The Brothers Four
The Brothers Four is an American folk singing group, founded in 1957 in Seattle, known for their 1960 hit song "Greenfields". Bob Flick, John Paine, Mike Kirkland, Dick Foley met at the University of Washington, where they were members of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity in 1956, their first professional performances were the result of a prank played on them in 1958 by a rival fraternity, who had arranged for someone to call them, pretend to be from Seattle's Colony Club, invite them to come down to audition for a gig. Though they were not expected at the club, they were allowed to sing a few songs, were subsequently hired. Flick recalls them being paid "mostly in beer." They left for San Francisco in 1959, where they met Dave Brubeck's manager. Lewis became their manager and that year secured them a contract with Columbia Records, their second single, "Greenfields," released in January 1960, hit #2 on the pop charts, sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA. Their first album, Brothers Four, released toward the end of the year, made the top 20.
Other highlights of their early career included singing their fourth single, "The Green Leaves of Summer," from the John Wayne movie The Alamo, at the 1961 Academy Awards, having their third album, BMOC/Best Music On/Off Campus, go top 10. They recorded the title song for the Hollywood film Five Weeks in a Balloon in 1962 and the theme song for the ABC television series Hootenanny, "Hootenanny Saturday Night," in 1963, they gave "Sloop John B" a try, released as "The John B Sails". The British Invasion and the ascendance of edgier folk rock musicians such as Bob Dylan put an end to the Brothers Four's early period of success, but they kept performing and making records, doing well in Japan and on the American hotel circuit; the group, with Jerry Dennon, built a radio station in Seaside, Oregon in 1968. The station was subsequently sold in 1972 to a group from Montana, to a self-proclaimed minister, merged into a larger conglomerate of radio stations; the group attempted a comeback by recording a commercial version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man," but were unable to release it due to licensing issues, The Byrds stole their thunder by releasing their heralded version.
Mike Kirkland left the group in 1969, was replaced by Mark Pearson, another University of Washington alumnus. In 1971, Pearson left and was replaced by Bob Haworth, who stayed until 1985 and was replaced by a returning Pearson. Dick Foley was replaced by Terry Lauber. Despite all the changes and having spent 61 years in the business, the group is still active. 1960 The Brothers Four – U. S. #11 1960 Rally'Round! 1961 B. M. O. C. – US #4 1961 Roamin' with The Brothers IV 1961 The Brothers Four Song Book – US #71 1962 The Brothers Four: In Person – Columbia 360 Sound CS-8628 - US #102 1962 The Brothers Four Greatest Hits 1963 Cross-Country Concert – US #81 1963 The Big Folk Hits – US #56 1964 More Big Folk Hits – US #134 1964 Sing Of Our Times 1965 The Honey Wind Blows – US #118 1965 By Special Request 1966 Try To Remember – US #76 1966 A Beatles' Songbook – US #97 1966 Merry Christmas 1967 A New World's Record 1969 Let's Get Together 1970 1970 1996 Greenfields & Other Gold – new studio recording 1996 The Tokyo Tapes - 35th Anniversary – live cd 2010 Golden Anniversary – live cd 2014 Beautiful World – new studio and live cd 2018 The Very Best of the Brothers Four: Renewal List of University of Washington people List of people from Seattle List of folk musicians Ringing Bell Official website
Peter, Paul and Mary
Peter and Mary was an American folk group formed in New York City in 1961, during the American folk music revival phenomenon. The trio was composed of baritone Noel Paul Stookey and alto Mary Travers; the group's repertoire included songs written by Yarrow and Stookey, early songs by Bob Dylan as well as covers of other folk musicians. After the death of Travers in 2009, Yarrow and Stookey continued to perform as a duo under their individual names. Mary Travers said she was influenced by Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, the Weavers. In the documentary Peter, Paul & Mary: Carry It On — A Musical Legacy members of the Weavers discuss how Peter and Mary took over the torch of the social commentary of folk music in the 1960s; the group was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. Peter and Mary received the Sammy Cahn Lifetime Achievement Award from Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2006. Manager Albert Grossman created Peter and Mary in 1961, after auditioning several singers in the New York folk scene, including Dave Van Ronk, rejected as too idiosyncratic and uncommercial, Carolyn Hester.
After rehearsing Yarrow and Travers out of town in Boston and Miami, Grossman booked them into The Bitter End, a coffee house and popular folk music venue in New York City's Greenwich Village. They recorded their debut album, Peter and Mary, the following year, it included "Lemon Tree", "500 Miles", the Pete Seeger hit tunes "If I Had a Hammer" and "Where Have All the Flowers Gone?". The album was listed in the Billboard Magazine Top Ten for 10 months, including seven weeks in the No. 1 position. It remained a main catalog-seller for decades to come selling over two million copies, earning double platinum certification from the RIAA in the United States alone. In 1963 the group released "Puff, the Magic Dragon", with music by Yarrow and words based on a poem, written by a fellow student at Cornell, Leonard Lipton. Despite rumors that the song refers to drugs, it is about the lost innocence of childhood; that year the group performed "If I Had a Hammer" and "Blowin' in the Wind" at the 1963 March on Washington, best remembered for the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.
The Bob Dylan song "Blowin' in the Wind" was one of their biggest hit singles. They sang other Dylan songs, such as "The Times They Are a-Changin'", their success with Dylan's "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right" helped Dylan's The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan album rise into the top 30. In December 1969 "Leaving on a Jet Plane", written by the group's friend John Denver, became their only No. 1 single and the group's sixth million-selling gold single. The track first appeared on their million-selling platinum certified Album 1700 in 1967. Following Minnesota Sen. Eugene McCarthy's strong showing in the 1968 New Hampshire Primary, the group recorded "Eugene McCarthy For President" endorsing McCarthy, released without a record label. "Day Is Done", a No. 21 hit in June 1969 from the trio's Grammy award-winning Peter and Mommy album, was the last hot-100 hit that the trio recorded. The trio broke up in 1970 to pursue solo careers. During that year Peter Yarrow was convicted of making sexual advances toward a 14-year-old girl.
Years Yarrow received a presidential pardon from Jimmy Carter. During 1971 and 1972 Warner Bros. released a debut solo album by each member of the group. Travers lectures across the United States, she produced and starred in a BBC-TV series. Stookey formed. Yarrow co-wrote and produced Mary MacGregor's Torn Between Two Lovers and earned an Emmy for three animated TV specials based on "Puff the Magic Dragon." Stookey wrote "The Wedding Song" for Yarrow's marriage to Marybeth McCarthy, the niece of Eugene McCarthy, according to Stookey during an interview on the DVD Carry It On, released in 2004 by Rhino Records. While the group was de-facto broken up and touring separately, the trio still managed to come together for a series of reunions before coming back together again. In 1972, the trio reunited for a concert at Madison Square Garden to support George McGovern's presidential campaign, again in 1978, for a concert to protest against nuclear energy; this concert was followed by a 1978 summer reunion tour.
Included was a September 3 evening performance at Red Rocks Amphitheatre outside of Denver, Colorado. A reunion album was released by Warner Bros. in 1978. Reviewing in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, Robert Christgau said the decision to cover Bob Dylan's "Forever Young" as a "rinky-dink reggae like these three geezers means you've been middle-aged and liberal since you were fifteen." The summer tour in 1978 proved so popular that the group decided to reunite more or less permanently in 1981. They continued to record albums together and tour, playing around 45 shows a year, until the 2009 death of Mary Travers; the trio would be accompanied in concert by double-bassist Dick Kniss and, starting in 1990, by multi-instrumentalist Paul Prestopino. The trio were awarded the Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience on September 1, 1990. In 2004, Travers was diagnosed with leukemia, leading to the cancellation of the remaining tour dates for that year, she received a bone marrow transplant.
She and the rest of the trio resumed their concert to
Play Misty for Me
Play Misty for Me is a 1971 American psychological thriller film, directed by and starring Clint Eastwood, in his directorial debut. Jessica Walter and Donna Mills co-star; the original music score was composed by Dee Barton. In the film, Eastwood plays the role of a radio disc jockey being stalked by an obsessed female fan; the film was a critical and financial success, with Walter earning praise for her first major film role. Dave Garver is a KRML radio disc jockey who broadcasts nightly from a studio in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California incorporating poetry into his program. At his favorite bar by chance, he encounters a woman named Evelyn Draper. Dave drives her home, he guesses that she is the recurring caller who always requests the jazz standard "Misty". The two have sex. A casual relationship begins between Evelyn, but before long, Evelyn begins to display obsessive behavior. She shows up at Dave's house uninvited, follows him to work, calls to demand that he not leave her alone for a single minute.
The final straw comes when Evelyn disrupts a business meeting, mistaking Dave's lunch companion for his date. His efforts to sever ties with Evelyn lead her to attempt suicide in his home by slashing her wrists. After Dave rejects her again, Evelyn breaks into his home and his housekeeper finds her vandalizing his possessions. Evelyn is subsequently committed to a psychiatric hospital. During Evelyn's incarceration, Dave rekindles a relationship with his ex-girlfriend, Tobie Williams. A few months Evelyn again calls the studio to request "Misty", she tells Dave that she has been released from the mental hospital and is moving to Hawaii for a fresh start in life. She quotes an Edgar Allan Poe poem, "Annabel Lee"; that night, while Dave is asleep, she sneaks into his house and tries to kill him with a large knife. He wakes up to see her standing over him wielding the knife, as she screams and stabs downward, he rolls away from the descending knife and he falls onto the floor. Dave cautions her to stay away from him until the woman is caught.
For her safety, she goes home. There, she meets with a girl. Tobie realizes that Annabel is Evelyn when she sees the fresh scars on Evelyn's wrists, but before Tobie can escape, Evelyn takes her hostage. Evelyn kills McCallum, a police detective who had come to check on Tobie. Dave makes the connection between Tobie's roommate and the quote from "Annabel Lee"; when he calls Tobie to warn her, Evelyn answers and says she and Tobie are waiting for him. Dave switches from a live show to taped music and rushes to the house, where he finds Tobie bound and gagged. Evelyn attacks him with the butcher knife, he punches Evelyn, knocking her through the window, over a railing, down onto the rocky shore below. He and Tobie leave the house as his voice on the radio show leads into the song "Misty". Before Malpaso Productions co-founder Irving Leonard died, he and Eastwood discussed a final film, one giving Eastwood the artistic control he desired by making his directorial debut; the film was Play Misty for Me.
Eastwood reflected on his new role: After seventeen years of bouncing my head against the wall, hanging around sets, maybe influencing certain camera set-ups with my own opinions, watching actors go through all kinds of hell without any help, working with both good directors and bad ones, I'm at the point where I'm ready to make my own pictures. I stored away all the mistakes I made and saved up all the good things I learned, now I know enough to control my own projects and get what I want out of actors; the script was conceived by Jo Heims, a former model and dancer turned secretary, was polished by Dean Riesner. The idea of another love interest, with a level-headed girlfriend Tobie added to the plot, was a suggestion by Sonia Chernus, an editor, with Eastwood when he was spotted for Rawhide; the story line was set in Los Angeles, but at Eastwood's insistence, the film was shot in the more comfortable surroundings of the actual Carmel-by-the-Sea, where he could shoot scenes at the local radio station and restaurants, friends' houses.
Filming commenced in Monterey, California, in September 1970, although this was Eastwood's debut as film director, Don Siegel stood by to help and had an acting role in the film as a bartender. Frequent collaborators of Siegel's, such as cinematographer Bruce Surtees, editor Carl Pingitore, composer Dee Barton, made up part of the filming team. Additional scenes were shot at the Monterey Jazz Festival in September 1970, featuring jazz greats Johnny Otis, Cannonball Adderley, future Weather Report founder Joe Zawinul; the Sardine Factory is still at the same location as in the film, at Prescott and Wave Streets, just one block up from Cannery Row in Monterey. The radio station, KRML, was an actual jazz station in Carmel, whose studios were relocated to the Eastwood Building at San Carlos and 5th, in the same building as the Hog's Breath Inn. After a brief dark period in 2010, the radio station returned to the air in 2011; the rights to the song "Misty" were obtained after Eastwood saw Erro
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
A glee club in the United States is a musical group or choir group of male voices but of female or mixed voices, which traditionally specializes in the singing of short songs—glees—by trios or quartets. In the late 19th century it was popular in most schools and was made a tradition to have in American high schools from on. Glee in Great Britain /the United Kingdom does not refer to the mood of the music or of its singers, but to a specific form of English part song popular between 1650 and 1900, the glee; the first named Glee Club held its initial meeting in the Newcastle Coffee House in London in 1787. Glee clubs were popular in Britain from until the mid-1850s but by they were being superseded by larger choral societies, but by the mid-20th century, proper glee clubs were no longer common. The term remains in contemporary use, for choirs established in North American colleges and high schools, although most American glee clubs are choruses in the standard sense, perform glees; the oldest collegiate glee clubs in the United States are, by year of foundation: 1858: Harvard Glee Club 1859: University of Michigan Men's Glee Club 1861: Yale Glee Club 1862: Wesleyan University Glee Club 1862: The University of Pennsylvania Glee Club 1865: Amherst College Glee Club 1868: Cornell University Glee Club 1869: Union College Men's Glee Club 1869: Lehigh University Glee Club 1871: Virginia Glee Club 1872: Rutgers University Glee Club 1874: Princeton Glee Club 1874: Worcester Polytechnic Institute Men's Glee Club 1875: The Ohio State University Men's Glee Club 1877: The Mount Holyoke College Glee Club 1888: Penn State Glee Club 1890: Pitt Men's Glee Club 1890: The University of Kansas Men's Glee Club 1892: Wabash College Glee Club1893: University of Michigan Women’s Glee Club 1893: Purdue Varsity Glee Club 1893: Texas A&M Singing Cadets 1897: Case Men's Glee Club 1901: The University of Oklahoma Men's Glee Club 1906: Georgia Tech Glee Club 1907: Wheaton College Men's Glee Club, Miami University Glee Club 1911: Morehouse College Glee ClubThe oldest non-collegiate glee club in the United States is the Mendelssohn Glee Club, founded in 1866.
Glee List of collegiate glee clubs J. Lloyd Winstead When Colleges Sang: The Story of Singing in American College Life University of Alabama Press ISBN 978-0-8173-1790-4
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number