Penicuik is a town and former burgh in Midlothian, lying on the west bank of the River North Esk. It lies on the A701 midway between Peebles, east of the Pentland Hills, its population at the 2011 census was 15,926 computed according to the 2010 definition of the locality. The town was developed as a planned village in 1770 by Sir James Clerk of Penicuik, it became a burgh in 1867. The town was well known for its paper mills, the last of which closed in 2004. More the town was home to the Edinburgh Crystal works. Penicuik has Penicuik High School and Beeslack Community High School. Crystal FM is the Community Radio Station serving Penicuik & S W Midlothian on 107.4FM. The town's name is pronounced'Pennycook' and is derived from Pen Y Cog, meaning "Hill of the Cuckoo" in the Old Brythonic language. Penicuik is the biggest settlement in Midlothian. Near Penicuik is Glencorse Parish Kirk, which formed part of the inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped; some of the streets nearby are named after its sequel, Catriona.
Penicuik is home to the Royal Highland Fusiliers, 2nd Battalion The Royal Regiment of Scotland, garrisoned in Glencorse Barracks. Penicuik is twinned with the town of L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue in France. In 1296 Thomas Rymer's Foedera mentions a "Walter Edgar a person of Penicok south of Edenburgh", which logically can only be what is now called Penicuik. Penycook appears as the name on John Adair's map of 1682; the ruined old parish church, in the centre of the graveyard, dates from the late 17th century. The site of Penicuik was home to the paper mill established by Agnes Campbell in 1709. A monument in the churchyard reads "1737, Annabel Millar spouse to Thomas Rutherford Papermaker at Pennycuik". Around 1770, the arrival of the Cowan family, their expansion of the paper mill, led to the need for homes for their workers; the hamlet of Penicuik was expanded as a planned town by Sir James Clerk of Penicuik, the builder of nearby Penicuik House, by 1800 the population had risen to 1,700. Penicuik was the site of a prison camp for French prisoners during the Napoleonic Wars.
The former camp is now the site of a housing development in Valleyfield. A monument dated 1830 by the River Esk commemorates "the mortal remains of 309 prisoners of war who died 1811–14", it was erected by owner of the paper mill, whose house overlooked the burial site. Penicuik hosted the inaugural Grand Match in curling, between the north and the south of Scotland, in 1847; this took place on the "high pond" on the estate of Penicuik House, not the "low pond", still used for curling on rare occasions. The town became a burgh in 1867. In the oldest part of Penicuik, surrounding the town centre and to the south of the former POW camp, crossing the river Esk is Pomathorn Bridge, once a toll bridge and the main route between Edinburgh to the north and the Scottish Borders to the south; as such Penicuik has a number of ancient travellers' inns, including The Crown, the Royal. Because of their location on such a busy caravan route, both these public houses advertise the patronage of many characters from Scottish 18th-century history, including alleged visits from Burke and Hare and Bonnie Prince Charlie.
The Cowan Instituite in the town centre was funded by the Cowan family and designed by Campbell Douglas in 1893. The town, whilst architecturally undistinguished, contains two masterpieces by Frederick Thomas Pilkington: the South Church (originally the United Free Church, of 1862; the Penicuik war memorial was designed by Sir Robert Lorimer and dates from 1920. There are six primary schools in Penicuik, Cuiken Primary, Cornbank St James Primary, Sacred Heart Primary, Strathesk Primary, Glencorse Primary and Mauricewood Primary. There are two high schools, Penicuik High School and Beeslack High School. Paper-making is thought to have started here in 1709; the best firm evidence of early paper-making lies in the parish churchyard, where the grave of Thomas Rutherford, dated 1735, describes him as "papermaker". There were at least two established paper-mills in the town. In 1776 Charles Cowan a grocer in Leith, established the Cowan Valleyfield Mills. In 1796, Cowan brought in Alexander Cowan, to manage the mill.
An adjacent corn mill was purchased in 1803, becoming known as Bank Mill after he converted it to produce the paper on which banknotes were printed. The Valleyfield Mills were used as a prisoner-of-war camp from March 1811 until September 1814 referred to as the Napoleonic War but more at this period being the Peninsular War. In 1830 Cowan erected a monument to memory of 309 prisoners who died here to the north side of the mills. Apart from a small mill chapel and school, today the monument is all that survives and the mills themselves have gone. Only the road names now echo this part of the town's history. Paper was produced at Eskmill which has become a site for private housing; the Dalmore paper mill on the North Esk river at Auchendinny closed in 2004. Penicuik experiences a maritime climate with mild winters; the town's somewhat elevated position means it is more susceptible to snowfall than nearby Edinburgh. Temperature extremes since 1960 range from 30.2 °C during July 1983 to −19
Sir John Clerk, 2nd Baronet
Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, 2nd Baronet was a Scottish politician, lawyer and composer. He was Vice-President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, the pre-eminent learned society of the Scottish Enlightenment, he was the father of George Clerk Maxwell and John Clerk of Eldin, both of them friends of James Hutton and the great-great-grandfather of the famous physicist James Clerk Maxwell. John Clerk was son of Sir John Clerk, 1st Baronet by his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Henderson of Elvington, he had a legal education first at University of Glasgow and at Leiden University. During 1697 and 1698 he went in 1700 was admitted to the Scottish Bar, he was a member of the Parliament of Scotland for Whithorn from 1702 to 1707, a Commissioner for the Union of Parliaments for the Whig Party: he sat in the first Parliament of Great Britain in 1707. He was appointed a Baron of the Exchequer for Scotland on the constitution of the Exchequer Court, 13 May 1708, a position he held for nearly half a century.
With Baron Scrope, in 1726, he drew up an Historical View of the Forms and Powers of the Court of Exchequer in Scotland, printed at the expense of the Barons of Exchequer for private circulation. A leading supporter of the Act of Union 1707 with the Kingdom of England, Clerk wrote in his memoirs of English novelist and secret agent Daniel Defoe that it was not known at the time that Defoe had been sent by Godolphin: "... to give a faithful account to him from time to time how everything past here. He was therefor a spy among us, but not known to be such, otherways the Mob of Edin. had pull him to pieces". Of his other treatises, Clerk wrote papers in the Philosophical Transactions: one an Account of the Stylus of the Ancients and their different sorts of Paper, printed in 1731, the others On the effects of Thunder on Trees and Of a large Deer's Horns found in the heart of an Oak, printed in 1739, he was the author of a tract entitled Dissertatio de quibusdam Monumentis Romanis &c, written in 1730 but not published until 1750.
For upwards of twenty years he carried on a learned correspondence with Roger Gale, the English antiquary, which forms a portion of the Reliquiae Britannica of 1782. Sir John Clerk was one of the friends and patrons of the poet Allan Ramsay who, during his latter years, spent much of his time at Penicuik House, his son, Sir James Clerk, erected at the family seat an obelisk to Ramsay's memory. Sir John was a patron to various other artists and architects, dabbled in architecture himself. Clerk had a musical bent and while in Rome may have been tutored by the baroque composer Arcangelo Corelli, but his own work has been overlooked since the only record of his composition seems to be his own papers. One of his humorous songs was. Sir John succeeded his father in his title and estates in 1722, he unsuccessfully courted Susanna, daughter of Sir Archibald Kennedy of Culzean and that correspondence is in the National Archives. She became the third wife of Alexander, 9th Earl of Eglinton, he married, firstly, on 23 February 1701, Lady Margaret, eldest daughter of Alexander Stewart, 3rd Earl of Galloway who died in childbirth on 26 December that year.
Her son, survived, but died unmarried in 1722. Sir John married again, to Janet, daughter of Sir John Inglis of Cramond, by whom he had seven sons and six daughters, he died at Penicuik House on 4 October 1755. Footnotes Citations Allsop, Peter. Arcangelo Corelli: new Orpheus of our times Oxford monographs on music, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-816562-5, ISBN 978-0-19-816562-0 Anderson, The Scottish Nation, Vol. III, p. 653-4. Backscheider, Paula R.. Daniel Defoe: his life, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 0-8018-3785-5, ISBN 978-0-8018-3785-2 John Burke A General and heraldic dictionary of the peerage and baronetage of the British Empire, Volume 1, H. Colburn and R. Bentley. Colvin, Howard. A biographical dictionary of British architects, 1600-1840, Edition 4, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-12508-9, ISBN 978-0-300-12508-5. Clerk, Sir John, pp. 257–259. Trevelyan, George Macaulay. England under Queen Anne, Volume 2, Green and Co. Wilson, John James; the annals of Penicuik: being a history of the parish and of the village, Priv.
Print. by T.& A. Constable, The Clerk Family, Penicuik House Project, Retrieved 9 December 2009. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: The Scottish Nation by William Anderson Clerk, Sir, 1676–1755. Memoirs of the life of Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, baron of the Exchequer, extracted by himself from his own journals, 1676-1755, Printed at the University press by T. and A. Constable for the Scottish history society, 1892. On the website of The Internet Archive, retrieved 2009-12-09 Digitised scores of his musical works can be viewed through the Five Centuries of Scottish Music collection hosted by AHDS Performing Arts A recording of his cantatas is available from Hyperion
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Allan Ramsay (poet)
Allan Ramsay was a Scottish poet, publisher and impresario of early Enlightenment Edinburgh. Allan Ramsay was born at Leadhills, Lanarkshire, to John Ramsay, superintendent of Lord Hopetoun's lead-mines and his wife, Alice Bower, a native of Derbyshire. Allan Ramsay and his elder brother Robert attended the parish school at Crawfordjohn. In 1701 Allan was apprenticed to a wig-maker in Edinburgh and received his indentures back by 1709, he married Christian Ross in 1712. They had six children, his eldest child was the portrait painter. Ramsay's first efforts in verse-making were inspired by the meetings of the Easy Club, of which he was an original member. In the society of the members he assumed the name of "Isaac Bickerstaff," and of "Gawin Douglas," the latter in memory of his maternal grandfather Douglas of Muthill, to give point to his boast that he was a "poet sprung from a Douglas loin." The choice of the two names has some significance, when we consider his literary life as the associate of the Queen Anne poets and as a collector of old Lowland Scots poetry.
By 1718 he had made some reputation as a writer of occasional verse, which he published in broadsheets, he turned bookseller in the premises where he had hitherto plied his craft of wig-making. In 1716 he had published a rough transcript of "Christ's Kirk on the Green" from the Bannatyne Manuscript, with some additions of his own. In 1718 he republished the piece with more supplementary verses. In the following year he printed a collection of Scots Songs; the success of these ventures prompted him to collect his poems in 1720 and publish a volume in 1721. The volume was issued by subscription, brought in the sum of four hundred guineas. Four years he removed to another shop, in the neighbouring Luckenbooths, where he opened a circulating library and extended his business as a bookseller. Ramsay is considered to have created the first circulating library in Britain when he rented books from his shop in 1726. Between the publication of the collected edition of his poems and his settling down in the Luckenbooths, he had published a few shorter poems and had issued the first instalments of The Tea-Table Miscellany and The Ever Green.
The Tea-Table Miscellany is "A Collection of Choice Songs Scots and English," containing some of Ramsay's own, some by his friends, several well-known ballads and songs, some Caroline verse. Its title was suggested by the programme of The Spectator: as Addison had sought for his speculations the hour set apart "for tea and bread and butter," so Ramsay laid claim to that place for his songs "e'en while the tea's fill'd reeking round."In The Ever Green: being a Collection of Scots Poems wrote by the Ingenious before 1600, Ramsay had another purpose, to reawaken an interest in the older national literature. Nearly all the pieces were taken from the Bannatyne manuscript, though they are by no means verbatim copies, they included his version of "Christ's Kirk" and a remarkable pastiche by the editor entitled "The Vision". While engaged on these two series, he produced, in his dramatic pastoral The Gentle Shepherd. In the volume of poems published in 1721 Ramsay had shown his bent to this genre in "Patie and Roger," which supplies two of the dramatis personae to his greater work.
The success of the drama was remarkable. It passed through several editions, was performed at the theatre in Edinburgh. In 1726 he published anonymously Poems in English and Latin, on the Archers and Royal Company of Archers, by several Hands for the Royal Company of Archers, he wrote the words to the Archer's March, Another volume of his poems appeared in 1728. Ramsay wrote little afterwards, though he published a few shorter poems, new editions of his earlier work. A complete edition of his Poems appeared in London in 1731 and in Dublin in 1733. With a touch of vanity he expressed the fear lest "the coolness of fancy that attends advanced years should make me risk the reputation I had acquired." He was on terms of intimacy with the leading men of letters in Scotland and England. He corresponded with William Hamilton of William Somervile, John Gay and Alexander Pope. Gay visited him in Edinburgh, Pope praised his pastoral—compliments which were undoubtedly responsible for some of Ramsay's unhappy poetic ventures beyond his Scots vernacular.
The poet had for many years been a warm supporter of the stage. Some of his prologues and epilogues were written for the London theatres. In 1736 he set about the erection of a new theatre, "at vast expense," in Carrubber's Close, Edinburgh. In 1755 he retired from his shop to the house on the slope of the Castle Rock, still known as Ramsay Lodge; this house was called by his friends "the goose-pie," because of its octagonal shape. He is buried at Edinburgh; the grave itself is unmarked but a monument was erected to his memory on the south wall of Greyfriars Kirk in the mid-19th century. In 1846 Ramsay was depicted as one of sixteen Scottish poets and writers on the lower section of the Scott Monument on Princes Street in Edinburgh. Ramsay's statue was erected in 1850 at the corner of Princes Street Gardens and the Mound in the centre of Edinburgh. There is a hotel located in Carlops named after him; the hotel hosted a festival in his and his
Susanna Montgomery, Countess of Eglinton
Susanna Montgomery, Countess of Eglinton was the third wife of Alexander Montgomerie, 9th Earl of Eglinton. She lived as a widow for nearly 51 years before dying at Auchans in 1780, aged 90; the surname of the family is rendered as Montgomerie and she signed herself as S. Eglintoune. Born at Culzean Castle in 1690, Lady Eglinton was the daughter of Sir Archibald Kennedy, 1st Baronet of Culzean, the Hon. Elizabeth Leslie, daughter of David Leslie, 1st Lord Newark. Lady Eglinton was celebrated for her beauty, for her patronage of the Scottish poets and writers of her day, she was exceptional in her knowledge of art, literature, science and history. Her interest in literature was seen by her contemporaries to be distinctly odd for one of her station. Sir William Fraser, the Scottish historian, said that "to her loveliness were added the more valuable attractions of genius and great accomplishment." Fullarton suggests that Susanna's personality owed much to her maternal grandfather, General David Leslie Lord Newark.
She was beautiful and at 6 foot, unusually tall for those times. It is stated that, on her arrival with her father in Edinburgh around the time of the Union, she was surrounded by wooers. One of these, Sir John Clerk, baronet, of Pennycuik, was deemed likeliest to succeed, but was unsuccessful, she instead married the 9th Earl. When Susanna's father consulted him as to the propriety of the match, the earl, whose second countess was alive but in a long-continued state of ill health, purportedly replied, "Bide awee, Sir Archie, my wife’s sickly." Soon afterwards his second wife died of natural causes and he married again, this being to his third countess. Susanna did not accept, but the earl won through in spite of numerous rivals. One story relates that she had long been destined to marry the 9th Earl, for one day whilst out walking at Culzean, a hawk belonging to the Earl landed on her shoulder when she called to it and those observing saw it as a clear omen once the silver bells around its neck were seen to carry the name of the earl.
She was married for a widow at the age of 40, living for another 51 years. She brought to the family a way of walking in a stately fashion which became known as'the Eglinton air'; the Gentle Shepherd, first published in 1725, was dedicated to her by Allan Ramsay and Hamilton of Bangour wrote flattering verse to Susanna, Lady Eglinton and her daughters. A roundelay entitled The Lovely Eglintoune became well-known throughout Scotland, being composed by Hamilton of Bangour. Ramsay referred to her penetration, superior wit and sound judgement........ Accompanied with the diviner charms of goodness and equality of mind. Samuel Boyse dedicated a volume of poems to her. Several other publications of the period were inscribed to her, to her Ramsay dedicated the music of his first book of songs. At a period he presented to the countess the original manuscript of his great pastoral poem, which she afterwards gave to James Boswell, it was for many years preserved in the library at Auchinleck House, along with the presentation letter of the poet.
She attended the court of King George II in 1730 and had caught the eye of the Queen, Caroline of Ansbach. King George II described her as the most beautiful woman in my dominions. Susanna's special entertainments were magnificent and it was said that they were if equalled in any private mansion, she refused to attend the procession at the coronation of King George III in 1760 because of her Jacobite sympathies. Susanna retained her figure and complexion until her death because she never used paint or cosmetics and daily washed her face with sow's milk and drank it, recommending this treatment to others, her eyes' colour, went from the blue of forget-me-not to the light blue of speedwells. She once said to her daughter, Lady Bettie, "What would you give to be as pretty as I am?" to which Lady Bettie replied, "Not half as much as you would give to be as young as I am." Cummell in her lifetime recorded that her complexion was like "rhododendron and rose flowers dipped in milk." Her daughter Helen once commented, "Who can surpass Mama?
She has not aged a day in fourty years." It was believed that Susanna had discovered the secret of eternal youth, showing no signs of her beauty lessening at the age of sixty. When she and her daughters were in Edinburgh, the caddies at the Cross were said to be dumbfounded by their beauty as they stepped from their sedan chairs. Paterson records that "Susanna Countess of Eglintoun was amiable and beautiful. A portrait of her ladyship when young was in the possession of the late Mr Sharpe, he had a miniature of her in her 81st year, when she was a fine looking, stout old lady. Her blue eyes grew lighter in colour as she advanced in years." Her portrait still hangs in Culzean Castle. Dr. Robert Chambers recorded that "In her bed-rooms was hung a portrait of her sovereign de jure, the ill-starred Charles Edward, so situated as to be the first object which met her sight on awaking in the morning." Her husband had been a covert Jacobite. A full-length portrait of Susanna as Countess in her robes was painted by Allan Ramsay and was sold at the 1925 auction of the contents of Eglinton Castle.
Allan was the eldest son of Allan Ramsay the poet, who had dedicated'The Gentle Shepherd' to Susanna. This painting now hangs in Culzean Castle. Robert Campbell records; the Montgomerie family owned a number of coal mines or pits and Susanna was
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce