Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running a large workshop and, despite his death at 37. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings and he was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region and his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, and Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the very court of Urbino he was probably more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture, growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but frequently visited, Raphael mixed easily in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a humanistic education however, it is unclear how easily he read Latin. His mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1,1494 by his father, Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, his formal guardian became his only paternal uncle Bartolomeo, a priest, who subsequently engaged in litigation with his stepmother. He probably continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master and he had already shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been a great help to his father.
A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity and his fathers workshop continued and, probably together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a very early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello, previously the court painter, and Luca Signorelli, according to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice despite the tears of his mother. The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, an alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. An excess of resin in the varnish often causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters, the Perugino workshop was active in both Perugia and Florence, perhaps maintaining two permanent branches. Raphael is described as a master, that is to say fully trained and his first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and Urbino.
Evangelista da Pian di Meleto, who had worked for his father, was named in the commission
Portrait of Perugino (Raphael)
The Portrait of Perugino is a portrait of the Italian Renaissance artist Perugino attributed to his pupil Raphael or to Lorenzo di Credi. It was produced around 1504 and is now in the Uffizi gallery, the painting is known to have been in the Florentine Galleries since as early as 1704, when it was identified as a portrait of Martin Luther and was attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger. In an 1825 comment to Giorgio Vasaris Vite, it was listed as a Portrait of Verrocchio by Lorenzo di Credi, adolfo Venturi in 1922 attributed it to Perugino himself, while the attribution to Raphael appeared in the 1930s. The identification with Perugino is today ascertained thanks to the evident similarities with the self-portrait in the Collegio del Cambio, copies of the painting exist in Vienna, Bergamo, Rome and in the Gallerie dellAccademia in Venice
Madonna del cardellino
The Madonna del cardellino or Madonna of the Goldfinch is a painting by the Italian renaissance artist Raphael, from c. A 10-year restoration process was completed in 2008, after which the painting was returned to its home at the Uffizi in Florence, during the restoration, an antique copy replaced the painting in the gallery. Raphael is considered to be a “master” of the High Renaissance and he was born in 1483 and died in 1520, living a mere thirty-seven years. Despite his relatively short lifespan, he was influential throughout his time on earth. He produced a vast quantity of work in a variety of media and he was active in architecture, printmaking and drawing. During the first half of his career, he spent years traveling across Northern Italy and was influenced by the Florentine styles he saw there, after which, in 1508, he moved to Rome where he continued to work. Many of his commissions came from the Vatican, including the Apostolic Palace, due to his relationship with the church, he and Michelangelo were fierce rivals throughout both of their careers, and often competed for the same commissions.
During his Florentine period, this work, The Madonna Del Cardellino, was painted during this period, along several other well-known Madonnas, The Madonna of the Meadow. In this painting, as in most of the Madonnas of his Florentine period, though the positions of the three bodies are natural, together they form an almost regular triangle. The Madonna is shown young and beautiful, as with Raphael’s various other Madonnas and she is clothed in red and blue, for red signifies the passion of Christ and blue was used to signify the church. Christ and John are still young, only babies. John holds a goldfinch in his hand, and Christ is reaching out to touch it, the background is one typical of Raphael. The natural setting is diverse and yet all calmly frames the central subject taking place, the Madonna was a wedding gift from Raphael to his friend Lorenzo Nasi. On November 17,1548 Nasis house was destroyed by an earthquake and it was immediately taken to be salvaged, and was hastily put back together, though the seams were quite visible.
In 2002, George Bonsanti of the Precious Stones organization gave the task of restoration to Patrizia Riitano. During the six-year process that followed, her team worked to remove the years of grime that had degraded the paintings color, and to fix the damage done by the earthquake long ago. Before beginning the project, they studied the work as closely as possible, utilizing resources such as X-rays, CAT scans, reflective infra-red photography, Riitano closely studied the past quick fix layers that had been applied and removed them until the original by Raphael finally shone through. The restoration was completed in 2008, and the painting was put on display in Uffizi, in Madonna Del Cardellino, the goldfinch represents Christ’s crucifixion
The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons. Examples of litter vehicles include palki or पालकी, lectica, kiệu, sedan chair, palanquin, liteira, wo, koshi and kago, tahtırevan and sankayan. Smaller litters may take the form of chairs or beds carried by two or more carriers, some being enclosed for protection from the elements. Those of the Chinese emperors, may resemble small rooms upon a platform borne upon the shoulders of a dozen or more people, a simple litter, often called a king carrier, consists of a sling attached along its length to poles or stretched inside a frame. The poles or frame are carried by porters in front and behind, such simple litters are common on battlefields and emergency situations, where terrain prohibits wheeled vehicles from carrying away the dead and wounded. Litters can be created by the expedient of the lashing of poles to a chair, a more luxurious version consists of a bed or couch, sometimes enclosed by curtains, for the passenger or passengers to lie on.
These are carried by at least two porters in equal numbers in front and behind, using wooden rails that pass through brackets on the sides of the couch, the largest and heaviest types would be carried by draught animals. These porters were known in London as chairmen and these have been very rare since the 19th century, but such enclosed portable litters have been used as an elite form of transport for centuries, especially in cultures where women are kept secluded. Sedan chairs, in use until the 19th century, were accompanied at night by link-boys who carried torches, where possible, the link boys escorted the fares to the chairmen, the passengers being delivered to the door of their lodgings. Several houses in Bath, England still have the link extinguishers on the exteriors, in the 1970s, entrepreneur and Bathwick resident, John Cuningham, revived the sedan chair service business for a brief amount of time. The ancient Hebrews fashioned the Ark of the Covenant to resemble and function as a litter for the ten commandments and presence of God.
In Ancient Rome, a litter called lectica or sella often carried members of the family, as well as other dignitaries and other members of the rich elite. In the Catholic Church, Popes were carried the same way in Sedia gestatoria, a palanquin is a covered litter, usually for one passenger. It is carried by a number of bearers on their shoulders, by means of a pole projecting fore. The word is derived from the Sanskrit palyanka, meaning bed or couch, the Malay and Javanese form is palangki, in Hindi and Bangla, palki. The Portuguese apparently added a nasal termination to these to make palanquim, english adopted it from Portuguese as palanquin. Palanquins vary in size and grandeur, the smallest and simplest, a cot or frame suspended by the four corners from a bamboo pole and borne by two bearers, is called a doli. Larger palanquins are rectangular wooden boxes eight feet long, four feet wide, interiors are furnished with bedding and pillows
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and spread to the rest of Europe. This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, the Renaissance began in Florence, in the 14th century. Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan, the word Renaissance, literally meaning Rebirth in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelets 1855 work, Histoire de France, the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century.
The Renaissance was a movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism, however, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were back from Byzantium to Western Europe. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe life as it really was. Others see more competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance and art went hand in hand, Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia, silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money.
Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusades, increased the prosperity of Genoa, unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe. One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity, Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily and this work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history
Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga
The Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga is a painting from around 1504, attributed to the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael and housed in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. Contemporary sources speak of a portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga executed by Raphael, the painting was likely part of the Ducal collection of Urbino, brought to Florence in 1635 as Vittoria della Roveres dowry. In is mentioned with certainty for the first time in 1773, in a 1784 inventory it was attributed to Giovanni Bellinis school, while that of 1825 listed it as by Andrea Mantegna. It was attributed to Raphael for the first time in 1905, other artists to whom the portrait has been assigned include Francesco Francia, Giovan Francesco Caroto, Francesco Bonsignori and Albrecht Dürer. The woman portrayed is Elisabetta Gonzaga, wife of Duke Guidobaldo I of Urbino, details include the black dress with applied trim in a patchwork pattern, and the scorpion-like diadem on the womans forehead. Her hairdo includes the coazzone, a long plait which is present in a medal of her now at the British Museum, Portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro Portrait of Emilia Pia da Montefeltro De Vecchi, Pierluigi
Young Woman with Unicorn
Portrait of Young Woman with Unicorn is a painting by Raphael, which art historians date to 1505 or 1506. It is in the Galleria Borghese in Rome, the painting was originally oil on panel, and was transferred to canvas during conservation work in 1934. The work was of uncertain attribution until recent times, in the 1760 inventory of the Gallery, the subject of the painting was identified as Saint Catherine of Alexandria and attributed to Perugino. Later restoration work on the painting in 1959 revealed through radiography the image of a small dog and this alteration is believed to have been made by Raphael, it is not known why the alteration was made. Giulia Farnese Barchiesi and Marina # Minozzi, The Galleria Borghese, The Masterpieces, Galleria Borghese, thoenes, Raphael 1483-1520, The Invention of the High Renaissance, Taschen,2012
Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints (Raphael)
The Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints, known as the Colonna Altarpiece, is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Raphael, c. It is housed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City and it is the only altarpiece by Raphael in the United States. The collection of Metropolitan Museum of Art contains a painting of the Agony in the Garden from the predella of the altarpiece. Other panels from the predella can be found in the collections of the National Gallery, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, in Boston, a preparatory drawing by Raphael for the composition of the agony in the garden is in the collection of the Morgan Library New York. The Altarpiece was the last Raphael altar in private hands when J. P. Morgan purchased it in the early 20th century for a record price, sources Linda Wolk-Simon, Raphael at the Metropolitan, The Colonna Altarpiece, Exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 2006
The Solly Madonna by the Italian renaissance artist Raphael was painted somewhere between 1500 and 1504. An early work, it shows the influence of Raphaels teacher Perugino. Two motifs in this work would recur in Madonnas by Raphael, the virgin Mary is reading a book, as in the Madonna and Child in the Norton Simon Museum, the Connestabile Madonna, the Madonna Colonna and the Madonna del cardellino. As in that last painting a small bird, a goldfinch, is part of the scene, the painting is located in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. It is called the Solly Madonna because it was owned by the British banker and art collector Edward Solly
Portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro
The Portrait of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro is a picture by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael, dating from around 1506 and housed in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. It portrays Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino, the painting was likely part of the Ducal collection of Urbino, brought to Florence in 1635 as Vittoria della Roveres dowry. It is mentioned with certainty for the first time in 1623 in an inventory of the Ducal Palace of Pesaro and it was attributed to Raphael for the first time in 1905. Other artists to whom the portrait has been assigned include Francesco Francia, Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga Portrait of Emilia Pia da Montefeltro Portrait of Federico da Montefeltro with His Son Guidobaldo De Vecchi, Pierluigi
Heliodorus was a legate of Seleucus IV Philopator c.187 BC –175 BC. Around 178 BC Seleucus sent Heliodorus to Jerusalem to collect money to pay the Romans, there may be a reference to this in Daniel 11,20, He will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor. 2 Maccabees 3, 21-28 reports that Heliodorus entered the Temple in Jerusalem in order to take its treasure,2 Maccabees 3, 34-36 records that Heliodorus received orders from God to proclaim to all men the majesty of Gods power. The Heliodorus stele, a Greek-language inscription of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem, is dated to 178 BCE, in this stele, Seleucus informs Heliodorus that he appoints a certain Olympiodoros in charge of the temples of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia