new proposed work for The Tape-beatles that would be called Good Times. A long-term project, it was envisioned from the start that the composition would take its full form as an audio visual presentation.
The work was completed in September 2001. It premiered at the Sound Unseen Film Festival in Minneapolis, USA in October 2001, which inaugurated a Tape-beatle tour of the US Midwest. At the Sound Unseen Festival, The Tape-beatles took an afternoon to improvise with fellow sound-collage artists Escape Mechanism, Steev Hise and Wobbly; the result was the mini-VideoCD Minneapolis Summit. More The Tape-beatles have been performing their retrospective'performed cinema' performance entitled "G. N. P.", compiled from their previous film performances, throughout Europe in 2005. Both Heck and Dunn reside in Prague, the Czech republic. In 2007, the group was asked to provide 28 minutes of programming for The Radia Network a series that highlights electronic and experimental sound work; the program was put together from older unreleased material, with a generous selection of new work. That same yea
Copyright is a legal right, existing in many countries, that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine whether, under what conditions, this original work may be used by others. This is only for a limited time. Copyright is one of two types of intellectual property rights, the other is industrial property rights; the exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use. A major limitation on copyright on ideas is that copyright protects only the original expression of ideas, not the underlying ideas themselves. Copyright is applicable to certain forms of creative work. Some, but not all jurisdictions require "fixing" copyrighted works in a tangible form, it is shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, who are referred to as rights holders. These rights include reproduction, control over derivative works, public performance, moral rights such as attribution. Copyrights can be granted by public law and are in that case considered "territorial rights".
This means that copyrights granted by the law of a certain state, do not extend beyond the territory of that specific jurisdiction. Copyrights of this type vary by country; the public law duration of a copyright expires 50 to 100 years after the creator dies, depending on the jurisdiction. Some countries require certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, others recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions. Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights; the development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, inspired additional challenges to the philosophical basis of copyright law. Businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.
Copyright licenses can be granted by those deputized by the original claimant, private companies may request this as a condition of doing business with them. Services of internet platform providers like YouTube, GitHub, DropBox, WhatsApp or Twitter only can be used when users grant the platform provider beforehand the right to co-use all uploaded content, including all material exchanged per email, chat or cloud-storage; these copyrights only apply for the firm that operates such a platform, no matter in what jurisdiction the platform-services are being offered. Private companies in general do not recognize exceptions or give users more rights than the right to use the platform according certain rules. Copyright came about with wider literacy; as a legal concept, its origins in Britain were from a reaction to printers' monopolies at the beginning of the 18th century. The English Parliament was concerned about the unregulated copying of books and passed the Licensing of the Press Act 1662, which established a register of licensed books and required a copy to be deposited with the Stationers' Company continuing the licensing of material that had long been in effect.
Copyright laws allow products of creative human activities, such as literary and artistic production, to be preferentially exploited and thus incentivized. Different cultural attitudes, social organizations, economic models and legal frameworks are seen to account for why copyright emerged in Europe and not, for example, in Asia. In the Middle Ages in Europe, there was a lack of any concept of literary property due to the general relations of production, the specific organization of literary production and the role of culture in society; the latter refers to the tendency of oral societies, such as that of Europe in the medieval period, to view knowledge as the product and expression of the collective, rather than to see it as individual property. However, with copyright laws, intellectual production comes to be seen as a product of an individual, with attendant rights; the most significant point is that patent and copyright laws support the expansion of the range of creative human activities that can be commodified.
This parallels the ways in which capitalism led to the commodification of many aspects of social life that earlier had no monetary or economic value per se. Copyright has grown from a legal concept regulating copying rights in the publishing of books and maps to one with a significant effect on nearly every modern industry, covering such items as sound recordings, photographs and architectural works. Seen as the first real copyright law, the 1709 British Statute of Anne gave the publishers rights for a fixed period, after which the copyright expired; the act alluded to individual rights of the artist. It began, "Whereas Printers and other Persons, have of late taken the Liberty of Printing... Books, other Writings, without the Consent of the Authors... to their great Detriment, too to the Ruin of them and their Families:". A right to benefit financially from the work is articulated, court rulings and legislation have recognized a right to control the work, such as ensuring that the integrity of it is preserved.
Neil Darrow Strauss known by the pen names Style and Chris Powles is an American author and ghostwriter. He is best known for his book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists, in which he describes his experiences in the seduction community in an effort to become a "pick-up artist." He is a contributing editor at Rolling Stone and wrote for The New York Times. After graduating from high school at the Latin School of Chicago in 1987, Strauss attended Vassar College transferred to and subsequently graduated from Columbia University in 1991. While in school he began his career writing for Ear, an avant-garde magazine, editing his first book, Radiotext, an anthology of radio-related writings for the postmodern publisher Semiotext, he moved on to The Village Voice, prior to becoming a reporter and critic, he took on tasks ranging from copy-editing to fact-checking to writing copy. He was invited by Jon Pareles to become a music critic at The New York Times where he wrote the Pop Life column and front-page stories on Wal-Mart's CD-editing policies, music censorship, radio payola, the lost wax figures of country-music stars.
He was invited by Jann Wenner to become a contributing editor at Rolling Stone where he wrote cover stories on Kurt Cobain, Tom Cruise, Orlando Bloom, the Wu-Tang Clan, Gwen Stefani, Stephen Colbert, Marilyn Manson. He won the ASCAP Deems Taylor Award for his coverage of Kurt Cobain's suicide for Rolling Stone and his profile of Eric Clapton in The New York Times Arts & Leisure section. Strauss contributed to Esquire, Spin, Entertainment Weekly and The Source in addition to writing liner notes for albums by Nirvana and others, he has appeared in Beck's music video Sexx Laws which featured Jack Black, in Thirty Seconds to Mars' video Up in the Air, he made a brief appearance as a cancer patient in episode 4, season six of Curb Your Enthusiasm. After leaving The New York Times to ghostwrite Jenna Jameson's memoirs, Strauss joined a sub-culture of pick-up artists known as the seduction community, creating the persona of "Style" in 2001 and pseudonym of "Chris Powles" publishing an article in The New York Times about his experiences in 2004.
In 2005, he published The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists, a book about his transformation into "Style", a pickup artist under the tutelage of Mystery. In addition to documenting his experiences with pickup artists like Mystery, Steve P, Ross Jeffries, numerous others, it describes his interactions with celebrities including Britney Spears, Tom Cruise, Courtney Love; the book made a month-long appearance in The New York Times bestsellers list in September–October 2005, reached the #1 position on Amazon.com after its release in the United States. Strauss appeared on various TV shows, including The View and ABC Primetime, he participated in many book signings, it was optioned to be made into a film by Spyglass Entertainment, with Chris Weitz adapting and producing. After publishing the book, Strauss temporarily retired as a pickup artist and settled with a longtime girlfriend Lisa Leveridge, who played guitar in Courtney Love's all-female band The Chelsea. An article in the Sunday Mirror suggested that Leveridge broke up with Strauss in February 2006 to date Robbie Williams.
Strauss denied the Williams rumor, but confirmed his breakup with Leveridge on his mailing list a few months later. His follow-up book, the graphic novel How to Make Money Like a Porn Star, was published on September 26, 2006; the same year, Strauss' short film about becoming a rock star, was released. He co-wrote and performed in Shoot. In 2006, in collaboration with Dave Navarro and Entourage writer Cliff Dorfman, he created a one-hour TV drama The Product for FX, he worked with James Gandolfini on a show, for HBO. In 2007, he released a follow-up to Rules of the Game, a two-book boxed set. Strauss has continued to be involved with pickup artistry through his dating coaching company Stylelife Academy, founded in 2007. Most of the coaching is done by employed coaches, rather than Strauss himself, though he does make appearances at yearly conferences and in some video products sold by the company. In 2012, Strauss released a board game/party game as a follow up to The Game and Rules of the Game called "Who's Got Game?
The Game with Benefits."On August 31, 2013, Strauss married the model Ingrid De La O, whom he met in 2010. Before the wedding, he held a funeral-themed bachelor's party. In March 2015, Strauss had a child and shared it on his website, along with information on his new book, The Truth: An Uncomfortable Book About Relationships, released on October 13, 2015; the Truth, a sequel to The Game, covers his struggles to build and maintain a relationship with Ingrid after his years of immersion in the seduction community. On March 4, 2009, The New York Times wrote that Strauss had started his own publishing company, Igniter, as an imprint of HarperCollins. Igniter's first title was The Man Behind the Nose, published in 2010, it was followed by Satan Is Real: The Ballad of the Louvin Brothers, published in 2012. Strauss's book Emergency: This Book Will Save Your Life, for which he spent three years amongst survivalists, tax-dodgers, billionaire businessmen, the government itself, was hailed by Rolling Stone as an "escape plan" for the current world crisis.
It entered The New York Times bestseller list at #3. He received the presidents Volunteer Service Award for his search-and-rescue work during the writing of Emergency; the rights to the movie were picked u
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Ableton Live is a software music sequencer and digital audio workstation for macOS and Windows. In contrast to many other software sequencers, Live is designed to be an instrument for live performances as well as a tool for composing, arranging and mastering, as shown by Ableton's companion hardware product, Ableton Push, it is used by DJs, as it offers a suite of controls for beatmatching and other effects used by turntablists, was one of the first music applications to automatically beatmatch songs. The current version of Ableton is "Ableton Live 10". Ableton is available in three versions. Intro and suite; the latest major release of Live, Version 10, was released on February 6, 2018. Ableton Live is written with the first version released in 2001 as commercial software. Live itself was not prototyped in Max, although most of the audio devices were. Much of Live's interface comes from being designed for use in live performance as well as for production; as such the interface is more compact than most sequencers and designed for use on a single screen.
There are few pop up dialogs. Portions of the interface are hidden and shown based on arrows which may be clicked to show or hide a certain segment. Live now supports latency compensation for mixer automation. Live is composed of two'views' – the arrangement view and the session view; the session view is used to organize and trigger sets of MIDI and audio called clips. These clips can be arranged into scenes which can be triggered as a unit. For instance a drum and guitar track might comprise a single scene; when moving on to the next scene, which may feature a synth bassline, the artist will trigger the scene, activating the clips for that scene. As of Live 6, "device racks" have been implemented which allow the user to group instruments and effects, as well as map their controls to a set of'macro' controls; the other view is the arrangement view, used for recording tracks from the session view and further manipulating their arrangement and effects. It is used for manual MIDI sequencing, something for which a classical composer would have a greater affinity.
This view is similar to a traditional software sequencer interface. Clips may either be MIDI sequence. MIDI triggers notes on Live's built in instruments, as well as third party VST instruments or external hardware. By default, Live comes with two instruments - Simpler. Impulse is a traditional drum triggering instrument which allows the user to define a kit of up to eight drum sounds, each based on a single sample. There are a number of effects available such as basic equalization, decay, pitch shift, etc. Once the kit is defined and beats are created through Live's MIDI sequencer. Simpler is a easy-to-use sampling instrument, it functions using a single audio sample, applying simple effects, envelopes applying pitch transformations in the form of Granular synthesis. In this case, incoming MIDI does not trigger drums as it does in Impulse, but selects the final pitch of the sample, with C3 playing the sample at its original pitch. Drum Rack is a sampler for drums. Midi notes trigger individual "Simplers" so rather than triggering one sample at multiple pitches, individual samples are triggered at predefined pitches, as is suitable for midi drum programming.
As is usual with Ableton anything can be drag dropped to or from the drum racks. Akai Professional makes the APC40, a MIDI controller designed to work with Ableton Live. A smaller version, the APC20, was released in 2010. Though there are hundreds of MIDI controllers compatible with Ableton, these Akai units try to map the actual Ableton Live layout onto physical space. Novation Digital Music Systems has created the "Launchpad", a pad device, designed for use with Ableton. Ableton has released their own MIDI controller, the Push, the first pad-based controller that embraces scales and melody. In November 2015, Ableton released an updated MIDI controller, the Push 2, along with Live 9.5. There are a number of additional instruments which may be purchased separately or as part of the Ableton Suite. Amp - a device that delivers the sounds of various amplifiers and cabinet combos. Sampler - an enhanced sampler. Operator - an FM synthesizer. Electric - an electric piano instrument. Tension - a string physical modelling synthesizer.
Collision - a mallet percussion physical modelling synthesizer. Analog - simulates an analog synthesizer. Drum Machines - a collection of emulators for classic drum machines. Wavetable - A wavetable synthesizer featuring two oscillators and remappable modulation sources. Add-on Sample Packs Session Drums - a collection of sampled drum kits. Latin Percussion - a collection of sampled latin percussion hits and loops. Essential Instruments Collection - a large collection of acoustic and electric instrument samples. Orchestral Instrument Collection - a collection of four different orchestral libraries, which can be purchased individually or as a bundle: Orchestral Strings, Orchestral Brass, Orchestral Woodwinds and Orchestral Percussion; the Orchestral Instrument Collection is included upon purchase of Live Suite but must be downloaded separately. Most of Live's effects are common effects in the digital signal processing world which have been adapted to fit Live's interface, they are tailored to suit Live's target audience – electronic musicians and DJs - but may be used for other recording tasks such as processing a guitar rig.
The effects featured in Ableton Live a