Free software movement
Although drawing on traditions and philosophies among members of the 1970s hacker culture and academia, Richard Stallman formally founded the movement in 1983 by launching the GNU Project. Stallman established the Free Software Foundation in 1985 to support the movement, the philosophy of the movement is that the use of computers should not lead to people being prevented from cooperating with each other. Stallman notes that this action will promote rather than hinder the progression of technology and this effort can go instead into advancing the state of the art. Members of the free software movement believe that all users of software should have the freedoms listed in The Free Software Definition, while social change may occur as an unintended by-product of technological change, advocates of new technologies often have promoted them as instruments of positive social change. This quote by San Jose State professor Joel West explains much of the philosophy, if it is assumed that social change is not only affected, but in some points of view, directed by the advancement of technology, is it ethical to hold these technologies from certain people.
If not to make a change, this movement is in place to raise awareness about the effects that take place because of the physical things around us. A computer, for instance, allows us so many more freedoms than we have without a computer, the debate over the morality of both sides to the free software movement is a difficult topic to compromise respective opposition. Within the free movement, the FLOSS Manuals foundation specialises on the goal of providing such documentation. Members of the free software movement advocate that works which serve a practical purpose should be free, the core work of the free software movement focused on software development. The free software movement rejects proprietary software, refusing to install software that does not give them the freedoms of free software, some supporters of the free software movement take up public speaking, or host a stall at software-related conferences to raise awareness of software freedom. The ideas sparked by the GNU associates are an attempt to promote an environment that understands the benefits of having a local community. A lot of lobbying work has been done against software patents, other lobbying focusses directly on use of free software by government agencies and government-funded projects.
The Venezuelan government implemented a free software law in January 2006, decree No.3,390 mandated all government agencies to migrate to free software over a two-year period. Congressmen Edgar David Villanueva and Jacques Rodrich Ackerman have been instrumental in introducing free software in Peru, the incident invited the attention of got Microsoft Inc, whose general manager wrote a letter to Villanueva. His response received worldwide attention and is seen as a piece of argumentation favouring use of free software in governments. In the United States, there have been efforts to pass legislation at the state level encouraging use of software by state government agencies. Like many social movements, the free movement has ongoing internal conflict between the many FOSS organizations and their personalities. For instance there is disagreement about the amount of compromises and pragmatism needed versus the need for strict adherence to values, after this Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens founded the Open Source Initiative, to promote the term open source software as an alternative term for free software
Free and open-source graphics device driver
They may control output to the display, if the display driver is part of the graphics hardware. Most free and open-source graphics device drivers are developed via the Mesa project, such a software stack comprises some compiler, some implementation of some rendering API, and finally some software, that manages access to the graphics hardware. All hardware developers provide device drivers for their products over a range of operating systems, drivers without freely available source code are commonly referred to as binary drivers. Binary drivers used in the context of operating systems that are prone to ongoing development and change, such as Linux and these problems affect system stability, overall system security, and performance and are the main reason for the independent development of free and open-source drivers. When no technical documentation is available, an understanding of the hardware is often gained by clean room reverse engineering. Based on this understanding, device drivers may be written and legally published under any chosen software license, There are rare and special cases, where manufacturers driver source code is publicly available in the Internet, but not under a free license.
There are a number of objections to binary-only drivers, There are philosophical and ethical objections, with some feeling that drivers distributed without source code are against the beliefs of the free software movement. There are very pragmatic objections regarding copyright, reliability, features like kernel mode-setting cannot be added to binary drivers by anyone but the vendors, which prevents their inclusion if the vendor lacks capacity or interest. In the case of binary drivers there are due to free software philosophy. There are concerns that the redistribution of closed-source Linux kernel modules may be illegal, by choice, the Linux kernel has never maintained a stable in-kernel Application binary interface. There are concerns that proprietary drivers may even contain backdoors. Because all translation from API calls to actual GPU opcodes is done by the driver, it will contain a considerable amount of specialized knowledge. This takes time and involves significant financial investment, the desktop computer market was for a long time dominated by PC hardware using the x86/x86-64 instruction set, and by GPUs available for the PC.
With only three competitors, Nvidia, AMD and Intel, the main competing factor was the price of hardware. The display driver is an inherent part of the card, as is the video decoder. As the market for PC hardware has been dwindling, it highly unlikely that new competitors will enter this market. Thus it is unclear how much more know-how one company could gain by seeing the source code of the drivers of the other companies, the mobile sector however, presents a different situation, The functional blocks are separate SIP blocks on the chip, since hardware devices vary substantially. For example, some portable media players require a driver that accelerates video decoding
Bruce Perens is an American computer programmer and advocate in the free software movement. He created The Open Source Definition and published the first formal announcement and he co-founded the Open Source Initiative with Eric S. Raymond. In 2005, Perens represented Open Source at the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society and he has appeared before national legislatures and is often quoted in the press, advocating for open source and the reform of national and international technology policy. Perens is a radio operator, with call sign K6BP. He promotes open radio communications standards and open source hardware, Perens is currently CEO of two companies, Algoram is a start-up which is creating a 50-1000 MHz software-defined radio transceiver. Legal Engineering is a consultancy which specializes in resolving copyright infringement of Open Source software. Perens grew up in Long Island, New York and he developed an interest in technology at an early age, besides his interest in amateur radio, he ran a pirate radio station in the town of Lido Beach and briefly engaged in phone phreaking.
Perens worked for seven years at the New York Institute of Technology Computer Graphics Lab, after that, he worked at Pixar for 12 years, from 1987 to 1999. He is credited as a studio tools engineer on the Pixar films A Bugs Life, Perens founded No-Code International in 1998 with the goal of ending the Morse Code test required for an amateur radio license. Only would it be possible for nations to strike all Morse Code requirements from their laws regarding radio amateur licensing. Perens lobbied intensively on the internet, at amateur radio events in the United States, with the possible exception of Russia, all nations have struck their Morse Code requirements. In 1995, Perens created BusyBox, a package of UNIX-style utilities for operating systems including Linux and he stopped working on it in 1996, after which it was taken over by other developers. Starting in 2007, several lawsuits were filed for infringement of BusyBox copyright and these lawsuits were filed by the Software Freedom Law Center, and some of the managing developers of BusyBox.
In 2009, Bruce Perens released a statement about the lawsuits, Perens supports enforcement of the GPL license used on Busybox. From April 1996 to December 1997, while working at Pixar, Perens served as Debian Project Leader. He replaced Ian Murdock, the creator of Debian, who had been the first project leader, in 1997, Perens was a co-founder of Software in the Public Interest, a nonprofit organization intended to serve as an umbrella organization to aid open-source software and hardware projects. It was originally created to allow the Debian Project to accept donations, in 1997, Perens was carbon-copied an email conversation between Donnie Barnes of Red Hat and Ean Schuessler, who was working on Debian. Schuessler bemoaned that Red Hat had never stated its contract with the Open Source community
It is held in high regard within the free software movement as a fundamental philosophical source. The full text is included with GNU software such as Emacs, the GNU Manifesto begins by outlining the goal of the project GNU, which stands for GNUs Not Unix. The contents of GNU, current at the time of writing, are described and detailed. Richard Stallman gives a fairly elaborate rationalization of the importance and benefits of seeing the project to fruition, one of the major driving points behind the GNU project, according to Stallman, is the rapid trend toward Unix and its various components becoming proprietary software. Later on, the GNU Manifesto details how nearly everyone benefits from the project, in essence, this is broken into two parts - the benefits to contributors and the benefits to consumers/community as a whole. In other words, software developers may modify, correct, etc. the source code under these terms, thereby contributing to the overall stability, developers may even use the GNU Licensed code in their own applications.
The second part of this section explains how its not just the developers who will benefit, the general trend throughout is that, in the opinion of the authors, everyone benefits from the projects stated goals. A fairly large part of the GNU Manifesto is focused on rebutting possible objections to GNU Projects goals, objections described here include the programmers need to make a living, the issue of advertising/distributing free software, and the perceived need of a profit incentive. Most of this text explains how the free software philosophy works, Free software The Free Software Definition History of free and open-source software Open Letter to Hobbyists GNU Manifesto
Richard Matthew Stallman, often known by his initials, rms, is an American software freedom activist and programmer. He campaigns for software to be distributed in a such that its users receive the freedoms to use, distribute. Software that ensures these freedoms is termed free software, Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and wrote the GNU General Public License. Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed entirely of free software, with this, he launched the free software movement. In October 1985 he founded the Free Software Foundation, in 1989 he co-founded the League for Programming Freedom. This has included software license agreements, non-disclosure agreements, activation keys, copy restriction, proprietary formats, as of 2016, he has received fifteen honorary doctorates and professorships. Stallman was born to Alice Lippman, a teacher, and Daniel Stallman.
He was interested in computers at an age, when Stallman was a pre-teen at a summer camp. From 1967 to 1969, Stallman attended a Columbia University Saturday program for school students. Stallman was a laboratory assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University. Although he was interested in mathematics and physics, his professor at Rockefeller thought he showed promise as a biologist. His first experience with computers was at the IBM New York Scientific Center when he was in high school. He was hired for the summer in 1970, following his year of high school. He completed the task after a couple of weeks and spent the rest of the writing a text editor in APL. As a first-year student at Harvard University in fall 1970, Stallman was known for his performance in Math 55. He was happy, For the first time in my life, Stallman graduated from Harvard magna cum laude earning a bachelors degree in Physics in 1974. Stallman considered staying on at Harvard, but instead he decided to enroll as a student at MIT.
He pursued a doctorate in physics for one year, but left that program to focus on his programming at the MIT AI Laboratory
Open-source software development
Open-source software development is the process by which open-source software, or similar software whose source code is publicly available, is developed. These are software products available with its code under an open-source license to study, change. Examples of some popular software products are Mozilla Firefox, Google Chromium, LibreOffice. In 1997, Eric S. Raymond wrote The Cathedral and the Bazaar, in this book, Raymond makes the distinction between two kinds of software development. The first is the conventional closed-source development and this kind of development method is, according to Raymond, like the building of a cathedral, central planning, tight organization and one process from start to finish. The latter analogy points to the involved in an open-source development process. In closed-source software development, the programmers are often spending a lot of time dealing with and creating bug reports and this time is spent on creating and prioritizing further development plans.
This leads to part of the development team spending a lot of time on these issues, also, in closed-source projects, the development teams must often work under management-related constraints that interfere with technical issues of the software. In open-source software development, these issues are solved by integrating the users of the software in the development process, open-source software development can be divided into several phases. The phases specified here are derived from Sharma et al, a diagram displaying the process-data structure of open-source software development is shown on the right. In this picture, the phases of software development are displayed. This diagram is made using the meta-modeling and meta-process modeling techniques, there are several ways in which work on an open-source project can start, An individual who senses the need for a project announces the intent to develop a project in public. A developer working on a limited but working codebase, releases it to the public as the first version of an open-source program, the source code of a mature project is released to the public.
A well-established open-source project can be forked by an interested outside party, Eric Raymond observed in his essay The Cathedral and the Bazaar that announcing the intent for a project is usually inferior to releasing a working project to the public. Its a common mistake to start a project when contributing to a similar project would be more effective. To start a project it is very important to investigate whats already there. The process starts with a choice between the adopting of a project, or the starting of a new project. If a new project is started, the process goes to the Initiation phase, if an existing project is adopted, the process goes directly to the Execution phase
History of free and open-source software
In the 1950s and 1960s, computer operating software and compilers were delivered as a part of hardware purchases without separate fees. At the time, source code, the form of software, was generally distributed with the software providing the ability to fix bugs or add new functions. Universities were early adopters of computing technology, many of the modifications developed by universities were openly shared, in keeping with the academic principles of sharing knowledge, and organizations sprung up to facilitate sharing. As large-scale operating systems matured, fewer organizations allowed modifications to the operating software, however and other added-function applications are still shared and new organizations have been formed to promote the sharing of software. The concept of sharing of technological information existed long before computers. For example, cooking recipes have been shared and remixed since the beginning of human culture, in the early years of automobile development, one enterprise owned the rights to a 2-cycle gasoline engine patent originally filed by George B.
By controlling this patent, they were able to monopolize the industry and force car manufacturers to adhere to their demands, in 1911, independent automaker Henry Ford won a challenge to the Selden patent. The result was that the Selden patent became virtually worthless and a new association was formed, by the time the US entered World War 2,92 Ford patents and 515 patents from other companies were being shared between these manufacturers, without any exchange of money. In the 1950s and into the 1960s almost all software was produced by academics and corporate researchers working in collaboration, often shared as public domain software. As such, it was distributed under the principles of openness and co-operation long established in the fields of academia. The A-2 system, developed at the UNIVAC division of Remington Rand in 1953, was released to customers with its source code and they were invited to send their improvements back to UNIVAC. Thus it is believed that A-2 was the first example of free, almost all IBM mainframe software was distributed with source code included.
User groups such as that of the IBM701, called SHARE, the SHARE Operating System, originally developed by General Motors, was distributed by SHARE for the IBM709 and 7090 computers. Some university computer labs had a policy requiring that all installed on the computer had to come with published source-code files. Very similar to open standards, researchers with access to Advanced Research Projects Agency Network used a process called Request for Comments to develop telecommunication network protocols and this collaborative process of the 1960s led to the birth of the Internet in 1969. Some free software which was developed in the 1970s continues to be developed and used, such as TeX, by the late 1960s change was coming, as operating systems and programming language compilers evolved, software production costs were dramatically increasing relative to hardware. IBM antitrust suit, filed 17 January 1969, the U. S. government charged that bundled software was anticompetitive, while some software continued to come at no cost, there was a growing amount of software that was for sale only under restrictive licences.
After UNIX became more widespread in the early 1980s, AT&T stopped the free distribution, as it is quite difficult to switch to another architecture, most researchers paid for a commercial licence
Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration, a 2008 report by the Standish Group states that adoption of open-source software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year to consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other, eventually the open source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar and this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscapes act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundations free software ideas, the new term they chose was open source, which was soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim OReilly, Linus Torvalds, and others. The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term, a Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that open source is an intellectual property destroyer.
I cant imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business, IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in todays competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS, the free software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression which is less ambiguous. Software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, the Open Source Definition, presents an open-source philosophy, and further defines the terms of usage and redistribution of open-source software. Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition, the open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7,1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscapes January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator.
They used the opportunity before the release of Navigators source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the free in English. Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open source movement, the Free Software Foundation, started in 1985, intended the word free to mean freedom to distribute and not freedom from cost. Since a great deal of free software already was free of charge, such software became associated with zero cost. The Open Source Initiative was formed in February 1998 by Eric Raymond and they sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source. Perens attempted to open source as a service mark for the OSI. The Open Source Initiatives definition is recognized by governments internationally as the standard or de facto definition, OSI uses The Open Source Definition to determine whether it considers a software license open source
Gratis versus libre
The English adjective free is commonly used in one of two meanings, for zero price and with little or no restriction. This ambiguity of free can cause issues where the distinction is important, as it often is in dealing with laws concerning the use of information, such as copyright, for example, they are used to distinguish freeware from free software. Richard Stallman summarised the difference in a slogan, Think free as in free speech, gratis in English is adopted from the various Romance and Germanic languages, ultimately descending from the plural ablative and dative form of the first-declension noun grātia in Latin. It means free of charge, at price, free, in the sense that some good or service is supplied without need for payment. Libre /ˈliːbrə/ in English is adopted from the various Romance languages, ultimately descending from the Latin word lībere and it denotes the state of being free, as in liberty or having freedom. The Oxford English Dictionary considers libre to be obsolete, but the word has come back into limited use, unlike gratis, libre appears in few English dictionaries, although there is no other English single-word adjective signifying liberty exclusively, without meaning at no monetary cost.
In software development, where the cost of production is relatively small. One of the early and basic forms of model is called freeware. With freeware, software is licensed free of charge for regular use, with the advent of the free software movement, license schemes were created to give developers more freedom in terms of code sharing, commonly called open source or free and open-source software. As the English adjective free does not distinguish between for zero price and liberty, the phrases free as in beer and free as in free speech were adopted. Many in the free software movement feel strongly about the freedom to use the software, make modifications, free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of free as in free speech, —Richard Stallman These phrases have become common, along with gratis and libre, in the software development and computer law fields for encapsulating this distinction. The distinction is similar to the made in political science between negative liberty and positive liberty.
Like free beer, positive liberty promises equal access by all without cost or regard to income, like free speech, negative liberty safeguards the right to use of something without regard to whether in each case there is a cost involved for this use. The original gratis/libre distinction concerns software, with which users can potentially do two kinds of things and use it and modify and re-use it. Gratis pertains to being able to access and use the code, without a price-barrier, the target content of the open access movement, however, is not software but published, peer-reviewed research journal article texts. Apart from verbatim quotation, scholarly/scientific authors are not in general interested in allowing other authors to create mashups of their texts, researcher-authors are all happy to make their texts available for harvesting and indexing for search as well as data-mining, but not for re-use in altered form. The formal analogy, and the generalization of the distinction from open software to open access, have been made