International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games; the IOC is the governing body of the National Olympic Committees, which are the national constituents of the worldwide Olympic Movement. As of 2016, there are 206 NOCs recognised by the IOC; the current president of the IOC is Thomas Bach of Germany, who succeeded Jacques Rogge of Belgium in September 2013. The IOC was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president; as of January 2019, its membership consists of 96 active members, 45 honorary members, an honorary president and two honour members. The IOC is the supreme authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement; the IOC organises the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896.
The first Summer YOG were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter YOG in Innsbruck were in 2012. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year. After that year, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events from one another, improve the financial balance of the IOC, which receives a proportionally greater income in Olympic years. In 2009, the UN General Assembly granted the IOC Permanent Observer status; the decision enables the IOC to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly meetings where it can take the floor. In 1993, the General Assembly approved a Resolution to further solidify IOC–UN cooperation by reviving the Olympic Truce. During each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages: French is always spoken first, followed by an English translation, the dominant language of the host nation; the IOC received approval in November 2015 to construct a new headquarters in Lausanne.
The cost of the project was estimated to stand at $156m. The IOC announced on 11 February 2019 that "Olympic House" would be inaugurated on 23 June 2019 to coincide with its 125th anniversary; the Olympic Museum remains in Lausanne. The stated mission of the IOC is to promote the Olympics throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement: To encourage and support the organisation and coordination of sport and sports competitions, it is the IOC's supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members. Among others, the powers of the Session are: To amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and the honorary members. To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games. In addition to the Olympic medals for competitors, the IOC awards a number of other honours; the IOC President's Trophy is the highest sports award given to athletes who have excelled in their sport and had an extraordinary career and created a lasting impact on their sport The Pierre de Coubertin medal is awarded to athletes who demonstrate a special spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events The Olympic Cup is awarded to institutions or associations with a record of merit and integrity in developing the Olympic Movement The Olympic Order is awarded to individuals for distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, superseded the Olympic Certificate The Olympic Laurel is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture and peace through sport The Olympic town status has been given to some towns which have been important for the Olympic movement For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were selected by other members.
Countries that had hosted. When named, they did not become the representatives of their respective countries to the IOC, but rather the opposite, IOC members in their respective countries. "Granted the honour of becoming a member of the International Olympic Committee and declaring myself aware of my responsibilities in such a capacity, I undertake to serve the Olympic Movement to the best of my ability. The membership of IOC members ceases in the following circumstances: Resignation: any IOC member may cease their membership at any tim
Austria at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Austria competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. 92 competitors, 55 men and 37 women, took part in 68 events in 17 sports. Men's 100 m Martin Lachkovics Round 1 — 10.41 Round 2 — 10.44 Men's 200 m Martin Lachkovics Round 1 — 21 Men's 110 m Hurdles Elmar Lichtenegger Round 1 — 13.65 Round 2 — 13.73 Semifinal — 13.59 Men's 3,000 m Steeplechase Günther Weidlinger Round 1 — 08:24.07 Final — 08:26.70 Men's Javelin Throw Gregor Hoegler Qualifying — 80.89 Men's marathon Michael Buchleitner Final — 2:19:26 Men's Decathlon Klaus Ambrosch 100 m — 11.01 400 m — 50.23 100 m Hurdles — 14.92 1,500 m — 04:40.94 Shot Put — 15.30 Discus Throw — 41.22 Javelin Throw — 67.94 Long Jump — 7.17 High Jump — 1.91 Pole Vault — 4.60Points — 7917.00 Women's 100 m Karin Mayr Round 1 — 11.50 Women's 200 m Karin Mayr Round 1 — 23.90 Women's 800 m Stephanie Graf Round 1 — 01:58.39 Semifinal — 01:57.56 Final — 01:56.64 Women's 5,000 m Susanne Pumper Round 1 — 15:16.66 Women's Shot Put Valentina Fedjuschina Qualifying — 17.84 Final — 17.14 Women's High Jump Linda Horvath Qualifying — 1.89 Women's Pole Vault Doris Auer Qualifying — 4.30 Final — 4.25 Nikolas Berger and Oliver Stamm — 9th place Women's Kayak Singles 500 m Uschi Profanter Qualifying Heat — 01:56.118 Semifinal — 01:55.626 Final — 02:20.598 Men's Kayak Singles Helmut Oblinger Qualifying — 253.94 Final — 226.45 Manuel Koehler Qualifying — 255.79 Final — 226.80 Women's Kayak Singles Violetta Oblinger-Peters Qualifying — 308.48 Final — 282.29 Men's Individual Time Trial Rene Haselbacher Final — 1:02:38 Men's Road Race Peter Wrolich Final — 5:30:46 Gerrit Glomser Final — 5:30:46 Matthias Buxhofer Final — 5:30:46 Rene Haselbacher Final — DNF Men's Point Race Franz Stocher Points — 8 Laps Down — 1 Men's Madison Werner Riebenbauer, Roland Garber Final — 10 points Women's Point Race Michaela Brunngraber Points — 0 Men's 3 Metre Springboard Richard Frece Preliminary — 328.68 Women's 10 Metre Platform Marion Reiff Preliminary — 206.55 Women's 10 Metre Platform Anja Richter-Libiseller Preliminary — 314.31 Semi-final — 168.78- 483.09 Final — 313.38-482.16 Women's Synchronized 10 Metre Platform Marion Reiff, Anja RichterLib Final — 294 Six fencers, five men and one woman, represented Austria in 2000.
Men's foilBenny Wendt Michael LudwigMen's épéeOliver Kayser Christoph Marik Michael SwitakMen's team épéeOliver Kayser, Christoph Marik, Michael SwitakWomen's épéeAndrea Rentmeister Four men and one woman participated in the sailing competition for Austria. They won two gold medals. MenWomenOpen MenWomen Men's 400 m Freestyle Hannes Kalteis Preliminary Heat — 04:03.66 Men's 1500 m Freestyle Hannes Kalteis Preliminary Heat — 15:32.90 Men's 200 m Butterfly Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 02:01.20 Men's 100 m Breaststroke Patrick Schmollinger Preliminary Heat — 01:02.87 Men's 200 m Breaststroke Maxim Podoprigora Preliminary Heat — 02:14.37 Semi-final — 02:14.20 Men's 100 m Backstroke Markus Rogan Preliminary Heat — 57.35 Men's 200 m Backstroke Markus Rogan Preliminary Heat — 02:02.84 Men's 200 m Individual Medley Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 02:05.15 Men's 400 m Individual Medley Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 04:24.62 Women's 50 m Freestyle Judith Draxler Preliminary Heat — 26.26 Women's 100 m Freestyle Judith Draxler Preliminary Heat — 57.4 Women's 200 m Butterfly Petra Zahrl Preliminary Heat — 02:13.29 Women's 200 m Breaststroke Elvira Fischer Preliminary Heat — 02:30.05 Men's Individual Competition: Johannes Enzenhofer — 1:51:02.48
Maurice Greene (athlete)
Maurice Greene is an American former track and field sprinter who specialized in the 100 meters and 200 meters. He is a former 100 m world record holder with a time of 9.79 seconds. During the height of his career he was a five-time World Champion; this included three golds at the 1999 World Championships, a feat which had only been achieved by Carl Lewis and Michael Johnson and has since been equaled by three others. His career was affected by a number of injuries from 2001 onwards, although he won the 100 meters bronze and silver in the sprint relay at the 2004 Summer Olympics. Greene was successful indoors: he was the 1999 Indoor World Champion, was the world record holder in the 60-meter dash for nearly 20 years and remains the joint-fastest man over 50 meters, he raced sparingly after an injury in 2005 and retired in 2008. Over his career, he made the fourth most sub-10-second runs in the 100m since surpassed by Asafa Powell, Justin Gatlin and Usain Bolt. Following his track career he has become an ambassador for the IAAF and a TV personality, appearing on Identity, Blind Date, Dancing with the Stars.
Most he volunteered as a track coach at University of California at Los Angeles for the 2012–2013 season. Maurice Greene was born in Kansas City and attended F. L. Schlagle High School. In his youth and high school, he participated in track and field. After high school, Greene received a Track scholarship to the University of Kansas. In 1995 he took part in his first major international tournament at the World Championships in Gothenburg, but was eliminated in the 100 m quarter-finals, his next season was disappointing, as he failed to make the American team for the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. After watching the Olympic final from the stands, Greene made his way to Los Angeles to seek the coaching of John Smith, he joined the start up HSI group. He went on to become the group's most visible member; the following season would be his breakthrough. At the World Championships in Athens, Greene won the 100 m title; this marked the beginning of Greene's dominance in the 100 m. He defended his title in 1999 and 2001 and captured the Olympic gold medal in the 2000 Olympics.
He was successful at the 200 m. At the 1999 World Championships, he won the 200 m title, the first to win both sprint events at a World Championships. However, he did not run the 200 m at the 2000 Olympics after an injury at the US trials. In 1999 he set the 100 m world record at 9.79 s, beating Donovan Bailey's standing world record of 9.84 s, lowering the world record by the largest margin since the advent of electronic timing. Greene matched Bailey's 50 m indoor world record time, but the run was never ratified, he set the 60 m indoor world record twice. His 60 m indoor record is at 6.39 seconds. In addition, Maurice Greene was the only sprinter to hold the 60 m and 100 m world records at the same time. In 2002, Greene lost his 100 m world record to fellow American Tim Montgomery, who beat his time by 0.01, while Greene himself was injured and watched the race from the stands. The record was broken legitimately by Asafa Powell in 2005 with a time of 9.77 s. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greene added to his medal tally with the bronze after finishing third in his attempt to defend his 100 m title to Justin Gatlin, a silver as the anchor leg runner on the United States 4 × 100 m relay team, narrowly denied another Olympic Gold by the British team, who won by 0.01 seconds.
Greene ran 51 sub-10-second 100 m races during his career, which at the time was more than any other sprinter in history. This record has now been surpassed by Asafa Powell. Greene had held the record for the most wind-legal sub-10-second clockings for 100 m in one season, when he ran 9 sub-10s in 1999; this record was broken by Asafa Powell in 2006, it was improved by Powell in 2008 to 15. On December 21, 2006, he appeared; the contestant, a self-professed track and field fan, incorrectly identified him by name as Marion Jones, although she identified him as the "world's fastest man." On February 4, 2008, Greene announced his retirement from track and field in Beijing, citing nagging injuries and a wish to see new individuals succeed in the sport. Greene said he hopes to pursue business interests. In April 2008, the New York Times reported that Greene had paid Mexican discus thrower Angel Guillermo Heredia $10,000, which Heredia claimed was in payment for performance-enhancing drugs. Greene admitted meeting Heredia and making the payment, but claimed it was common for him to pay for "stuff" for other members of his training group, reiterated that he had never used banned drugs.
Greene was a contestant on Season 7 of Dancing with the Stars, was paired with two-time champion Cheryl Burke. He was eliminated on Week 8 of the competition, he hyperextended his leg during the competition. He helped out in their pro-dancer competition and danced a Tango with future winner Anna Demidova. Greene appeared on the American television series Blind Date where he was paired with a woman named Christie. Greene and Christie agreed, he has a tattoo that reads GOAT referring to his claim to be "Greatest of All Time". In an event set up by ESPN's Todd Gallagher, Greene appeared in the book "Andy Roddick Beat Me With a Frying Pan" racing in a 100-meter race agains
Stephanie Graf is an Austrian former middle distance runner who won silver medals in the 800 metres at both the Olympic Games and the World Athletics Championships. Graf finished second to Maria de Lurdes Mutola in the women's 800 meters at both the 2000 Olympics in Sydney and the 2001 World Athletics Championships in Edmonton, Alberta, her time from the 2000 Olympics, 1:56.64 minutes, is the current Austrian 800 metres record. Proceedings were issued against Graf by the Austria's anti-doping authority in May 2010. Following the revelation that the Humanplasma laboratory had aided around 30 athletes with blood doping practices, Graf admitted that her blood had been taken at the lab, but insisted that it had never been re-injected. In June 2010 Graf was suspended for two years for the attempted use of a prohibited method. Official website Stephanie Graf at IAAF
The Gambia at the 2016 Summer Olympics
The Gambia the Republic of the Gambia, competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, held from 5 to 21 August 2016. The country's participation at Rio marked its ninth appearance at the Summer Olympic Games since its début at the 1984 Summer Olympics; the delegation included two track and field athletes, Adama Jammeh and Gina Bass, who both qualified after meeting the qualification standards for their respective events, one judoka, Faye Njie, who made the Games through a quota place and one swimmer, Pap Jonga, who earned a universality place to enter the Games. The Gambia made their début appearances in the swimming events. Bass was selected as the flag bearer for the closing ceremonies. All four athletes were eliminated from the first rounds of their events; the Gambia participated in nine Summer Olympic Games between its début at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, United States and the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The highest number of athletes sent by Gambia to a Summer Games is ten to the 1984 Summer Olympics.
No Gambian athlete has won a medal at the Olympics. The Gambia participated in the Rio Olympic Games from 5 to 21 August 2016; the Gambia National Olympic Committee selected two track and field athletes through qualification standards. The NOC was permitted to enter up to three qualified athletes in each individual event as long as each athlete met the "A" standard, or one athlete per event if they met the "B" standard; the four athletes that were chosen to compete in the Rio Games were Adama Jammeh in the men's 200 metres, Gina Bass in the women's 200 metres, Faye Njie in the men's lightweight judo competition and Pap Jonga in the men's 50 metre freestyle swimming contest. Three of the team's competitors trained at the Centro di Preparazione Olimpica di Formia after The Gambia's NOC secured funding for overseas training. Along with the four athletes, the country's delegation consisted of the NOC development officer and team leader Alhagie Dodou Capi Joo, athletics coach Mariama Sallah Saine, swimming coach Arfang Y.
Jobe. Bass was selected as the flag bearer for closing ceremonies. Adama Jammeh was the oldest competitor to represent The Gambia at the Olympic Games at age 23, he had not participated in any previous Summer Games. Janneh qualified for the Games because his fastest time of 20.45 seconds, set at the 2016 African Championships in Athletics Men's 200 metres, was 0.05 seconds faster than the required qualifying standard for his event, the men's 200 metres. In an interview with The Point before the Games he said, "I've competed at the World Athletics Championship in Beijing and two African Championships and the Olympic Games will complete the set. I'm going to be so happy about it." Jammeh was drawn in the seventh heat on 16 August, finishing fifth out of eight athletes, with a time of 20.55 seconds. He ranked ahead of Bermuda's Harold Houston but behind Davide Manenti of Italy in a heat led by Nery Brenes from Costa Rica. Overall he finished 39th out of 75 participants overall, did not progress to the semi-finals because he was 0.26 seconds slower than the slowest athlete who made the event's stages.
At the age of 21, Gina Bass was the only Gambian female competing in athletics and was making her début appearance in the quadrennial event. She secured qualification to the Games because her time of 23.14 seconds, recorded at the Edmar Stade Lama in Remire-Montjoly in June 2016, exceeded the qualifying standard for her event, the women's 200 metres. Bass was the first Gambian athlete to secure qualification for the Rio Olympics and the second in her country's history to achieve the feat. Before the Games she said that she was "excited and focused for the road ahead" and did not think that she would take part in the Olympics while growing up. Bass participated in the event's fifth heat on 15 August, finishing fifth out of eight runners, with a time of 23.43 seconds. She ranked ahead of Srabani Nanda of India and Mauritius's Aurelie Alcindor but behind Tessa van Schagen from the Netherlands in a heat led by Blessing Okagbare of Nigeria. Overall she finished 52nd out of 72 athletes and was unable to advance to the semi-finals after being 0.66 seconds slower than the slowest participant in her heat who progressed to the next round.
After the Games Bass stated the lack of running she had before the event was responsible for her finishing position. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Track & road events Faye Njie represented The Gambia in men's judo, he gained qualification into the men's lightweight category by earning a continental quota place from the African region at the Rio Games during the 2016 African Judo Championships, signifying the country's first Olympic appearance in the sport. Before his event Njie said that he was proud to represent his country and commented his opponent was "good" but not undefeatable, he was narrowly defeated by his opponent Kazakhstan's Didar Khamza in a five-minute contested match on technical point. Pap Jonga was the youngest athlete to represent The Gambia at the Rio Games at age 19, he had not participated in any previous Olympic Games. Jonga qualified for the Games by earning a universality place from swimming's governing body FINA because his fastest time of 27.24 seconds was 4.19 seconds slower than the required qualifying standard for his event, the men's 50 metre freestyle.
He became the first Gambian swimmer to qualify for an Olympic event. He was drawn in the third heat on 11 August, finishing eighth of all competitors, with a time of 27.48 seconds. Jonga ranked behind Jules Bessan of Benin and Guinea's A
The Gambia the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa, entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western coastline along the Atlantic Ocean. It is the smallest country within mainland Africa; the Gambia is situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation's namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 10,689 square kilometres with a population of 1,857,181 as of the April 2013 census. Banjul is the Gambian capital and the largest cities are Serekunda and Brikama; the Gambia shares historical roots with many other West African nations in the slave trade, the key factor in the placing and keeping of a colony on the Gambia River, first by the Portuguese, during which era it was known as A Gâmbia. On 25 May 1765, The Gambia was made a part of the British Empire when the government formally assumed control, establishing the Province of Senegambia. In 1965, The Gambia gained independence under the leadership of Dawda Jawara, who ruled until Yahya Jammeh seized power in a bloodless 1994 coup.
Adama Barrow became The Gambia's third president in January 2017, after defeating Jammeh in December 2016 elections. Jammeh accepted the results refused to accept them, which triggered a constitutional crisis and military intervention by the Economic Community of West African States, resulting in his exile; the Gambia's economy is dominated by farming and tourism. In 2015, 48.6% of the population lived in poverty. In rural areas, poverty is more widespread, at 70%; the name "Gambia" is derived from the Mandinka term Kambra/Kambaa. According to the CIA World Factbook, the US Department of State, the Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use, The Gambia is one of few countries whose self-standing short name for official use should begin with the word "The". Upon independence in 1965, the country used the name The Gambia. Following the proclamation of a republic in 1970, the long-form name of the country became Republic of The Gambia.
The administration of Yahya Jammeh changed the long-form name to Islamic Republic of The Gambia in December 2015. On 29 January 2017 President Adama Barrow changed the name back to Republic of The Gambia. Arab traders provided the first written accounts of the Gambia area in the ninth and tenth centuries. During the tenth century, Muslim merchants and scholars established communities in several West African commercial centres. Both groups established trans-Saharan trade routes, leading to a large export trade of local people as slaves gold and ivory, as well as imports of manufactured goods. By the 11th or 12th century, the rulers of kingdoms such as Takrur, a monarchy centred on the Senegal River just to the north, ancient Ghana and Gao had converted to Islam and had appointed to their courts Muslims who were literate in the Arabic language. At the beginning of the 14th century, most of what is today called The Gambia was part of the Mali Empire; the Portuguese reached this area by sea in the mid-15th century, began to dominate overseas trade.
In 1588, the claimant to the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato, sold exclusive trade rights on the Gambia River to English merchants. Letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I confirmed the grant. In 1618, King James I of England granted a charter to an English company for trade with the Gambia and the Gold Coast. Between 1651 and 1661, some parts of the Gambia were under the rule of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia belonging to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth—modern-day Latvia—and were bought by Prince Jacob Kettler. During the late 17th century and throughout the 18th century, the British Empire and the French Empire struggled continually for political and commercial supremacy in the regions of the Senegal River and the Gambia River; the British Empire occupied the Gambia when an expedition led by Augustus Keppel landed there following the Capture of Senegal in 1758. The 1783 First Treaty of Versailles gave Great Britain possession of the Gambia River, but the French retained a tiny enclave at Albreda on the river's north bank.
This was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1856. As many as three million people may have been taken as slaves from this general region during the three centuries that the transatlantic slave trade operated, it is not known how many people were taken as slaves by intertribal wars or Muslim traders before the transatlantic slave trade began. Most of those taken were sold by other Africans to Europeans: some were prisoners of intertribal wars. Traders sent people to Europe to work as servants until the market for labour expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. In 1807, the United Kingdom abolished the slave trade throughout its empire, it tried, unsuccessfully, to end the slave trade in the Gambia. Slave ships intercepted by the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron in the Atlantic were returned to the Gambia, with people, slaves released on MacCarthy Island far up the Gambia River where they were expected to establish new lives; the British established the military post of Bathurst in 1816.
In the ensuing years, Banjul was at times under the jurisdiction of the British Governor-General in Sierra Leone. In 1888, The Gambia became a separate colony. An agreement with the French Republic in 1889 established the present boundaries; the Gambia became a British Crown colony called Briti