Alexis de Tocqueville
Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian. He was best known for his works Democracy in America and The Old Regime and the Revolution. In both, he analyzed the improved living standards and social conditions of individuals as well as their relationship to the market and state in Western societies. Democracy in America was published after Tocqueville's travels in the United States and is today considered an early work of sociology and political science. Tocqueville was active in French politics, first under the July Monarchy and during the Second Republic which succeeded the February 1848 Revolution, he retired from political life after Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's 2 December 1851 coup and thereafter began work on The Old Regime and the Revolution. He argued the importance of the French Revolution was to continue the process of modernizing and centralizing the French state which had begun under King Louis XIV; the failure of the Revolution came from the inexperience of the deputies who were too wedded to abstract Enlightenment ideals.
Tocqueville was a classical liberal who advocated parliamentary government, but he was skeptical of the extremes of democracy. Alexis de Tocqueville came from an old Norman aristocratic family, his parents, Hervé Louis François Jean Bonaventure Clérel, Count of Tocqueville, an officer of the Constitutional Guard of King Louis XVI. Under the Bourbon Restoration, Tocqueville's father became a noble peer and prefect. Tocqueville attended the Lycée Fabert in Metz. Tocqueville, who despised the July Monarchy, began his political career in 1839. From 1839 to 1851, he served as deputy of the Manche department. In parliament, he sat on the centre-left, defended abolitionist views and upheld free trade while supporting the colonisation of Algeria carried on by Louis-Philippe's regime. In 1847, he sought to found a Young Left party which would advocate wage increases, a progressive tax, other labor concerns in order to undermine the appeal of the socialists. Tocqueville was elected general counsellor of the Manche in 1842 and became the president of the department's conseil général between 1849 and 1851.
According to one account, Tocqueville's political position became untenable during this time in the sense that he was mistrusted by both the left and right and was looking for an excuse to leave France. In 1831, he obtained from the July Monarchy a mission to examine prisons and penitentiaries in the United States and proceeded there with his lifelong friend Gustave de Beaumont. While Tocqueville did visit some prisons, he traveled in the United States and took extensive notes about his observations and reflections, he returned within nine months and published a report, but the real result of his tour was De la démocratie en Amerique, which appeared in 1835. Beaumont wrote an account of their travels in Jacksonian America: Marie or Slavery in the United States. During this trip, he made a side trip to Lower Canada to Montreal and Quebec City from mid-August to early September 1831. Apart from North America, Tocqueville made an observational tour of England, producing Memoir on Pauperism. In 1841 and 1846, he traveled to Algeria.
His first travel inspired his Travail sur l'Algérie in which he criticized the French model of colonisation, based on an assimilationist view, preferring instead the British model of indirect rule, which avoided mixing different populations together. He went as far as advocating racial segregation between the European colonists and the Arabs through the implementation of two different legislative systems. In 1835, Tocqueville made a journey through Ireland, his observations provide one of the best pictures of how Ireland stood before the Great Famine. The observations chronicle the growing Catholic middle class and the appalling conditions in which most Catholic tenant farmers lived. Tocqueville made clear both his libertarian sympathies and his affinity for his Irish co-religionists. After the fall of the July Monarchy during the February 1848 Revolution, Tocqueville was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly of 1848, where he became a member of the Commission charged with the drafting of the new Constitution of the Second Republic.
He defended bicameralism and the election of the President of the Republic by universal suffrage. As the countryside was thought to be more conservative than the labouring population of Paris, universal suffrage was conceived as a means to counteract the revolutionary spirit of Paris. During the Second Republic, Tocqueville sided with the parti de l'Ordre against the socialists. A few days after the February insurrection, he believed that a violent clash between the Parisian workers' population led by socialists agitating in favor of a "Democratic and Social Republic" and the conservatives, which included the aristocracy and the rural population, was inescapable; as Tocqueville had foreseen, these social tensions exploded during the June Days Uprising of 1848. Led by General Cavaignac, the suppression was supported by Tocqueville, who advocated the "regularization" of the state of siege declared by Cavaignac and other measures promoting suspension of the constitutional order. Between May and September, Tocqueville participated in the Constitutional Commission which wrote the new Constitution.
His proposals underlined the importance of his North America
Rockford Forest Citys
Rockford Forest Citys, from Rockford, Illinois was one of the first professional baseball clubs. Rockford played for one season during the National Association inaugural year of 1871, they are not to be confused with Cleveland's Forest City club in the same league. From 1868 to 1870, future Hall of Famer Albert Spalding and infielder Ross Barnes starred for Rockford while the club was still considered an'amateur' team. In reality, the Forest Citys were one of the first ball clubs to pay players. Rockford played their home games at the Agricultural Society Fair Grounds. Rockford finished with 4 wins and 21 losses, 15½ games behind the champion Philadelphia Athletics club and good for last place. Player-manager Scott Hastings was found to have violated the "60 day rule" implemented by the league—if a player switched teams during the season, the team had to bench him for 60 days before he could play. Hastings had jumped from a Louisiana team to the Forest Citys in the spring and begun playing for Rockford.
This complaint was brought before the league, the Forest Citys were forced to forfeit 4 of their wins. The star of the team was Cap Anson, who hit.325 for the Forest Citys and would go on to become the player-manager of the Chicago White Stockings for over 20 seasons. Anson was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1939. Rockford had faced significant financial hardship during the 1871 season, including travel cost, did not make a profit. Additionally, star Anson decided to accept a $1,250 contract offer from Philadelphia for the 1872 season. So, the club folded after its only season. Rockford Forest Citys 1871 season at Marshall; the National Association of Base Ball Players, 1857–1870. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-0779-4
Cleveland Forest Citys
The Forest Citys were a short lived professional baseball team based in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1870s. The actual name of the team, as shown in standings, was Forest City, not "Cleveland"; the name "Forest Citys" was used in the same generic style of the day in which the team from Chicago, Illinois was called the "Chicagos". "Forest Cities" is incorrect usage. Modern writers refer to the club as the "Cleveland Forest Citys", which does not reflect 1870s usage, but does distinguish the team from the Rockford, Illinois professional team, called "Forest City". Professional baseball began in Cleveland in 1869, following the lead of the first professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, on the other side of Ohio; the Forest City club was the first salaried Cleveland team, beginning in 1870 as an independent. The club played against amateur and professional teams, including the racially integrated Resolutes Club from Oberlin College. In 1871 the Forest Citys joined the National Association.
The Forest Citys' home games were played at the National Association Grounds in Cleveland. Forest City played in the first National Association game, as the visiting team against the Kekionga club of Fort Wayne, Indiana, they were shut out by a score of 0-2. The Forest City club's record over its two seasons was poor, winning 16 and losing 35; the small quantity of games was typical in the early years, when teams played only once a week. The team folded after the 1872 season. 1871 Cleveland Forest Citys season 1872 Cleveland Forest Citys season Baseball-Reference.com Wright, Marshall. The National Association of Base Ball Players, 1857-1870. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-0779-4
National Association of Professional Base Ball Players
The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, or known as the National Association, was founded in 1871 and continued through the 1875 season. It succeeded and incorporated several professional clubs from the previous National Association of Base Ball Players of 1857-1870, sometimes called "the amateur association". Shortened to be called the National League, it was founded 1876, the earliest one half of modern Major League Baseball in America, with the competing American League of Professional Base Ball Clubs in 1901, known too as the American League. In 1869, the amateur National Association of Base Ball Players, in response to concerns that some teams were paying players, established a professional category; the Cincinnati Red Stockings were the first team to declare their intention to become professional. Other teams followed suit. By 1871, several clubs, wanting to separate from the amateur association, broke away to found the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players..
In 1876, wanting an stronger central organization, six clubs from the NA and two independents established the National League: Boston Red Stockings, Mutual, Athletic and the St. Louis Brown Stockings from the NA plus independent clubs Louisville and Cincinnati; the NA was the first professional baseball league. Its status as a major league is in dispute. Major League Baseball and the Baseball Hall of Fame do not recognize it as a major league, but the NA comprised most of the professional clubs and the highest caliber of play in existence, its players and umpires are included among the "major leaguers" who define the scope of many encyclopedias and many databases developed by SABR or Retrosheet. Several factors limited the lifespan of the National Association including dominance by a single team for most of the league's existence, instability of franchises as several were placed in cities too small to financially support professional baseball, lack of central authority, suspicions of the influence of gamblers.
Professional baseball clubs in the 19th century were known by what is now regarded as a "nickname", although it was the club's name. This was a practice carried over from the amateur days; the singular form of a "nickname" was the team name itself, with its base city "understood" and was so listed in the standings. Rather than "Brooklyn Atlantics", the team was called "Atlantic", or "Atlantic of Brooklyn" if deemed necessary by the writer. Another common practice was to refer to the team in the plural, hence the "Bostons" the "Chicagos" or the "Mutuals". Sometimes the team would have a nickname something to do with the team colors, such as the Boston Red Stockings, Chicago White Stockings, Mutual Green Stockings; this practice of using the singular form of the "nickname" as the team name faded with time, although as as the early 1900s, the team known as "Philadelphia Athletics" was shown in the American League standings as "Athletic", the traditional way. That team sported an old-English "A" on its jerseys.
The Encyclopedia of Baseball attempted to retrofit the names into a modern context. In the following list, the bold names are the names most used by contemporary newspapers in league standings, the linked names after them are those ascribed to the teams now, using the Encyclopedia of Baseball standard. Boston – Boston Red Stockings Chicago – Chicago White Stockings Forest City – Cleveland Forest Citys Kekionga – Fort Wayne Kekiongas Mutual – New York Mutuals Athletic – Philadelphia Athletics Forest City – Rockford Forest Citys Troy – Troy Haymakers Olympic – Washington Olympics Atlantic – Brooklyn Atlantics Eckford – Brooklyn Eckfords Lord Baltimore – Baltimore Canaries Mansfield – Middletown Mansfields National – Washington Nationals Washington Blue Legs Maryland – Baltimore Marylands Philadelphia – Philadelphia White Stockings Resolute – Elizabeth Resolutes Hartford – Hartford Dark Blues Centennial – Philadelphia Centennials Elm City – New Haven Elm Citys St. Louis – St. Louis Brown Stockings St. Louis Reds – St. Louis Red Stockings Western – Keokuk Westerns 1871 Philadelphia Athletics 1872 Boston Red Stockings 1873 Boston Red Stockings 1874 Boston Red Stockings 1875 Boston Red Stockings James W. Kerns 1871 Robert V. Ferguson 1872–1875 Cap Anson Candy Cummings Pud Galvin Jim O'Rourke Albert Spalding Deacon White George Wright Harry Wright David Pietrusza Major Leagues: The Formation, Sometimes Absorption and Mostly Inevitable Demise of 18 Professional Baseball Organizations, 1871 to Present Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 1991.
ISBN 0-89950-590-2 William J. Ryczek Blackguards and Red Stockings: A History of Baseball's National Association Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 1999. ISBN 978-0-9673718-0-1
Indiana is a U. S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America. Indiana is the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, its capital and largest city is Indianapolis. Indiana was admitted to the United States as the 19th U. S. state on December 11, 1816. Indiana borders Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, Kentucky to the south and southeast, Illinois to the west. Before becoming a territory, various indigenous peoples and Native Americans inhabited Indiana for thousands of years. Since its founding as a territory, settlement patterns in Indiana have reflected regional cultural segmentation present in the Eastern United States. Indiana has a diverse economy with a gross state product of $359.12 billion in 2017. Indiana has several metropolitan areas with populations greater than 100,000 and a number of smaller industrial cities and towns. Indiana is home to professional sports teams, including the NFL's Indianapolis Colts and the NBA's Indiana Pacers, hosts several notable athletic events, such as the Indianapolis 500 and Brickyard 400 motorsports races.
The state's name means "Land of the Indians", or "Indian Land". It stems from Indiana's territorial history. On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an Enabling Act to begin the process of establishing statehood for Indiana, a part of this territorial land became the geographic area for the new state. A resident of Indiana is known as a Hoosier; the etymology of this word is disputed, but the leading theory, as advanced by the Indiana Historical Bureau and the Indiana Historical Society, has "Hoosier" originating from Virginia, the Carolinas, Tennessee as a term for a backwoodsman, a rough countryman, or a country bumpkin. The first inhabitants in what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived about 8000 BC after the melting of the glaciers at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads, they created stone tools made out of chert by chipping and flaking.
The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC, covered the next phase of indigenous culture. The people developed new tools as well as techniques to cook food, an important step in civilization; such new tools included different types of spear knives, with various forms of notches. They made ground-stone tools such as woodworking tools and grinding stones. During the latter part of the period, they built earthwork mounds and middens, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent; the Archaic period ended at about 1500 BC, although some Archaic people lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period commenced around 1500 BC. During this period, the people created ceramics and pottery, extended their cultivation of plants. An early Woodland period group named the Adena people had elegant burial rituals, featuring log tombs beneath earth mounds. In the middle portion of the Woodland period, the Hopewell people began developing long-range trade of goods. Nearing the end of the stage, the people developed productive cultivation and adaptation of agriculture, growing such crops as corn and squash.
The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans. During this stage, the people created large urban settlements designed according to their cosmology, with large mounds and plazas defining ceremonial and public spaces; the concentrated settlements depended on the agricultural surpluses. One such complex was the Angel Mounds, they had large public areas such as plazas and platform mounds, where leaders lived or conducted rituals. Mississippian civilization collapsed in Indiana during the mid-15th century for reasons that remain unclear; the historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of European encounter spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee and Illini, they were joined by refugee tribes from eastern regions including the Delaware who settled in the White and Whitewater River Valleys. In 1679, French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend at the Saint Joseph River.
He returned the following year to learn about the region. French-Canadian fur traders soon arrived, bringing blankets, tools and weapons to trade for skins with the Native Americans. By 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami at Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post at Vincennes. French Canadian settlers, who had left the earlier post because of hostilities, returned in larger numbers. In a period of a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and contended against the Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. Fighting between the French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s as a result; the Native American tribes of Indiana sided with th
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Fort Wayne is a city in the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County, United States. Located in northeastern Indiana, the city is 18 miles west of the Ohio border and 50 miles south of the Michigan border. With a population of 253,691 in the 2010 census, it is the second-most populous city in Indiana after Indianapolis, the 75th-most populous city in the United States, it is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen and Whitley counties, a combined population of 419,453 as of 2011. Fort Wayne is the economic center of northeastern Indiana; the city is within a 300-mile radius of major population centers, including Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Louisville and Milwaukee. In addition to the three core counties, the combined statistical area includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington and Steuben counties, with an estimated population of 615,077. Fort Wayne was built in 1794 by the United States Army under the direction of American Revolutionary War general Anthony Wayne, the last in a series of forts built near the Miami village of Kekionga.
Named in Wayne's honor, the European-American settlement developed at the confluence of the St. Joseph, St. Marys, Maumee rivers as a trading post for pioneers; the village was platted in 1823 and underwent tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad. Once a booming manufacturing town located in what became known as the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne's economy in the 21st century is based upon distribution and logistics, healthcare and business services and hospitality, financial services; the city is a center for the defense industry. There are many jobs through local healthcare providers Parkview Health and Lutheran Health Network. Fort Wayne was an All-America City Award recipient in 1982, 1998, 2009; the city received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U. S. Conference of Mayors in 1999; this area at the confluence of rivers was long occupied by successive cultures of indigenous peoples. The Miami tribe established its settlement of Kekionga at the confluence of the Maumee, St. Joseph, St. Marys rivers.
It was the capital of related Algonquian tribes. In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes as commander of the outpost; the French built Fort Miami in 1697 as part of a group of forts and trading posts built between Quebec and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissot's death, Fort Miami was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis; the first census in 1744 recorded a population of 40 Frenchmen and 1,000 Miami. Increasing tension between France and Great Britain developed over control of the territory. In 1760, France ceded the area to Britain after its forces in North America surrendered during the Seven Years' War, known on the North American front as the French and Indian War. In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule and retook the fort as part of Pontiac's Rebellion; the Miami regained control of Kekionga. In 1790, after the United States achieved independence, President George Washington ordered the United States Army to secure Indiana Territory.
Three battles were fought at Kekionga against the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors defeated U. S. forces in the first two battles. General Anthony Wayne led a third expedition resulting in the destruction of Kekionga and the start of peace negotiations between Little Turtle and the U. S. After General Wayne refused to negotiate, tribal forces advanced to Fallen Timbers, where they were defeated on August 20, 1794. On October 22, 1794, U. S. forces captured the Wabash–Erie portage from the Miami Confederacy and built Fort Wayne, named in honor of the general. The first settlement started in 1815. In 1819, the military garrison moved to Detroit. In 1822, a federal land office opened to sell land ceded by local Native Americans by the Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818. Platted in 1823 at the Ewing Tavern, the village became an important frontier outpost, was incorporated as the Town of Fort Wayne in 1829, with a population of 300; the Wabash and Erie Canal's opening improved travel conditions to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River, exposing Fort Wayne to expanded economic opportunities.
The population topped 2,000 when the town was incorporated as the City of Fort Wayne on February 22, 1840. Pioneer newspaperman George W. Wood was elected the city's first mayor. Fort Wayne's "Summit City" nickname dates from this period, referring to the city's position at the highest elevation along the canal's route; as influential as the canal was to the city's earliest development, it became obsolete after competing with the city's first railroad, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, completed in 1854. At the turn of the 20th century, the city's population reached nearly 50,000, attributed to a large influx of German and Irish immigrants. Fort Wayne's "urban working class" thrived in railroad-related jobs; the city's economy was based on manufacturing, ushering in an era of innovation with several notable inventions and developments coming out of the city over the years, such as gasoline pumps, the refrigerator, in 1972, the first home video game console. A 1913 flood caused seven deaths, left 15,000 homeless, damaged over 5,500 buildings in the worst natural disaster in the city's history.
As the automobile's prevalence grew, Fort Wayne became a fixture on the Lincoln Highway. Aviation arrived in 1919 with the opening of Smith Field; the airport se