New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Lunéville is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in France. It is a subprefecture of the department and lies on the Meurthe River at its confluence with the Vezouze. Lunéville was a renowned resort in the 18th century, known as the capital of Lorraine; the grand Château de Lunéville, built in 1702 for Leopold, Duke of Lorraine to replace an older palace, was the residence of the duke of Lorraine until the duchy was annexed by France in 1766. The château was designed in the style of Versailles to satisfy Leopold's wife, Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, the niece of Louis XIV, became known as the "Versailles of Lorraine", it includes a chapel designed by Germain Boffrand. Leopold and his wife were the parents of Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor; the last duke of Lorraine was the former king of Poland. A devout Catholic, an author and a philanthropist, Stanislaus had a church built and several follies in his gardens for the amusement and education of visiting Polish nobility and followers of the Enlightenment.
The more famous visitors to his court were Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, André Morellet, Montesquieu. After the death of his father-in-law in 1766, Louis XV of France annexed the duchy and turned the castle into a barracks, but much of the original construction has survived, what remains is open to the public and the château's intricate parterre gardens, designed by Yves Hours in 1711 and Louis de Nesle in 1724, are a public park today, it was over the nearby Parroy Forest, directly east of Lunéville, only some 11 months after the outbreak of World War I, that the first aerial victory by a fighter aircraft armed with a synchronised machine gun occurred on July 1, 1915, as Lieutenant Kurt Wintgens of the German Army air force forced down an Aeronautique Militaire Morane-Saulnier L parasol monoplane. Neither member of the French air crew was wounded, while the French aircraft's Gnome Lambda engine received multiple hits to disable the aircraft; the Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House, one of the houses built up against the château gardens of Lunéville on 9 February 1801, between the French Republic and the Austrian Empire by Count Ludwig von Cobenzl and Joseph Bonaparte.
Another treaty, signed in Germany, was the Treaty of Frankfurt, which made Lunéville into a border town attracting the best and the brightest of Alsace and Moselle who relocated to keep their French nationality. A new period of economic prosperity, known as the Belle Époque, restored some of the glory of Stanislas's ducal court of the 18th century. Lunéville faience, a kind of unglazed faience produced from 1723 at Lunéville by Jacques Chambrette, became the Manufacture Royale du Roi de Pologne after Stanislaus sponsored it in 1749; the earthenware first became famous for its detailed figurines and in the 20th century for its art deco designs, it still exists today as "Terres d'Est". In 1858, the glass factory of Croismare was built, it became famous when the Müller brothers settled there in 1897 and began creating Art Deco glass designs. Louis Ferry-Bonnechaux discovered a technique using beads and sequins on embroidery in 1865, his craft was copied and became known as Lunéville Point, its heritage can still be seen in modern haute couture.
A subsidiary of the Dietrich company, Lorraine-Dietrich moved to Luneville after the 1871 treaty of Frankfurt. Today it is known for its trailers, but it started off as a manufacturer of cars and railway equipment; the population of Lunéville in 2016 was 18,566. Stanisław I Leszczyński, King of Poland 1704-1709, 1733-1736 Duke of Lorraine until his death at Lunéville where he spent 30 years in exile. Muller Frères, an art nouveau glass production company Georges de La Tour lived in Lunéville for much of his career. Lunéville was the birthplace of: Nicolas Beatrizet, 16th century engraver Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine, 1712 François Nicolas Benoît, Baron Haxo, 1774 June 24 René Basset, orientalist Marie Bobillier, musicologist Henri Basset, son of the above and historian André Basset, younger brother of the above, orientalist Jean Bastien-Thiry, attempted assassination of president de Gaulle Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department Official website
Daniel Leopold Wildenstein was a French art dealer and owner-breeder of thoroughbred race horses. He was the third member of the family to preside over Wildenstein & Co. one of the most successful and influential art-dealerships of the 20th century. He was once described as "probably the richest and most powerful art dealer on earth". Wildenstein was born in Verrières-le-Buisson, just outside Paris, he was educated at Cours Hattemer and at the University of Paris, graduating in 1938 and going on to study at the École du Louvre. Wildenstein's grandfather, Nathan Wildenstein, established an art dealership on the Rue La Boétie in Paris after fleeing his native Alsace during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71, he first specialised in 18th-century French painting and sculpture expanding to Italian, Dutch and Spanish art. Although he had been working in a tailor's shop when he began to trade in art he proved successful, selling to European collectors such as Edmond James de Rothschild and to Americans such as J. P. Morgan, Henry Clay Frick, to the Kress and Mellon families.
He opened a New York gallery in 1903 and one in London in 1925. The Wildensteins gained a reputation as shrewd businessmen, stockpiling works to maximise their profits when released onto the market. Nathan built a huge inventory of European Old Master paintings, drawings and decorative objects, to which Daniel's father, added Impressionist and Postimpressionist works. In 1978 Wildenstein & Co's New York storeroom included 20 Renoirs, 25 Courbets, 10 Van Goghs, 10 Cézannes, 10 Gauguins, 2 Botticellis, 8 Rembrandts, 8 Rubens, 9 El Grecos and 5 Tintorettos among a total inventory of 10,000 paintings; the secrecy attached to these holdings led to a great deal of interest and speculation in the art world. In 1940 Daniel Wildenstein went to New York to work for the family firm, he had acted as Group Secretary of the French Pavilion at the World's Fair in 1937 and as exhibitions director at the Jacquemart-Andre Museum. He took over the running of Wildenstein & Co.'s Paris and New York branches in 1959 and those in London and Buenos Aires in 1963, the year his father died.
A gallery in Tokyo was added in the early 1970s. As an art dealer Wildenstein was phenomenally successful. A 1998 profile of the family in Vanity Fair magazine asserted that his wealth was estimated at more than $5 billion. "His fortune," the magazine stated, "was the only one of that magnitude made in the art market."Like his father, Daniel Wildenstein established a reputation as a scholar and art historian. He revised and enlarged the catalogues published by his father and began work on his own projects, investing in the acquisition of archival material and establishing the Wildenstein Institute to issue catalogues raisonné which became the authority for authenticating the works of major French artists, his five-volume catalogue raisonné of the work of Claude Monet was published between 1976 and 1992. His two-volumes on Édouard Manet appeared in 1976 and 1977, those on Gustave Courbet in 1977 and 1977, a book on Paul Gauguin in 2001, he acted as editor-in-chief of the Gazette des Beaux-Arts from 1963 and in 1971 was elected a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts.
Although he retired in 1990, Wildenstein is reported to have maintained a close control over the running of the business. The number of Wildenstein galleries around the world shrank in his years until it contained only two: Wildenstein & Co. and PaceWildenstein, both in New York. PaceWildenstein was established in 1993 as a joint venture with the Pace Gallery to deal in contemporary art; the collaboration came to an end in 2010. In 1999 Wildenstein published a series of his interviews entitled Marchand d’Art. Wildenstein & Co reopened in Paris after the Second World War but they ended their operations there in the early 1960s after the French minister of culture, Andre Malraux, publicly accused Georges Wildenstein of bribing a ministry official to authorize the export and sale abroad of Georges de La Tour's painting The Fortune Teller; the case never went to court and Daniel Wildenstein subsequently accused Malraux of being motivated by malice. More Wildenstein & Co has become embroiled in a number of controversies connected with the Nazi confiscation of art works during the Second World War, with the nature of Georges Wildenstein's relationship with the German regime at that time.
In May 2000 the Wildensteins lost a court case they had brought in Paris against the art historian Héctor Feliciano, whose book, The Lost Museum: The Nazi Conspiracy to Steal the World's Greatest Works of Art, suggested that although Georges Wildenstein had fled France for America in 1941, the business had continued to trade profitably with the Nazis. Daniel Wildenstein's sons lost the case. In 1997 the Wildenstein family was sued in New York by the heirs of Alphonse Kann, a prominent Jewish art collector, they claimed that eight illuminated manuscripts, dating from the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries and now in the possession of Wildenstein & Co, had been looted by the Nazis in 1940. The Wildensteins asserted that the books were owned legitimately before the war, that they had been seized from their family safe in October 1940, that they had been recovered after the liberation of France. Daniel Wildenstein suggested that inventory markings on the manuscripts connecting them to the Kann collection were of no significance and suggested that claims to ownership made after so long an interval of time had no validity.
In June 2011 Daniel's son, Guy Wildenstein, was charged by the French authorities with concealing art, reported as missing or stolen. The police seized 30 artworks
The Newborn Child
The Newborn Child is a 1645-1648 oil on canvas painting by Georges de la Tour, now in the Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes in France. It is sometimes thought to be a representation of the Madonna and Child in the form of a genre scene - it is thus known as The Nativity
Georges André Malraux DSO was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs. Malraux's novel La Condition Humaine won the Prix Goncourt, he was appointed by President Charles de Gaulle as Minister of Information and subsequently as France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs during de Gaulle's presidency. Malraux was born in Paris in the son of Fernand-Georges Malraux and Berthe Félicie Lamy, his parents separated in 1905 and divorced. There are suggestions that Malraux's paternal grandfather committed suicide in 1909. Malraux was raised by his mother, maternal aunt Marie Lamy and maternal grandmother, Adrienne Lamy, who had a grocery store in the small town of Bondy, his father, a stockbroker, committed suicide in 1930 after the international crash of the stock market and onset of the Great Depression. From his childhood, associates noticed that André had marked vocal tics; the recent biographer Olivier Todd, who published a book on Malraux in 2005, suggests that he had Tourette syndrome, although that has not been confirmed.
Either way, most critics have not seen this as a significant factor in Malraux's life or literary works. The young Malraux left formal education early, but he followed his curiosity through the booksellers and museums in Paris, explored its rich libraries as well. Malraux's first published work, an article entitled "The Origins of Cubist Poetry", appeared in the magazine Action in 1920; this was followed in 1921 by three semi-surrealist tales, one of which, "Paper Moons", was illustrated by Fernand Léger. Malraux frequented the Parisian artistic and literary milieux of the period, meeting figures such as Demetrios Galanis, Max Jacob, François Mauriac, Guy de Pourtalès, André Salmon, Jean Cocteau, Raymond Radiguet, Florent Fels, Pascal Pia, Marcel Arland, Edmond Jaloux, Pierre Mac Orlan. In 1922, Malraux married Clara Goldschmidt. Malraux and his first wife separated in 1938 but didn't divorce until 1947, his daughter from this marriage, married the filmmaker Alain Resnais. By the age of twenty, Malraux was reading the work of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, to remain a major influence on him for the rest of his life.
Malraux was impressed with Nietzsche's theory of a world in continuous turmoil and his statement "that the individual himself is still the most recent creation", responsible for all of his actions. Most of all, Malraux embraced Nietzsche's theory of the Übermensch, the heroic, exalted man who would create great works of art and whose will would allow him to triumph over anything; the British Colonel T. E. Lawrence, aka "Lawrence of Arabia", holds a sinister reputation in France as the man, responsible for France's troubles in Syria in the 1920s. An exception was Malraux who regarded Lawrence as a role model, the intellectual-cum-man of action and the romantic, enigmatic hero. Malraux admitted to having a "certain fascination" with Lawrence, it has been suggested that Malraux's sudden decision to abandon the Surrealist literary scene in Paris for adventure in the Far East was prompted by a desire to emulate Lawrence who began his career as an archaeologist in the Ottoman Empire excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Carchemish in the vilayet of Aleppo in what is now modern Syria.
As Lawrence had first made his reputation in the Near East digging up the ruins of an ancient civilization, it was only natural that Malraux should go to the Far East to make his reputation in Asia digging up ancient ruins. Lawrence considered himself a writer first and foremost while presenting himself as a man of action, the Nietzschean hero who triumphs over both the environment and men through the force of his will, a persona that Malraux consciously imitated. Malraux wrote about Lawrence, whom he described admiringly as a man with a need for "the absolute", for whom no compromises were possible and for whom going all the way was the only way. Along the same lines, Malraux argued that Lawrence should not be remembered as a guerrilla leader in the Arab Revolt and the British liaison officer with the Emir Faisal, but rather as a romantic, lyrical writer as writing was Lawrence's first passion, which described Malraux well. Although Malraux courted fame through his novels and essays on art in combination with his adventures and political activism, he was an intensely shy and private man who kept to himself, maintaining a distance between himself and others.
Malraux's reticence led his first wife Clara to say she knew him during their marriage. In 1923, aged 22, Malraux and Clara left for the French Protectorate of Cambodia. Angkor Wat is a huge 12th century Hindu temple situated in the old capital of the Khmer empire. Angkor was "the world's largest urban settlement" in the 11th and 12th centuries supported by an elaborate network of canals and roads across mainland Southeast Asia before decaying and falling into the jungle; the rediscovery of the ruins of Angkor Wat in the jungle by the French explorer Henri Mouhot in 1861 had given Cambodia a romantic reputation in France, as the home of the vast, mysterious ruins of the Khmer empire. Upon reaching Cambodia, Malraux and friend Louis Chevasson undertook an expedition into unexplored areas of the former imperial settlements in search of hidden temples, hoping to find artifacts and items that could be sold to art collectors and museums. At about the same time archaeologists, with the approval of the French government, were removing large numbers of items from Angkor - many of which
Authenticity in art
Authenticity in art is the different ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic. Denis Dutton distinguishes between nominal expressive authenticity; the first refers to the correct identification of the author of a work of art, to how a performance of a play or piece of music conforms to the author's intention, or to how a work of art conforms to an artistic tradition. The second sense refers to how much the work possesses original or inherent authority, how much sincerity, genuineness of expression, moral passion the artist or performer puts into the work. A quite different concern is the authenticity of the experience. A modern visitor to a museum may not only see an object in a different context from that which the artist intended, but may be unable to understand important aspects of the work; the authentic experience may be impossible to recapture. Authenticity is a requirement for inscription upon the UNESCO World Heritage List. According to the Nara Document on Authenticity, it can be expressed through ` design.
Authenticity of provenance means that the origin or authorship of a work of art has been identified. As Lionel Trilling points out in his 1972 book Sincerity and Authenticity, the question of authenticity of provenance has acquired a profoundly moral dimension. Regardless of the appearance of the object or the quality of workmanship, there is great importance in knowing whether a vase is a genuine Ming vase or just a clever forgery; this intense interest in authenticity is recent and is confined to the western world. In the medieval period, in countries such as modern Thailand, there was or is little interest in the identity of the artist; the case of Han van Meegeren is well known. After failing to succeed as an artist in his own right, he turned to creating fake Vermeer paintings; these were accepted as genuine by acclaimed as masterpieces. After being arrested for selling national treasures to the Germans, he caused a sensation when he publicly demonstrated that he was the artist. To guard against forgeries like this, a certificate of authenticity may be used to prove that a work of art is authentic, but there is a sizable market in fake certificates.
Furthermore a combination of art historical and technical evidence can be used to authenticate a work of art. The financial importance of authenticity may bias collectors to acquiring recent works of art where provenance can more be proven even by a statement from the artist. For older works, an sophisticated array of forensic techniques may be deployed to establish authenticity of provenance; the philosopher Nelson Goodman discusses at length the question raised by Aline B. Saarinen: "If a fake is so expert that after the most thorough and trustworthy examination its authenticity is still open to doubt, is it or is it not as satisfactory a work of art as if it were unequivocally genuine?" Goodman concludes that the question is academic, since there must be some way to distinguish a forgery from the original, once the forgery is known for what it is, that knowledge alters the perception of value. However, Arthur Koestler in The Act of Creation answers that if a forgery fits into an artist's body of work and produces the same kind of aesthetic pleasure as other works by that artist, there is no reason to exclude it from a museum.
The question of the value of a forgery may be irrelevant to a curator, since they are concerned only with the provenance of the work and not with its artistic merit. For the curator, in many cases provenance is a matter of probabilities rather than a certainty - absolute proof is not possible, but once a forgery has been exposed, no matter how the work was praised when it was thought to be "authentic" there is any interest in evaluating the work on its own merit. Reproduction is inherent to some forms of art. In Medieval Europe, an artist might create a drawing, used by another craftsman to create a woodcut block; the drawing was destroyed in the block-cutting process, the block was thrown away when it became worn out. The copies printed from the block are all. In a 1936 essay, Walter Benjamin discussed the new media of photography and film, in which the work of art can be reproduced many times with no one version being the authentic "original", he linked this shift from authentic objects to broadly accessible mass media with a transformation in the function of art from ritual to politics.
Modern art may raise new issues of authenticity of provenance. For example, the artist Duane Hanson instructed the conservators of his 1971 sculpture Sunbather to feel free to replace elements such as the bathing cap or swimsuit if they became faded; as Julian H. Scaff points out, the computer and the internet further confuse the issue of authenticity of provenance, since a digital work of art may exist in thousands or millions of identical versions, in variants where there is no way to determine the original version or the author. Authenticity of provenance is concerned with identifying the person who made the work, or at least pinning down the place and time in which the work was made as as possible. Cultural authenticity, or authenticity of style or tradition, is concerned with whether a work is a genuine expression of an artistic tradition when the author may be anonymous. Interest in this form of authenticity may be associated with a romantic sense of the value of the pure, unadulterated tradition linked to nationalistic and racist beliefs.
Chiaroscuro, in art, is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. It is a technical term used by artists and art historians for the use of contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects and figures. Similar effects in cinema and photography are called chiaroscuro. Further specialized uses of the term include chiaroscuro woodcut for coloured woodcuts printed with different blocks, each using a different coloured ink; the underlying principle is that solidity of form is best achieved by the light falling against it. Artists known for developing the technique include Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt, it is a mainstay of black and white and low-key photography. It is one of the modes of painting colour in Renaissance art. Artists well-known for their use of chiaroscuro include Rembrandt, Caravaggio and Goya; the term chiaroscuro originated during the Renaissance as drawing on coloured paper, where the artist worked from the paper's base tone toward light using white gouache, toward dark using ink, bodycolour or watercolour.
These in turn drew on traditions in illuminated manuscripts going back to late Roman Imperial manuscripts on purple-dyed vellum. Such works are called "chiaroscuro drawings", but may only be described in modern museum terminology by such formulae as "pen on prepared paper, heightened with white bodycolour". Chiaroscuro woodcuts began as imitations of this technique; when discussing Italian art, the term sometimes is used to mean painted images in monochrome or two colours, more known in English by the French equivalent, grisaille. The term broadened in meaning early on to cover all strong contrasts in illumination between light and dark areas in art, now the primary meaning; the more technical use of the term chiaroscuro is the effect of light modelling in painting, drawing, or printmaking, where three-dimensional volume is suggested by the value gradation of colour and the analytical division of light and shadow shapes—often called "shading". The invention of these effects in the West, "skiagraphia" or "shadow-painting" to the Ancient Greeks, traditionally was ascribed to the famous Athenian painter of the fifth century BC, Apollodoros.
Although few Ancient Greek paintings survive, their understanding of the effect of light modelling still may be seen in the late-fourth-century BC mosaics of Pella, Macedonia, in particular the Stag Hunt Mosaic, in the House of the Abduction of Helen, inscribed gnosis epoesen, or'knowledge did it'. The technique survived in rather crude standardized form in Byzantine art and was refined again in the Middle Ages to become standard by the early fifteenth-century in painting and manuscript illumination in Italy and Flanders, spread to all Western art. According to the theory of the art historian Marcia B. Hall, which has gained considerable acceptance, chiaroscuro is one of four modes of painting colours available to Italian High Renaissance painters, along with cangiante and unione; the Raphael painting illustrated, with light coming from the left, demonstrates both delicate modelling chiaroscuro to give volume to the body of the model, strong chiaroscuro in the more common sense, in the contrast between the well-lit model and the dark background of foliage.
To further complicate matters, the compositional chiaroscuro of the contrast between model and background would not be described using this term, as the two elements are completely separated. The term is used to describe compositions where at least some principal elements of the main composition show the transition between light and dark, as in the Baglioni and Geertgen tot Sint Jans paintings illustrated above and below. Chiaroscuro modelling is now taken for granted, but it has had some opponents, her Majesty... chose her place to sit for that purpose in the open alley of a goodly garden, where no tree was near, nor any shadow at all..."In drawings and prints, modelling chiaroscuro is achieved by the use of hatching, or shading by parallel lines. Washes, stipple or dotting effects, "surface tone" in printmaking are other techniques. Chiaroscuro woodcuts are old master prints in woodcut using two or more blocks printed in different colours, they were first produced to achieve similar effects to chiaroscuro drawings.
After some early experiments in book-printing, the true chiaroscuro woodcut conceived for two blocks was first invented by Lucas Cranach the Elder in Germany in 1508 or 1509, though he backdated some of his first prints and added tone blocks to some prints first produced for monochrome printing, swiftly followed by Hans Burgkmair the Elder. Despite Vasari's claim for Italian precedence in Ugo da Carpi, it is clear that his, the first Italian examples, date to around 1516 But other sources suggest, the first chiaroscuro woodcut to be the Triumph of Julius Caesar, created by Andrea Mantegna, an Italian painter, between 1470 and 1500. Another view states that: "Lucas Cranach backdated two of his works in an attempt to grab the glory" and that the technique was invented "in all probability" by Burgkmair "who was commissioned by the emperor Maximilian to find a c