The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
St. Lawrence Market
St. Lawrence Market is a major public market in Toronto, Canada, it is located at Front St. East and Jarvis St in the Old Town district of Toronto; until 2015 there were two buildings in the complex, with different purposes. Until it was demolished to make way for redevelopment, St. Lawrence Market North, on the north side of Front St, hosted weekly farmer's markets and antique markets. A public market had been held on the north building site since 1803. Several buildings housed the market, the most recent built in 1968. Starting in 2015, the North building has shut to allow for redevelopment. While the North site is redeveloped, its market functions have moved to south of the South building in a temporary building. St. Lawrence Market South, on the south side of Front St, is open Tuesday to Saturday, featuring food stalls and the St. Lawrence Market Gallery; the South building dates to 1845, has been rebuilt twice, still incorporates a section of its original building, used as Toronto City Hall from 1845.
St. Lawrence Hall is an event and office building on King at Jarvis, built in 1850. St. Lawrence Market was named the world's best food market by National Geographic in April 2012. By 1803, the population in York, Upper Canada had increased to the point where a public market was needed. Upper Canada Lt. Governor Peter Hunter established a weekly market day and designated an area, his proclamation appeared in the November 3, 1803 issue of The Upper Canada Gazette saying, “Whereas great prejudice hath arisen to the inhabitants of the town and township of York and of other adjoining townships from no place or day having been set apart for exposing publicly for sale, sheep and other provisions and merchandise brought by merchants and others for the necessary supply of the town of York and whereas great benefit and advantage might be derived to the inhabitants and others by establishing a weekly market at a place and on a day certain for the purpose aforesaid. The market square was the center of the city's social life where auctions took place and public punishments were carried out.
In the earliest days of the town, when slavery was still legal, this included auctions of black slaves. Town bylaws prohibited the selling of butter, fish, meat and vegetables between the hours of 6am and 4pm on Saturdays, except at the market; the first market building, a temporary shelter, 24 feet by 36 feet was built in 1814. The first permanent structure was built in 1820. In 1823, the town's first public well was dug on the property. In 1831, the wooden market building was torn down and a quadrangular brick building with arched entrances at the sides was built; the building's office space served as temporary home to City Council until 1845. This building was used until the 1849 Toronto Great Fire destroyed the northern side of the building and it was torn down. After the fire, St. Lawrence Hall was built, along with a new market building between Front; the market building was replaced in 1904 and 1968. The present St. Lawrence Market South building was built in 1845 as Toronto City Hall and was rebuilt in 1850 and 1904 and renovated in 1972.
A canopy was built between the north and south buildings and this was torn down in the 1950s. The most recent St. Lawrence Market North was a single floor building built in 1968, replacing the 1904 complex, designed to mimic the South Market, it was demolished in 2015 and a new building will be built at the same site. A temporary farmer's market is located in the parking lot south of the South Market. In the nineteenth century, Toronto had three public markets named after the wards within which they were located. St. Lawrence Market, founded in 1803, was the first, St. Patrick's Market at 238 Queen Street West was the second, created in 1836, still exists in the form of an organic food court within its current building, constructed in 1912, St. Andrew's Market on the block between Richmond, Adelaide and Maud streets was built in 1850 and is now a park; the City of Toronto is now proceeding with another market building on the site of the North building. A new four-storey building with atrium is to replace the 1968 North building.
The farmer's market has relocated to 125 The Esplanade, just south of the South building. Foundations of the 1831, 1851 and 1904 North Market buildings were found below the floor of the 1968 building. St. Lawrence, Toronto Hounsom, Eric Wilfrid. Toronto in 1810. Toronto: Ryerson Press. ISBN 978-0770003111. Notes Photo Essay from St. Lawrence Market Toronto's Marvellous Markets, ca. 1970s, Archives of Ontario YouTube Channel
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada and both short-form names are commonly used in the applicable language to refer to the corporation as a whole. Although some local stations in Canada predate CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada, first established in its present form on November 2, 1936. Radio services include CBC Radio One, CBC Music, Ici Radio-Canada Première, Ici Musique. Television operations include CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV; the CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord. The CBC operates digital services including CBC.ca/Ici. Radio-Canada.ca, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ICI.mu and Ici.
TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.
In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.
Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.
On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was started in Yellowknife in May 1967, the second in Whitehorse in No
Boot to the Head
Boot to the Head is a comedy album, performed by The Frantics Canadian comedy troupe. Released as an LP in 1987, it was re-issued in 1996 as a CD with the same track listing; the album features a number of skits from their radio show Frantic Times, as well as a few sketches that could not be aired to a general audience. The sketches were recorded over a three-day period in front of a live audience at the Toronto Free Theatre. Paul Chato Rick Green Dan Redican Peter Wildman "A Piece of Pie" – 4:33 "I Shot Bambi's Mother" – 1:20 "Driving Chicks Mad" – 3:23 "A Poem" – 0:35 "Game Show, Game Show" – 2:02 "Bill from Bala" – 4:42 "A Poem" – 3:11 "Architecture Today" – 3:11 "Mrs. G" – 2:24 "Worshippers'R' Us" – 4:05 "You People Are Fat" – 3:32 "Making Love" – 2:14 "A Poem" – 1:12 "Make Up Dirty Words" – 1:58 "You Scare the **** Out Of Me" – 2:53 "Ti Kwan Leep" – 4:52 "Boot to the Head" – 1:36"Ti Kwan Leep" is one of the most famous skits from this album, followed by the title song "Boot to the Head".
These are both played on the Doctor Demento radio show. In the skit, there is a conversation between Ed Gruberman and a martial arts master over the relative merits of harmonious Eastern philosophy versus "trashing bozos"; this soon devolves into an all-out brawl. The song recites a long litany of people doing idiotic things, recommending that we "Give them a boot to the head!" However, their iconic phrase became famous three years earlier in "Last Will and Temperament" from their Frantic Times album. Several of the other skits are considered to be classics, such as "A Piece Of Pie", "You Scare The **** Out Of Me", which have appeared in the troupe's shows after their reunion in 2004 and 2005; the former skit involves a man who confides to his friend that he has just excreted a whole, well-formed piece of pie, the latter is a self-explanatory song. Neither skit could have been aired on their long-running CBC radio show. Despite the resemblance, Frantics member Paul Chato claims the person getting his head booted on the cover is not supposed to be him.
Albums listings on The Frantics official Web site Frantics Discography The full text and MP3 of "Ti Kwan Leep" skit
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
TVOntario is a Canadian publicly funded English language educational television station and media organization serving the Canadian province of Ontario. It is operated by the Ontario Educational Communications Authority, a Crown corporation owned by the Government of Ontario, it operates two television stations: CICA-DT in CICO-DT-24 in Ottawa. These two stations relay their programming across portions of Ontario through seven rebroadcast stations, it is available on pay television providers throughout Ontario, all providers in the province are required to carry it on their basic tier, programming can be streamed online. TVO is governed by a volunteer Board of Directors, supported by a network of Regional Councillors from across the province. TVO reports to the Ontario legislature through the Minister of Education, in accordance with the Ontario Educational Communications Authority Act. Instead of following the model of the federally owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's television services, which shows commercial advertisements, TVO chose a commercial-free model similar to the Public Broadcasting Service in the United States.
This model was emulated by provincial educational broadcasters Télé-Québec in Quebec and Knowledge Network in British Columbia. The majority of TVO's funding is provided by the Government of Ontario through the Ministry of Education, which provides $39 million annually, with additional funding provided by charitable donations and corporate partners. TVO is responsible for over-the-air broadcasts of the Ontario Legislative Assembly in some remote Northern Ontario communities that do not receive cable television access to the Ontario Parliament Network. In 2002, the Ministry of Education transferred responsibility to TVO for the Independent Learning Centre, which provides distance education at the elementary and secondary school level. TVO used to operate a separate but similar network for Franco-Ontarian audiences. Before the launch of TFO, TVO aired French-language programming on Sundays. After TFO's launch, TVO and TFO swapped programming on Sundays well into the 1990s. TFO was separated from TVO and was incorporated under the newly formed GroupeMédia TFO, a separate Crown corporation of the Government of Ontario, in 2007.
TVO is Canada's oldest educational television service. It established the country's first UHF television station based in Toronto. TVO used to have the largest over-the-air coverage in Ontario, reaching 98.5% of the province with 216 transmitters. TVO is carried on all cable systems serving Ontario. On satellite systems in Ontario, it is available in standard definition only on Bell TV on channel 265 and on Shaw Direct on 353 or 55, in high definition on channel 39 or 539; the main transmitter in Toronto uses the call sign CICA, with its rebroadcasters using CICO followed by a number to denote their status as rebroadcasters. Many analogue transmitters used CICA-TV and CICO-TV callsigns, in addition to CICE-TV, until the shutdown of TVO's remaining analogue transmitters on July 31, 2012. TVO's transmitters are located in Ontario, with the only exception being its Ottawa transmitter, CICO-DT-24, based at Camp Fortune in Chelsea, Quebec. There, it shares its site with its Quebec counterpart, Télé-Québec, with most of the region's television and FM radio signals.
From the 1970s through the 1990s, TVO ran top-of-the-hour bumpers where an announcer would mention the channel allocation of the service's flagship station in Toronto, along with an allocation for one of its rebroadcast transmitters: "This is TVOntario. Channel 19 in Toronto, channel XX in." TVO announced plans in 2017 to decommission its transmitters in Ottawa, Chatham, Kitchener, Thunder Bay and Windsor – keeping only CICA-DT in Toronto to fulfill license criteria – in an effort to cut costs by $1 million. Following negative reactions from TVO viewers and donors, the towns and cities affected, advocacy groups such as Friends of Canadian Broadcasting the decision was reversed and the Government of Ontario agreed to increase its funding of TVO by $1 million. On June 6, 2012, TVO dropped its signal from cable and satellite providers outside Ontario, due to a carriage dispute over compensation for distributing its signal to its subscribers outside the province; the network reached an agreement with Vidéotron, entered negotiations with Shaw Communications and Telus, but failed to reach an agreement with Bell Canada.
TVO cited that: "...we believe that we have a responsibility to earn revenues from the sale of our service outside of our home province. TVO is willing to consent to cable and satellite distributors carrying our signal outside the province, provided that we're compensated. Since cable or satellite distributors receive subscriber revenues driven by having TVO as part of their offering, we feel it's reasonable to be compensated. We could not come to an agreement with Bell to compensate TVO for carrying our signal outside of Ontario, the decision was made to cease offering our signal outside of Ontario." As a result, the only cable
Tom Swift is the main character of five series of American juvenile science fiction and adventure novels that emphasize science and technology. First published in 1910, the series total more than 100 volumes; the character was created by Edward Stratemeyer, the founder of the Stratemeyer Syndicate, a book-packaging firm. Tom's adventures have been written beginning with Howard Garis. Most of the books are credited to the collective pseudonym "Victor Appleton"; the 33 volumes of the second series use the pseudonym Victor Appleton II for the author. For this series, some of the series, the main character is "Tom Swift, Jr." New titles have been published as as 2007. Most of the various series emphasized Tom's inventions; the books describe the effects of science and technology as wholly beneficial, the role of the inventor in society as admirable and heroic. Translated into many languages, the books have sold more than 30 million copies worldwide. Tom Swift has been the subject of a board game and several attempted adaptations into other media.
Tom Swift has been cited as an inspiration by various inventors. In his various incarnations, Tom Swift a teenager, is inventive and science-minded, "Swift by name and swift by nature." Tom is portrayed as a natural genius. In the earlier series, he is said to have had little formal education, the character modeled after such inventors as Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss. For most of the five series, each book concerns Tom's latest invention, its role either in solving a problem or mystery, or in assisting Tom in feats of exploration or rescue. Tom must protect his new invention from villains "intent on stealing Tom's thunder or preventing his success," but Tom is always successful in the end. Many of Tom Swift's fictional inventions describe actual technological developments or predate technologies now considered commonplace. Tom Swift Among the Diamond Makers was based on Charles Parsons's attempts to synthesize diamonds using electric current. Tom Swift and His Photo Telephone was published in 1912.
Sending photographs by telephone was not developed until 1925. Tom Swift and His Wizard Camera features a portable movie camera, not invented until 1923. Tom Swift and His Electric Locomotive was published two years before the Central Railroad of New Jersey began using the first diesel electric locomotive; the house on wheels that Tom invents for 1929's Tom Swift and His House on Wheels pre-dated the first house trailer by a year. Tom Swift and His Diving Seacopter features a flying submarine similar to one planned by the United States Department of Defense four years in 1956. Other inventions of Tom's have not happened, such as the device for silencing airplane engines that he invents in Tom Swift and His Magnetic Silencer; the character of Tom Swift was conceived about 1910 by Edward Stratemeyer, founder of the Stratemeyer Syndicate, a book-packaging business, although the name "Tom Swift" was first used in 1903 by Stratemeyer in Shorthand Tom the Reporter. Stratemeyer invented the series to capitalize on the market for children's science adventures.
The Syndicate's authors created the Tom Swift stories by first preparing an outline with the plot elements, followed by drafting and editing the detailed manuscript. The books were published using the house pseudonym "Victor Appleton". Edward Stratemeyer and Howard Garis wrote most of the volumes of the original series; the first Tom Swift series ended in 1941. In 1954, Harriet Adams created the Tom Swift, Jr. series, published using the pseudonym "Victor Appleton II" as author. The main character Tom Swift, was described as the son of the original Tom Swift. Most of the stories plotted by Adams; the texts were written by various writers, among them William Dougherty, John Almquist, Richard Sklar, James Duncan Lawrence, Tom Mulvey and Richard McKenna. The Tom Swift, Jr. series ended in 1971. A third series was begun in 1981 and lasted until 1984; the rights to the Tom Swift character, along with the Stratemeyer Syndicate, were sold in 1984 to publishers Simon & Schuster. They hired New York City book packaging business Mega-Books.
Simon & Schuster produced two other Tom Swift series: one, published from 1991 to 1993, the Tom Swift, Young Inventor series, begun in 2006. The longest-running series of books to feature Tom Swift is the first, which consists of forty volumes. Tom's son was the name of the protagonist of the 33 volumes of the Tom Swift, Jr. Adventures, the 11 volumes of the third Tom Swift series, the 13 volumes of the fourth, a half-dozen more for the most recent series, Tom Swift, Young Inventor, for a total of 103 volumes for all the series. In addition to publication in the United States, Tom Swift books have been published extensively in England, translated into Norwegian, French and Finnish. In the original series, Tom Swift lives in New York, he is the son of the founder of the Swift Construction Company. Tom's mother is deceased. Tom shares his adventures with close friend Ned Newton, who becomes the Swift Construction Company's financial manager. For most of the series, Tom dates Mary Nestor, it has been suggested that his eventual marriage to Mary led to the series' demise, as young boys found a married man harder to identify with than a young, single one.