The term die-cast toy here refers to any toy or collectible model produced by using the die casting method of putting molten lead or zinc alloy in a mold to produce a particular shape. Such toys are made of metal, with plastic, glass, or other machined metal parts. Wholly plastic toys are made by a similar process of injection moulding, but the two methods are distinct because of the properties of the materials; the metal used in die-casting is either a lead alloy, or more Zamak, an alloy of zinc with small quantities of aluminium and copper. Lead or iron are impurities that must be avoided in Zamac, as they give rise to a deterioration of the metal most called zinc pest; the terms white metal or pot metal are used when applied to alloys based more on lead or iron. The most common die-cast vehicles are scale models of automobiles, military vehicles, construction equipment, trains, although anything can be produced by this method, like Monopoly game pieces, furniture handles, or metal garden sprinklers.
Diecast toys were first produced early in the 20th century by manufacturers such as Meccano in the United Kingdom, Dowst Brothers in the United States and Fonderie de précision de Nanterre in France. The first models on the market were basic. In the early days, as mentioned, it was common for impurities in the alloy to result in zinc pest, the casting would distort, crack, or crumble; as a result, diecast toys made. The high-purity Zamak alloy avoided this problem. Lesney began making diecast toys in 1947, their popular Matchbox 1-75 series was so named because there were always 75 different vehicles in the line, each packaged in a small box designed to look like those used for matches. These toys became so popular that the "Matchbox" became used as a generic term for any diecast toy car, regardless of manufacturer; the popularity of diecast toys developed through the 1950s as their detail and quality increased. More companies entered the field, including successful brands like Corgi brand, produced by Mettoy, Italian Mercury, Danish Tekno, or German Schuco and Gama Toys.
Corgi Toys pioneered the use of interiors and windows in their models. In 1968, Hot Wheels were introduced in the United States by Mattel to address the complaint that they had no line of toys for boys to balance their line of Barbie dolls for girls; because they looked fast and were fast, Hot Wheels became the most popular diecast cars in the toy market, becoming one of the world's top sellers, challenging the popularity of Matchbox. Since 2009, the Diecast Hall of Fame inducts designers, industry executives and others that have made major contributions to the industry. Although advertising had been used by Meccano since 1934, during the 1960s new companies began to use diecast vehicles as promotional items; the idea that children play a large role in a family's purchasing decisions was key. There is the fact that children grown up to buy products that they were exposed to when young. Matchbox vehicles mildly advertised a variety of British products like Singer sewing machines, Tetley tea, Pickford's movers, or Coca-Cola.
As time passed, companies such as McDonald's, Sears Roebuck and Texaco commissioned toymakers to produce promotional models featuring their names and logos or licensed their use. One early example was an American Airlines London bus produced by Matchbox, an idea some other airlines copied. Beginning in the mid 1970s, trucks and other commercial vehicles grew in popularity. Matchbox started the trend, they made a score of different versions of their Y-12 Ford Model T van, along with other trucks in colorful liveries such as Coca-Cola, Colman's Mustard, Cerebos Salt. They made promotional versions for Smith's Crisps and Harrods department store; some models were made for certain markets and became quite expensive elsewhere: Arnott's Biscuits and Sunlight Seife are examples. Corgi copied this idea when they expanded the Corgi Classics line in the mid-1980s, producing more than 50 versions of a 1920s era Thornycroft van. Corgi produced hundreds of versions of their 1/64 scale Routemaster bus in the 1980s and 1990s.
Multitudes of versions were made to be sold in the stores advertised on the bus flanks. Harrods, Gamley's, Hamley's, Army & Navy, Underwood's, Beatties were among the British stores employing this idea. A South African chain called. Many collectors took pleasure in the variety, but some disparaged the development as "collecting paint" as the castings were identical. In any event, it was a great cost saving measure as companies put less money into expensive casting tooling. So, by the 1980s a new trend had solidified as many diecast vehicles were now being purchased by adults as collectibles, not just as toys for children. Aluminium die. Despite their popularity, many diecast manufacturers went belly-up in the 1980s. Meccano and Corgi all went bankrupt within a three-year span which reflected the economic climate in the UK at that time, it had become impossible to manufacture in England and compete on the world market. Matchbox wa
Wawa is an unincorporated community located in Delaware County, in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania in Greater Philadelphia in Middletown Township and in Chester Heights Borough. In the 1700s people from Philadelphia and New Jersey settled Wawa due to the community's abundance of water. Various mills, including gristmills and paper mills, opened on area creeks. Wawa was known as Pennellton and Grubb's Bridge; when Edward Worth built an estate here, he named it "Wawa", the Ojibwe word for "wild goose", because of the flocks of geese attracted to the still water behind Lenni milldam. The name had been transferred to the town by 1884. Forge Hill was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 7, 1973. Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer said in 1989 that there was "the indignity of being from a town now associated with convenience store. Unlike, Hershey, Pa. - or Wawa's cherished dairying past - outsiders now tend to associate Wawa with Chee-tos, emergency toilet paper errands and Super Squeezers."Eight weeks before June 15, 1989, Wawa Inc. announced that it planned to expand its Wawa dairy, located in Middletown Township.
Walter Kirby, head of the Wawa Farms Association, alerted residents of the Wawa community, they appeared in large numbers at a meeting. Kirby said that residents did not want the dairy to expand, but they preferred having a dairy to other types of development. Wawa is located in Delaware County, Pennsylvania in Middletown Township and in Chester Heights Borough. Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer said that Wawa "doesn't bother to conveniently contain itself within either municipality" because the community predates that of the county and both municipalities; as of 1989 Wawa has several open fields, various estates, the Wawa Inc. corporate headquarters, what Mayer said was "what may be the last dairy farm in Delaware County." Mayer said that the dairy "gives Wawa its flavor" and, in 1989, it "both preserves Wawa as a neighborhood and threatens it, according to some residents."Baltimore Pike splits Wawa into east and west sections. As of 1989, according to Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer, "traffic clogs" Baltimore Pike.
Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer said that open land "characterizes" the community and that Wawa overall is "quite beautiful." She attributed the overall aesthetic to the Wawa Inc. dairy and the Wood family, which had a long history with the Wawa company. The houses within Wawa are stone houses erected in the 18th century; some houses are 19th century wooden houses. Mayer said that the roads, such as Valley Road and Wawa Road "are narrow and winding and take you through dappled woods, only interrupted by a house." Mayer said that many residents lived on acres occupied by Wawa farmland. In 1989 Walter Kirby, the head of the Wawa Farms Association, recalled that the Wawa dairy began selling 5-acre lots of what was its farmland beginning in 1940. In 1989 Kirby said, as paraphrased by Mayer, that "Wawa residents are both grateful to the dairy and wary of its success" because they "realize Wawa has remained a pocket of green space because the Wood family owns so much land." In 1989 Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer said that "In fact, the most remarkable thing about Wawa is that no one can agree on where it is, really.
It is a place where a lot of people would like to live, so a lot say they do. But ask them where the boundaries of Wawa are, well...." W. Bruce Clark, the manager of Middletown Township, said that "No one's drawn a line on a map saying this is where Wawa begins and ends." Fritz Schroeder, the vice president of Wawa Inc. and a resident of Wawa, said "Wawa is a state of mind. If you want to be in Wawa, you can be in Wawa." In 1989 Mayer said that many residents, including Walter Kirby, the head of the Wawa Farms Association, said that because they lived on land occupied by cows, they lived in Wawa. According to Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer, as of 1989, population estimates ranged from five families to 265 families. Mayer said that "one longtime resident on Wawa Road" estimated that it was five families, while 68-year-old Walter Kirby, the head of the Wawa Farms Association, estimated that it was 265 families; the Wawa train station and junction served the Pennsylvania Railroad's three branch lines: West Chester Branch, now the SEPTA Media/Elwyn Line, Currently inactive west of Elwyn, but plans are in place to restore service west to a new park-and-ride facility in Wawa.
Chester Creek Branch. PRR's successor Penn Central ended train service in 1971, following damage to the line from severe storms in both 1971 and 1972. SEPTA owns the right-of-way, the railroad bed is to be converted into a paved trail. Octoraro Branch. Penn Central ended service in 1971 between Wawa and Chadds Ford, following damage to the line from the same severe storms described above. SEPTA owns the right-of-way and leases the section south of Chadds Ford to short-line freight railroads; the SEPTA rail service to Wawa ended in September 1986. Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer said that resulted in "a meaningless station stop sign at the end of a flooded dirt road." The headquarters of Wawa Food Markets is located in the portion of Wawa in Chester Heights. As of 2011 about 300 employees work in the headquarters; the Borough of Chester Heights receives a majority of its local services tax from employees of Wawa Inc. The previous Franklin Mint site was in Middletown Township. Cynthia Mayer of the Philadelphia Inquirer said in 1989 that "Some people say is home to the Franklin Mint, but the mint has named its immediate environs Franklin Center - a slap in the face to Wawa but mint off
Warner Media, LLC, doing business as WarnerMedia, is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate owned by AT&T and headquartered in New York City. It was formed in 1990 as Time Warner Inc. from the merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications. The company has film, television and publishing operations, consists of the assets of the former Warner Communications, HBO, Turner Broadcasting System, its assets include Warner Bros. WarnerMedia Entertainment and WarnerMedia News & Sports, as well as a 10% ownership stake in Hulu. On October 22, 2016, AT&T announced an offer to acquire Time Warner for $108.7 billion. The proposed merger was confirmed on June 12, 2018, after AT&T won an antitrust lawsuit that the U. S. Justice Department filed in 2017 to attempt to block the acquisition; the merger closed two days with the company becoming a subsidiary of AT&T. Despite spinning off Time Inc. in 2014, the company retained the Time Warner name until AT&T's acquisition in 2018. The company's previous assets included Time Inc.
AOL, Time Warner Cable, Warner Books, Warner Music Group. The company ranked No. 98 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Time magazine, the first weekly news magazine in the United States, debuted in 1923. Four years in 1927, Warner Bros. released the world's first feature-length talking picture, The Jazz Singer. In 1963, recommendations from Time Inc. based on how it delivered magazines led to the introduction of ZIP codes by the United States Post Office. In 1972, Kinney National Company spun off its non-entertainment assets due to a financial scandal over its parking operations, renamed itself Warner Communications Inc, it was the holding company for Warner Bros. Pictures and Warner Music Group during the 1970s and 1980s, it owned DC Comics and Mad, as well as a majority stake in Garden State National Bank. Warner's initial divestiture efforts led by Garden State CEO Charles A. Agemian were blocked by Garden State board member William A. Conway in 1978.
In 1975, Home Box Office became the first TV network to broadcast nationally via satellite, debuting with the "Thrilla in Manila" boxing match between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. In 1975, Warner expanded under the guidance of CEO Steve Ross, formed a joint venture with American Express, named Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, which held cable channels including MTV, The Movie Channel. Warner Bros. bought out American Express's half in 1984, sold the venture a year to Viacom, which renamed it MTV Networks. In 1976, the Turner–owned WTCG originated the "superstation" concept, transmitting via satellite to cable systems nationwide and pioneering the basic cable business model. WTCG was renamed WTBS in 1979. In 1976, Nolan Bushnell sold Inc. to Warner Communications for an estimated $2 -- 12 million. Warner made considerable profits with Atari, which it owned from 1976 to 1984. While part of Warner, Atari achieved its greatest success, selling millions of Atari 2600s and computers. At its peak, Atari accounted for a third of Warner's annual income, was the fastest-growing company in the history of the United States at the time.
In 1980, Warner purchased The Franklin Mint for about $225 million. The combination was short lived: Warner sold The Franklin Mint in 1985 to American Protection Industries Inc. for $167.5 million. However, Warner retained Franklin Mint's Eastern Mountain Sports as well as The Franklin Mint Center, which it leased back to API. In 1980, Turner launched CNN, the first 24-hour all-news network, redefining the way the world received breaking news. In January 1983, Warner expanded their interests to baseball. Under the direction of Caesar P. Kimmel, executive vice-president, bought 48 percent of the Pittsburgh Pirates for $10 million; the company put up its share for sale in November 1984 following losses of $6 million due to its failed attempt to launch a cable sports package. The team's majority owner, John W. Galbreath, soon followed suit after learning of Warner's actions. Both Galbreath and Warner sold the Pirates to local investors in March 1986. In 1984, due to major losses spurred by subsidiary Atari Inc.'s losses, Warner sold Atari Inc.'s Consumer Division assets to Jack Tramiel.
It kept the rest of the company and named it Atari Games reducing it to just the Coin Division. They sold Atari Games to Namco in 1985, repurchased it in 1992, renaming it Time Warner Interactive, until it was sold to Midway Games in 1996. In a long-expected deal, Warner Communications acquired Lorimar-Telepictures. Plans to merge Time Inc. and Warner Communications were made public on March 4, 1989. During the summer of that same year, Paramount Communications launched a $12.2 billion hostile bid to acquire Time, Inc. in an attempt to end a stock-swap merge
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps. Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88; the B-17 was employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central and southern England, the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944.
The B-17 participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields. From its prewar inception, the USAAC promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon, it developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U. S. aircraft in World War II. Of the 1.5 million tonnes of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U. S. aircraft, 640,000 tonnes were dropped from B-17s. In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, search-and-rescue aircraft; as of May 2015, 10 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were flown in combat. Dozens more are on static display; the oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Caribbean. On 8 August 1934, the USAAC tendered a proposal for a multiengine bomber to replace the Martin B-10.
The Air Corps was looking for a bomber capable of reinforcing the air forces in Hawaii and Alaska. Requirements were for it to carry a "useful bombload" at an altitude of 10,000 ft for 10 hours with a top speed of at least 200 mph, they desired, but did not require, a range of 2,000 mi and a speed of 250 mph. The competition for the air corps contract was to be decided by a "fly-off" between Boeing's design, the Douglas DB-1, the Martin Model 146 at Wilbur Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio; the prototype B-17, with the Boeing factory designation of Model 299, was designed by a team of engineers led by E. Gifford Emery and Edward Curtis Wells, was built at Boeing's own expense, it combined features of 247 transport. The B-17's armament consisted of five.30 caliber machine guns, with a payload up to 4,800 lb of bombs on two racks in the bomb bay behind the cockpit. The aircraft was powered by four Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, each producing 750 hp at 7,000 ft; the first flight of the Model 299 was on 28 July 1935 with Boeing chief test pilot Leslie Tower at the controls.
The day before, Richard Williams, a reporter for The Seattle Times, coined the name "Flying Fortress" when – observing the large number of machine guns sticking out from the new airplane – he described it as a "15-ton flying fortress" in a picture caption. The most unusual mount was in the nose, which allowed the single machine gun to be fired toward any frontal angle. Boeing had it trademarked for use. Boeing claimed in some of the early press releases that Model 299 was the first combat aircraft that could continue its mission if one of its four engines failed. On 20 August 1935, the prototype flew from Seattle to Wright Field in nine hours and three minutes with an average cruising speed of 252 miles per hour, much faster than the competition. At the fly-off, the four-engined Boeing's performance was superior to those of the twin-engined DB-1 and Model 146. Major General Frank Maxwell Andrews of the GHQ Air Force believed that the capabilities of large four-engined aircraft exceeded those of shorter-ranged, twin-engined aircraft, that the B-17 was better suited to new, emerging USAAC doctrine.
His opinions were shared by the air corps procurement officers, before the competition had finished, they suggested buying 65 B-17s. Development continued on the Boeing Model 299, on 30 October 1935, Army Air Corps test pilot Major Ployer Peter Hill and Boeing employee Les Tower took the Model 299 on a second evaluation flight; the crew forgot to disengage the "gust locks", which locked control surfaces in place while the aircraft was parked on the ground, after takeoff, the aircraft entered a steep climb, nosed over, crashed, killing Hill and Tower. The crashed Model 299 could not finish the evaluation. While the air corps was still enthusiastic about the aircraft's potential, army officials were daunted by its cost. Army Chief of Staff Malin Craig cancelled the order for 65 YB-17s, ordered 133 of the twin-engined Douglas B-18 Bol
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
Book design is the art of incorporating the content, format and sequence of the various components and elements of a book into a coherent unit. In the words of the renowned typographer Jan Tschichold, book design, "though forgotten today and rules upon which it is impossible to improve, have been developed over centuries. To produce perfect books, these rules have to be brought back to life and applied". Richard Hendel describes book design as "an arcane subject", refers to the need for a context to understand what that means. Modern books are paginated consecutively, all pages are counted in the pagination whether or not the numbers appear; the page number, or folio, is most found at the top of the page, flush left verso, flush right recto. The folio may be printed at the bottom of the page, in that location it is called a drop folio. Drop folios appear either centered on each page or flush left verso and flush right recto. Front matter comprises the first section of a book, is the smallest section in terms of the number of pages.
Front-matter pages are traditionally numbered in lower-case Roman numerals, which prevents renumbering the remainder of a book when front-matter content is added at the last moment, such as a dedication page or additional acknowledgments. Page number is omitted on blank pages and display pages, it is either omitted or a drop folio is used on the opening page of each section of the front matter. Front matter appears only in the first of a multi-volume work, although some elements may appear in each volume; the following table defines some common types of front matter, the "voice" in which each can be said to be given: The structure of a work—and of its body matter—is described hierarchically. Volumes A volume is a set of leaves bound together, thus each work is divided into volumes. Books and parts Single-volume works account for most of the non-academic consumer market in books. A single volume may embody either the whole of a book. Chapters and sections A chapter or section may be contained within a book.
When both chapters and sections are used in the same work, the sections are more contained within chapters than the reverse. Modules and units In some books the chapters are grouped into bigger parts, sometimes called modules; the numbering of the chapters can begin again at the start of every module. In educational books the chapters are called units; the first page of the actual text of a book is the opening page, which incorporates special design features, such as initials. Arabic numbering starts at this first page. If the text is introduced by a second half title or opens with a part title, the half title or part title counts as page one; as in the front matter, page numbers are omitted on blank pages, are either omitted or a drop folio is used on the opening page of each part and chapter. On pages containing only illustrations or tables, page numbers are omitted, except in the case of a long sequence of figures or tables; the following are two instructive examples: The Lord of the Rings has three parts, with each part containing two books, each containing, in turn, multiple chapters.
The Christian Bible comprises two "testaments". In turn, each book contains multiple chapters, which are traditionally divided into "verses" each containing one independent clause; the back matter known as end matter, if used consists of one or more of the following components: Arabic numbering continues for the back matter. The front cover is the front of the book, is marked appropriately by text or graphics in order to identify it as such; the front cover contains at least the title or author, with an appropriate illustration. On the inside of the cover page, extending to the facing page is the front endpaper sometimes referred as FEP; the free half of the end paper is called a flyleaf. Traditionally, in hand-bound books, the endpaper was just a sheet of blank or ornamented paper physically masking and reinforcing the connection between the cover and the body of the book. In modern publishing it can be either plain, as in many text-oriented books, or variously ornamented and illustrated in books such as picture books, other children's literature, some arts and craft and hobbyist books, novelty/gift-market and coffee table books, graphic novels.
These books have an audience and traditions of their own where the graphic design and immediacy is important and publishing tradition and formality are less important. The spine is the vertical edge of a book as it stands on a bookshelf, it is customary for it to have printed text on it. In texts published or printed in the United States and the United Kingdom, the spine text, when vertical, runs from the top to the bottom, such that it is right side up when the book is lying flat with the front cover on top. In books from continental Europe, vertical spine text traditionally runs from the bottom up, th