A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Alec Newman is a Scottish actor best known for portraying Paul Atreides in the Sci Fi Channel's 2000 miniseries adaptation of Frank Herbert's Dune. Newman was born in Glasgow, his father is a member of Scottish band Marmalade. He has a brother John James Newman, who appeared on The Voice UK in 2012. Prior to joining the National Youth Theatre in London at age 17, Newman considered becoming a professional footballer, he trained at the London Academy of Dramatic Art. In 1997, Newman starred in Taggart, series 13 episode 2 "Apocalypse" as Stephen Burns, the stepson of cult leader David Burns. Newman starred as Paul Atreides in the Sci Fi Channel's 2000 miniseries adaptation of Frank Herbert's Dune and reprised the role in its 2003 sequel Children of Dune, he has had guest appearances on U. S. television series Angel, Star Trek: Enterprise and Tru Calling. He guested on the British spy drama Spooks and played the Rebus-inspired Jim Buchan in BBC 4's Reichenbach Falls, he took the title role of Victor Frankenstein in the 2004 Frankenstein US TV miniseries, opposite Donald Sutherland and William Hurt.
On film in the UK, Newman played the lead role in Penny Woolcock's 2003 The Principles of Lust, nominated for a British Independent Film Award and selected for competition at the Sundance Film Festival. Other British films include Long Time Dead for Working Title, G:MT produced by Taylor Hackford, Stephen Fry's Bright Young Things. In 2004, he landed the role of Barnabas Collins in a pilot for a revival series of Dark Shadows on the WB Network. Other films in the US include Four Corners of Suburbia and the Lions Gate release The Gene Generation. An attempt at an old style Hollywood musical, Moonlight Serenade starred Alec opposite Amy Adams. Newman starred in the short-lived BBC One series Hope Springs in 2008, he played the recurring role of Robert Ludlow in Casualty for a run of 10 episodes in 2010 as well as guesting in a Silent Witness two-parter entitled "Run". The same year Newman starred with Sean Harris and Melissa George in Julian Gilbey's action-oriented A Lonely Place to Die. In 2010/11 he played Edmund in the Donmar Warehouse production of Shakespeare's King Lear.
The production subsequently toured the UK and played a six-week engagement at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn, New York. This followed massive critical success in the National Theatre's production of Danton's Death, in which Newman portrayed the powerful, persuasive Louis Antoine de Saint-Just. Both productions were directed by Michael Grandage. On 30 May 2011, it was announced that Newman had joined the cast of BBC One drama series Waterloo Road in the role of the new head teacher, Michael Byrne, he completed series 7 and 8 as the character, leaving the show in early 2013, after its relocation to Greenock in Scotland. In early 2013, he became an ambassador for Blind Veterans UK, to help them reach 68,000 blind veterans unaware of the assistance the charity can provide; this was in conjunction with his portrayal of Mal Walker, a blind veteran of Afghanistan in the feature film Greyhawk, directed by Guy Pitt. In August 2013, he began work on Season 2 of DirecTV's series Rogue; the series aired in 2014.
Other American television appearances include the 2013 NBC series Dracula, a recurring role in 24: Live Another Day. He subsequently appeared in the BBC America/Netflix series The Last Kingdom; this was followed with a series role in Kurt Sutter's short lived FX show The Bastard Executioner, shot in Wales. He returned to the Royal National Theatre, playing Ralph in the acclaimed Indhu Rubasingham production of The Motherfucker with the Hat at the Lyttelton Theatre, he starred in Hampstead Theatre's 2015/16 production of the Tom Stoppard play Hapgood. He lends his voice to high-profile video games and documentaries for the BBC and Discovery Channel, he has voiced Jack the Ripper in Assassin's Creed: Syndicate- Jack the Ripper DLC and Gabriel Angelos in Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War III. He had a role in Tomas Alfredson's thriller The Snowman, appeared in Simon Evans' production of Tracy Letts' Bug at Found 111; this was followed by a second collaboration with Evans, this time in the World Premiere of Andrew Keatley's "Alligators" at Hampstead Theatre in June 2016.
Newman returned to play Daniel Turner in'Alligators' when the play was revived Downstairs at Hampstead Theatre in June 2017. Roles in ITV series HIM and Fearless followed. In 2018 Newman appeared in the Amma Asante film, he played the lead role in the TV series Eullenia on IMDb. Written and directed by Paul Spurrier the project was filmed in Thailand. Newman’s performance garnered acclaim at festivals worldwide winning a clutch of awards for Newman and the Spurrier. Newman returned to the theatre playing Astrov in Terry Johnson’s production of Uncle Vanya at Hampstead Theatre opposite Alan Cox, he plays Pavel Kuragin in Season 7 of HBO/Cinemax show Strike Back: Revolution which aired in the US early 2019. In February 2013, Newman became engaged to Heather Stewart, they married in Ayrshire in June 2014. Alec Newman on IMDb Awards for Eullenia on IMDb
Robert David Hall
Robert David Hall is an American actor, best known for his role as coroner Dr. Albert Robbins M. D. on the television show CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. Born in East Orange, New Jersey, Hall attended Tustin High School in California and went on to graduate from UCLA in 1971 with a degree in English Literature. Hall is a former professional musician and accomplished guitarist, is proficient on piano and mandolin. For several years he was a high-profile radio DJ in Los Angeles, his musical talent has been alluded to in CSI: Crime Scene Investigation several times, as his character Dr. Al Robbins would sometimes sing while performing the autopsy or with Gil Grissom when the latter came to the morgue to collect evidence, he has done extensive voice work on television commercials and cartoons. In 1978, Hall had to have both of his legs amputated as a result of an accident in which an 18-wheeler truck crushed his car; the accident caused the gasoline tank of the car to explode, causing burns over 65% of his body.
He now comfortably uses prosthetic limbs. Several of his characters, including his CSI character, have shared this disability, he is a prominent advocate for disabled Americans. Hall mentioned once that he never alluded to the accident in reality. In addition to starring on CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Robert has appeared in such films as Starship Troopers and The Negotiator and has made guest appearances in a number of TV programs including The West Wing and L. A. Law, he furnishes the narration on CourtTV's documentary series North Mission Road. Hall is working on the short thriller "The Roymann Closure in the Netherlands", written by writer/director David Grifhorst and executive producer Jop Douma. Hall was married to Susan Petroni from 1969 until their divorce in 1974, Connie Cole from 1979 until their divorce in 1987, his son, was born of his second marriage. Hall's third and current marriage is to Judy Sterns in 1999. 2010: Things they don't teach you in school, CD album:Kick It To The Side Of The Road Wondering Where You Are Things They Don’t Teach You In School It Just Is Pushin’ It Through One Door Closes Wishes For Judy I Feel Like Hank Williams Tonight Sittin’ On Top Of The World Ten O’Clock Train Just Because Robert David Hall Interview on NotableInterviews.com Robert David Hall Bio at CBS - CSI: Crime Scene Investigation Interview in Ability Magazine Robert David Hall on IMDb
Combichrist is an American aggrotech/industrial metal band formed in 2003 by Norwegian vocalist Andy LaPlegua, who founded the bands Icon of Coil, Panzer AG, Scandinavian Cock and Scandy. Combichrist is based in Georgia; the band consists with a changing lineup of live performing members. Releases by the band have been successful in terms of sales and charted in top positions for dance and alternative charts worldwide; the first material that LaPlegua wrote for the project was a powernoise/techno crossover track Thanx to my Buddies under the moniker D.r.i.v. E for the Advanced Electronics Vol. 2 compilation. The song was remade into Like to Thank My Buddies on Combichrist's album Everybody Hates You; the project's name was changed to Hudlager and finally to Combichrist before the debut album The Joy of Gunz was released on the German record label Out of Line. The band name came from a fanzine of LaPlegua's in the 1990s, with Combichrist being a character in it, a "punk-rock messiah." The character would go on drug and alcohol fueled rampages healing those whom he had beaten.
A few years after the band's conception, LaPlegua departed Norway for the United States, now the current home-base for Combichrist and his other projects Scandy, Panzer AG, Scandinavian Cock. Combichrist's first LP The Joy of Gunz was released in 2003. Sporting a fresh and aggressive new sound the brainchild of LaPlegua took the crowds by storm. On Halloween of the same year, the limited edition EP Kiss The Blade was released with 667 pressings which sold out in less than a week. In 2004, the second EP, Drogen Und Industrial, spent several weeks at number one in the DAC charts. At the same time that Sex, Drogen Und Industrial was released, a limited edition of 666 white-vinyl 12" pressings for Blut Royale were produced, sold out quickly; the year 2005 saw the release of Everybody Hates You and it was at this time that LaPlegua began labeling the music as "Techno Body Music" or TBM. The band released a song called "This is TBM" on the Out-of-Line compilation Techno Body Music volume 1, they played.
No vocal version of the instrumental track was released, the lyrics were instead reworked for the track "Electrohead." After this release, LaPlegua stopped referring to their music as TBM. Shortly after the release of the album, Army On The Dance Floor producer Kourtney Klein was added as alternating keyboardist and drummer to the band; the full-length album featured two tracks that became club classics “This Shit Will Fuck You Up” and “This Is My Rifle”and it was the project’s U. S. debut on Metropolis Records. Further benchmarks were set with the release of the 2006 EP "Get Your Body Beat" the title track of which landed Combichrist its first appearance on Billboard’s Top 10 Dance Singles chart; the music video for the single was included on the DVD release of the biopunk film The Gene Generation with the song being used in the movie. The band embarked on a North American tour with KMFDM soon after the release of the single. On March 6, 2007, What the Fuck is Wrong With You People? was released to some critical praise and popularity.
The album featured 2006’s break out single, “Get Your Body Beat,” it had an explosive barrage of corrosive beats, leering vocals, acidic melodies. WTFIWWYP? was a high energy, adrenaline charged piece of sonic battery. Combichrist played on the Gothic Cruise in 2008, released a limited CDr EP only available to ticket-holders. Limited to 200 copies, it contains 7 tracks. Pull Out Kings producer and songwriter Z. Marr joined the band as keyboardist in January 2008 to begin work on the album Today We Are All Demons. According to an exchange with a fan, Trevor Friedrich of Imperative Reaction and of Eighteen Visions, he was asked to join the band as a drummer with Joe Letz in October 2008, he replaced keyboardist Kourtney Klein. Combichrist released Today We Are All Demons on Jan 20, 2009. Combichrist went on a successful North American tour with Black Light Burns and an extensive European tour with Rammstein. For part the European tour that year, Trevor was temporarily replaced by Mark Jackson of VNV Nation.
Combichrist's song "Shut Up and Bleed" featuring W. A. S. T. E was put on the soundtrack for the horror movie The Collector, their song "Today We Are All Demons" was put on the soundtrack for the movie Underworld: Rise of the Lycans. Combichrist's latest album, Making Monsters, was released digitally on 31 August 2010 and on CD on 28 September 2010. Combichrist began a tour in support of the new album in late 2010, with Aesthetic Perfection and iVardensphere as the support bands. In 2011, after opening for Rammstein at Madison Square Garden in December 2010, both bands announced Combichrist would be supporting Rammstein on their North American tour and LaPlegua announced the "Monsters on Tour Part II" taking place around the scheduled Rammstein shows; the "Monsters on Tour Part II" had the same support as the 2010 tour but with the additions of Angel Spit and God Module performing with them on select dates. Combichrist's music was prominently featured in the hack-n-slash style video game DmC Devil May Cry.
Their track "Never Surrender" was featured in a gameplay demo, Throat Full of Glass is played during the opening sequence. LaPlegua was involved in the game's soundtrack. A new song called Bottle of Pain was released in January 2012 for the Underworld: Awakening movie soundtrack. In October 2013, LaPlegua announced on Facebook that there would be a new album on the way in 2014. On December 10, 201
VNV Nation is a European-based alternative electronic project led by Ronan Harris in the roles of singer and producer. VNV Nation's sound blends poetic and thought provoking lyrics with a sound that ranges from melodic dance beats and indie-electronic anthems, to haunting ballads and post-classical soundtrack pieces; the live shows are known for their energy and positive emotion, drawing a devoted fanbase from across the musical spectrum to sold out tours and headline appearances at festivals in Europe and America. Over the course of the project's career, VNV Nation success has continued to grow, with its last three albums charting top 10 in Germany, with its 2015 album Resonance: Music For Orchestra Vol. 1 achieving top five Billboard chart positions in the US. Ronan Harris was born in Dublin and lives in Hamburg, Germany; the "VNV" in the name stands for "Victory Not Vengeance", in keeping with the group's motto, "One should strive to achieve, not sit in bitter regret."On 16 November 2017, Mark Jackson, who had participated as live drummer at concerts since the mid 1990s, had left VNV Nation.
The group's first release and Follow, came out in 1995. Advance And Follow featured industrial electronic beats influenced by middle-era EBM acts such as Nitzer Ebb and Front 242, along a mixture of danceable synthesizer melodies, elements of orchestral music. Although it was the band's first full-length release, Harris regards "Advance and Follow" more as a set of demos than a proper album. In 2001 it was re-released as Advance And Follow 2.0, with updated production, re-recorded vocals, five bonus tracks including two Front 242 covers. Their next release, Praise the Fallen in 1998, continued in this vein, they began to enjoy a larger degree of commercial success. During that time Harris wrote for the online magazine Side-Line of which he was the webmaster until 1999. Empires, released in 1999, was their breakthrough album, gaining them widespread commercial success and topping the German DAC charts for seven weeks. Empires expanded on the band's bombastic, melodic synthesizer lines and incorporated tighter song structures.
Furthermore, the harsher'sheet metal instrumentals' of Praise the Fallen were gone, the music as a whole was far more complex with multiple-layered arpeggios and pads. The album was composed using a mix of analog and digital synthesizers, an Ensoniq ASR-10 sampler. Notable analog synthesizers used on the album included the ARP 2600, used for most of the sounds on the tracks "Firstlight", "Arclight" and "Standing", the SCI Pro One, an Oberheim OB-1. Digital synthesizers used were the Roland JP-8000, Access Virus, Korg Trinity, the EMU Proteus 2000 and the Roland JV-1080, their 2002 album, while retaining many industrial elements represented a departure in many ways away from EBM and towards trance and synthpop. Some neoclassical instrumental pieces were included in the album. Around this time Ronan Harris and Apoptygma Berzerk's Stefan Groth were credited with coining the term "futurepop" to describe their sound; this shift caused their mainstream popularity to increase still further, but alienated some of their fans who preferred their earlier harsher and darker sound.
Notably, the album was produced using only software synthesizers instead of hardware synthesizers. It was the first VNV Nation album made with software synthesizers; the band embarked on a successful world tour in support of Futureperfect from 2001 to 2003. Their concerts in Berlin, Washington DC, the Mera Luna Festival were recorded and edited together for release as the Pastperfect DVD, their 2005 album, Matter + Form, expanded on the soundscape established with Futureperfect. Notable for this harder-edged sound was the first single "Chrome". Of note is the lack of effects applied to the vocals, a departure from previous albums, which allows Harris' voice more space in the mix. There were several songs with a softer and more pensive theme; some songs had a slight "rock" feeling to them from how drum sequences and bass lines were arranged, the most obvious example being the final song, "Perpetual". The assortment of instruments used in the production was much larger than on previous albums. While composed using software synthesizers, several different analogue modular synthesizers were used, along with an array of vintage effects.
This album was the first time the band used an outside producer. VNV Nation's next studio album was Judgement, released on 4 April 2007. Containing ten tracks, it continued the evolution of the VNV Nation sound. While written and recorded in VNV Nation's own studio, while located in the now defunct Soundfactory Studios in Hamburg, the album production took advantage of the main studio's facilities through the use of its collection of vintage microphones and effects, mixing the album on the studio's ADT console. On 25 April 2007, at the sold-out show at The Metro in Chicago, Harris stated that the rumours about Judgement being the last album were false and that more was to come and that Judgement was just the beginning. At the alternative electronic music festival Infest in Bradford on 26 August 2007, just after the murder of Sophie Lancaster, Harris dedicated the song "Illusion" to her and contacted the family soon afterwards to offer his condolences. Two years after Judgement, the box set Reformation 1 was released in Europe on 24 April 2009.
Its US release was on 12 May. The next album, Of Faith and Glory was mentioned on the band's MySpace blog. Harris confirmed to Side-Line that they were aiming for late April to release the album, which would be titled Of Faith and Glory, or as Harris described it: "The 3 things that people desire and which ca
Bai Ling is a Chinese-American actress known for her work in films such as The Crow, Red Corner, Crank: High Voltage, Three... Extremes, Wild Wild West and the King and Southland Tales, as well as TV shows including Entourage and Lost. Bai was born in Chengdu, her father, Bai Yuxiang, was a musician in the People's Liberation Army, a music teacher. Her mother, Chen Binbin, was a dancer, stage actress, a literature teacher in Sichuan University. In the early 1980s, Bai Ling's parents divorced, remarried, her mother remarried to the writer Xu Chi, renowned for his report titled Goldbach's Conjecture, about Chinese mathematician Chen Jingrun. Bai Ling has one older sister Bai Jie, who works for the Chinese tax bureau, a younger brother Bai Chen, who emigrated to Japan and works for an American company. Bai has described herself as a shy child who found that she best expressed herself through acting and performing. During the Cultural Revolution, she learned how to perform by participating in eight model plays, at her elementary school shows.
After her graduation from middle school, Bai was sent to do labor work at Shuangliu, in the outskirts of Chengdu. In 1978, after graduating from high school, she passed the People's Liberation Army's exams, became an artist soldier in Nyingchi Prefecture, Tibet, her main activity there was entertaining in the musical theater. She served as an Army nurse. Ling stated that during her time in Tibet she, along with other female performers, was plied with alcohol and sexually abused by older male officers, including one instance of rape that led to a pregnancy she aborted, she cites. Subsequently, Bai spent some time in a mental hospital. Soon after her release from the hospital, in 1981, Bai joined People's Art Theater of Chengdu, became a professional actress, her performance as a young man in the stage play Yueqin and Little Tiger drew the attention of movie director Teng Wenji, which gained her her first movie role in On the Beach, as a village girl who becomes a factory worker and struggled against her father's will for her to marry her cousin.
In years, she appeared in several movies. She temporarily moved to New York in 1991 to attend New York University's film department as a visiting scholar, but obtained a special visa that allowed her to remain in the United States until she became a U. S. citizen in 1999. Bai began her acting career in China. In 1984, she made her film debut as a fishing village girl in the movie On the Beach, she filmed several other movies, including Suspended Sentence, Tears in Suzhou without much attention. She became famous after playing a girl with a psychological disorder who has an affair with her doctor, in the film The Shining Arc directed by Zhang Junzhao, her most acclaimed role in the Chinese film industry. In 1991, Bai moved to the United States, where she appeared in a number of American films and television shows. Bai's first major American film role was in The Crow, where she played the half-sister/lover of the main villain, Top Dollar. In 1997, she played the lead female role, in the American film Red Corner.
The New York Times praised Bai Ling's performance, saying that she gave the film "not only grace but substantial gravity". For her role in Red Corner, she received the National Board of Review Freedom for Breakthrough Female Performance and the San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress; the film was critical of human rights abuse in China, as a result, Bai Ling's Chinese citizenship was revoked. She became a U. S. citizen. Bai was named one of People's "50 Most Beautiful People in the World" in 1998, she shaved off her hair, longer than 36 inches for her role in Anna and the King, is known in Thailand as "Tuptim", her character's name from the film though the film is banned because of its depiction of the King of Siam. She filmed scenes for Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith as Senator Bana Breemu, but her role was cut during editing, she claimed that this was because she posed naked in the June 2005 issue of Playboy magazine, whose appearance on newsstands coincided with the movie's May 2005 release but director George Lucas denied this, stating that the cut had been made more than a year earlier.
Her scenes were included in the deleted scenes feature of the DVD release. In 2004, Bai made a comeback to Chinese cinema, co-starring with Hong Kong actress Miriam Yeung in independent filmmaker Fruit Chan's horror thriller Dumplings, her portrayal of the villainous local chef Aunt Mei in the film earned her the 2005 Hong Kong Film Award for Best Supporting Actress, led to her renewed popularity among the Chinese film audience. In the same year, she received critical acclaim for her performance in another independent movie, The Beautiful Country, co-starring Nick Nolte, directed by Hans Petter Moland. In 2005, Bai was member of the official jury at the 55th Berlin International Film Festival. On television, she was a cast member on the VH1 program called But Can They Sing?. In 2005 Bai guest-starred in season 2 of Entourage in which she played a love interest of Vincent Chase. In 2007, she starred as Coco in the film adaptation of the controversial Chinese contemporary novel Shanghai Baby, which premiered at Cannes Film Festival, guest-starred in one episode ("Stranger i
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid are nucleic acids; the two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides as they are composed of simpler monomeric units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases, a sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group; the nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules, with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA; the complementary nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups and purines. In DNA, the pyrimidines are cytosine. Both strands of double-stranded DNA store the same biological information.
This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences; the two strands of DNA are thus antiparallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases, it is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone. RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. Under the genetic code, these RNA strands specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation. Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. Before typical cell division, these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing a complete set of chromosomes for each daughter cell. Eukaryotic organisms store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA, or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA. In contrast, prokaryotes store their DNA only in circular chromosomes.
Within eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins, such as histones and organize DNA. These compacting structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. DNA was first isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, its molecular structure was first identified by Francis Crick and James Watson at the Cavendish Laboratory within the University of Cambridge in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Raymond Gosling, a post-graduate student of Rosalind Franklin. DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity; the unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication. Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials. DNA is a long polymer made from repeating units called nucleotides.
The structure of DNA is dynamic along its length, being capable of coiling into tight loops and other shapes. In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. Both chains are coiled around the same axis, have the same pitch of 34 angstroms; the pair of chains has a radius of 10 angstroms. According to another study, when measured in a different solution, the DNA chain measured 22 to 26 angstroms wide, one nucleotide unit measured 3.3 Å long. Although each individual nucleotide is small, a DNA polymer can be large and contain hundreds of millions, such as in chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is the largest human chromosome with 220 million base pairs, would be 85 mm long if straightened. DNA does not exist as a single strand, but instead as a pair of strands that are held together; these two long strands coil in the shape of a double helix. The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of a nucleobase. A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside, a base linked to a sugar and to one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide.
A biopolymer comprising multiple linked nucleotides is called a polynucleotide. The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating sugar residues; the sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, a pentose sugar. The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings; these are known as the 3′-end, 5′-end carbons, the prime symbol being used to distinguish these carbon atoms from those of the base to which the deoxyribose forms a glycosidic bond. When imagining DNA, each phosphoryl is considered to "belong" to the nucleotide whose 5′ carbon forms a bond therewith. Any DNA strand therefore has one end at which there is a phosphoryl attached to the 5′ carbon of a ribose and another end a