Location shooting is the shooting of a film or television production in a real-world setting rather than a sound stage or backlot. The location may be exterior; the filming location may be the same in which the story is set, or it may stand in for a different locale. Most films feature a combination of studio shoots. Second unit photography is not considered a location shoot. Before filming, the locations are surveyed in pre-production, a process known as location scouting and recce. Location shooting has several advantages over filming on a studio set. First and foremost, the expense can be far lower than that of constructing sets in a studio; the illusion of reality can be stronger. Shooting outside of the home country is sometimes used to bypass union rules, labor regulations, or work stoppages, it can allow "frozen" currency to be used: the 1968 movie Kelly's Heroes was filmed in Yugoslavia using profits, made on movie exhibitions in that country but could not be exported. Conversely, there are a number of reasons.
Shooting on a set gives the crew a greater control over the environment: a room may be created to the exacting specifications of the story, for example, there is no need to shut down street traffic when shooting on a backlot. Additionally, a given location may have inconvenient restrictions; the convenience store where Clerks was shot was open during the day, so the crew could only shoot at night. Location shooting takes place close to the studio. Many location shoots, are far from the home studio, sometimes on the other side of the world. In these instances, location shooting can provide significant economic development benefits to the area in which they are shot. Cast and crew rely upon local facilities such as catering and accommodations. A film that becomes a blockbuster hit can introduce movie audiences around the world to a visually breathtaking location that they were unaware of, as the Lord of the Rings trilogy did for New Zealand; this can boost tourism for years or decades. Location shooting requires a location manager, locations are chosen by a location scout.
Many popular locations, such as New York City in the United States, Toronto in Canada, the Isle of Man in the United Kingdom, have dedicated film offices to encourage location shooting, to suggest appropriate locations to film-makers. In many cases a second unit is dispatched to film on location, with a second unit director and sometimes with stand-in actors; these shots can be edited into the final film or TV program alongside studio-shot sequences, to give an authentic flavor, without the expense or trouble of a full-scale location shoot. NYPD Blue, for example, was filmed in Los Angeles, but used second unit footage of New York City for color, as well as featuring a small number of episodes filmed on location with the cast. Filming location Location library Filmmaking
The Courageous Dr. Christian
The Courageous Dr. Christian is a 1940 American film directed by Bernard Vorhaus. Kindhearted Dr. Paul Christian is appalled by the harsh living conditions of homeless inhabitants of Squatterstown, he lets one of the homeless, Dave Williams, to live with him, goes on to ask the city to build housing for the poor. He realizes that it is the powerful Mrs. Norma Stewart that has the last say in the matter since it is her property they would build on. Mrs. Stewart has long been in love with Dr. Christian, sends her two wards Jack and Ruth Williams to him, with the deed and a letter with the conditions under which she will donate the property to the city, that the good doctor agrees to marry her. However, the message is not delivered, since the children throws away the letter, the doctor only gets the deed. Too late does the doctor realize the price he must pay for the property, the city backs out on their agreement to build housing for the poor and homeless; the result is that the homeless have nowhere to go, have to move into another vacant lot with no proper housing.
Before the police can remove the unwanted new tenants, an epidemic spreads in the area, Dr. Christian puts the whole area in quarantine; the city inhabitants become aware of the horrible conditions of the homeless and soon voices are raised to build public housing. The story ends with Dr. Christian being released from his contract with Mrs. Stewart, as she gets more involved with raising her wards. Homeless Dave is overjoyed with all the sympathy shown by the city's inhabitants and start to believe in a brighter future after all. Jean Hersholt as Dr. Paul Christian Dorothy Lovett as Judy Price Robert Baldwin as Roy Davis Tom Neal as Dave Williams Maude Eburne as Mrs. Hastings Vera Lewis as Mrs. Norma Stewart George Meader as Harry Johnson Bobby Larson as Jack Williams Bobette Bentley as Ruth Williams Reginald Barlow as Sam Jacqueline De River as Martha Edmund Glover as Tommy Wood Mary Davenport as Jane Wood Earle Ross as Grandpa Sylvia Andrew as Mrs. Sam Catherine Courtney as Mrs. Morris Al Bridge as Sheriff James C. Morton as Bailey Fred Holmes as Wilson Frank LaRue as Stanley Budd Buster as Jones Broderick O'Farrell as Harris The Courageous Dr. Christian on IMDb The Courageous Dr. Christian is available for free download at the Internet Archive
George Merritt (actor)
Frederick George Merritt was an English theatre and television actor in authoritarian roles. He studied German theatre in Magdeburg and taught at the Berlitz School at the outbreak of the First World War, when he was held as a British Civil Prisoner of War, interned at Ruhleben, 1914–1918, he was involved in over 50 plays at Ruhleben. George Merritt on IMDb
Sir David Lean was an English film director, producer and editor, responsible for large-scale epics such as The Bridge on the River Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia, Doctor Zhivago and A Passage to India. He directed adaptations of Charles Dickens novels Great Expectations and Oliver Twist, the romantic drama Brief Encounter. A film editor in the early 1930s, Lean made his directorial debut with 1942's In Which We Serve, the first of four collaborations with Noël Coward. Beginning with Summertime in 1955, Lean began to make internationally co-produced films financed by the big Hollywood studios. In 1984 he had a career revival with A Passage to India, adapted from E. M. Forster's novel. Lean's affinity for striking visuals and inventive editing techniques has led him to be lauded by directors such as Steven Spielberg, Stanley Kubrick, Martin Scorsese, Ridley Scott. Lean was voted 9th greatest film director of all time in the British Film Institute Sight & Sound "Directors' Top Directors" poll in 2002.
Nominated seven times for the Academy Award for Best Director, which he won twice for The Bridge on the River Kwai and Lawrence of Arabia, he has seven films in the British Film Institute's Top 100 British Films and was awarded the AFI Life Achievement Award in 1990. Lean was born at 38 Blenheim Crescent, South Croydon, Surrey, to Francis William le Blount Lean and the former Helena Tangye, his parents were Quakers and he was a pupil at the Quaker-founded Leighton Park School in Reading. His younger brother, Edward Tangye Lean, founded the original Inklings literary club when a student at Oxford University. Lean was a half-hearted schoolboy with a dreamy nature, labeled a "dud" of a student. A more formative event for his career than his formal education was an uncle's gift, when Lean was aged ten, of a Brownie box camera. "You didn't give a boy a camera until he was 16 or 17 in those days. It was a huge compliment and I succeeded at it.' Lean printed and developed his films, it was his'great hobby'.
In 1923, his father deserted the family when he ran off with another woman, Lean would follow a similar path after his own first marriage and child. Bored by his work, Lean spent every evening in the cinema, in 1927, after an aunt had advised him to find a job he enjoyed, he visited Gaumont Studios where his obvious enthusiasm earned him a month's trial without pay, he was taken on as a teaboy, promoted to clapperboy, soon rose to the position of third assistant director. By 1930 he was working as an editor on newsreels, including those of Gaumont Pictures and Movietone, while his move to feature films began with Freedom of the Seas and Escape Me Never, he edited Gabriel Pascal's film productions of two George Bernard Shaw plays and Major Barbara. He edited One of Our Aircraft Is Missing. After this last film, Lean began his directing career, after editing more than two dozen features by 1942; as Tony Sloman wrote in 1999, "As the varied likes of David Lean, Robert Wise, Terence Fisher and Dorothy Arzner have proved, the cutting rooms are the finest grounding for film direction."
David Lean was given honorary membership of the Guild of British Film Editors in 1968. His first work as a director was in collaboration with Noël Coward on In Which We Serve, he adapted several of Coward's plays into successful films; these films are This Happy Breed, Blithe Spirit and Brief Encounter with Celia Johnson and Trevor Howard as understated clandestine lovers, torn between their unpredictable passion and their respective orderly middle-class marriages in suburban England. The film shared Grand Prix honors at the 1946 Cannes film festival and garnered Lean his first Academy nominations for directing and screen adaptation, Celia Johnson a nomination for Best Actress, it has since become a classic, one of the most regarded British films. Two celebrated Charles Dickens adaptations followed – Great Expectations and Oliver Twist. David Shipman wrote in The Story of Cinema: Volume Two: "Of the other Dickens films, only Cukor's David Copperfield approaches the excellence of this pair because his casting, was near perfect".
These two films were the first directed by Lean to star Alec Guinness, whom Lean considered his "good luck charm". The actor's portrayal of Fagin was controversial at the time; the first screening in Berlin during February 1949 offended the surviving Jewish community and led to a riot. It caused problems too in New York, after private screenings, was condemned by the Anti-Defamation League and the American Board of Rabbis. "To our surprise it was accused of being anti-Semitic", Lean wrote. "We made Fagin an outsize and, we hoped, an amusing Jewish villain." The terms of the production code meant that the film's release in the United States was delayed until July 1951 after cuts amounting to eight minutes. The next film directed by Lean was The Passionate Friends, an atypical Lean film, but one which marked his first occasion to work with Claude Rains, who played the husband of a woman torn between
A mystery film is a genre of film that revolves around the solution of a problem or a crime. It focuses on the efforts of the detective, private investigator or amateur sleuth to solve the mysterious circumstances of an issue by means of clues and clever deduction; the plot centers on the deductive ability, confidence, or diligence of the detective as they attempt to unravel the crime or situation by piecing together clues and circumstances, seeking evidence, interrogating witnesses, tracking down a criminal. Suspense is maintained as an important plot element; this can be done through the use of the soundtrack, camera angles, heavy shadows, surprising plot twists. Alfred Hitchcock used all of these techniques, but would sometimes allow the audience in on a pending threat draw out the moment for dramatic effect; this genre has ranged from early mystery tales, fictional or literary detective stories, to classic Hitchcockian suspense-thrillers to classic private detective films. A related film subgenre is spy films.
Mystery films focus with solving a crime or a puzzle. The mystery revolves around a murder which must be solved by policemen, private detectives, or amateur sleuths; the viewer is presented with a series of suspects, some of whom are "red herrings," –persons who have motive to commit the crime but did not do it–, attempts to solve the puzzle along with the investigator. At times the viewer is presented with information not available to the main character; the central character explores the unsolved crime, unmasks the perpetrator, puts an end to the effects of the villainy. The successful mystery film adheres to one of two story types, known as Closed; the Closed mystery conceals the identity of the perpetrator until late in the story, adding an element of suspense during the apprehension of the suspect, as the audience is never quite sure who it is. The Open mystery, in contrast, reveals the identity of the perpetrator at the top of the story, showcasing the "perfect crime" which the audience watches the protagonist unravel at the end of the story, akin to the unveiling scenes in the Closed style.
Mystery novels have proven to be a good medium for translation into film. The sleuth forms a strong leading character, the plots can include elements of drama, character development and surprise twists; the locales of the mystery tale are of a mundane variety, requiring little in the way of expensive special effects. Successful mystery writers can produce a series of books based on the same sleuth character, providing rich material for sequels; until at least the 1980s, women in mystery films have served a dual role, providing a relationship with the detective and playing the part of woman-in-peril. The women in these films are resourceful individuals, being self-reliant, determined and as duplicitous, they can provide the triggers for the events that follow, or serve as an element of suspense as helpless victims. The earliest mystery films reach back to the silent era; the first detective film is cited as Sherlock Holmes Baffled, a short Mutoscope reel created between 1900 and 1903 by Arthur Marvin.
It is the earliest-known film to feature the character of detective Sherlock Holmes, albeit in a recognisable form. In France, the popular Nick Carter detective novels inspired the first film serial, Nick Carter, le roi des détectives; this six-episode series was followed with Nouveaux aventures de Nick Carter in 1909. Louis Feuillade created the popular Fantômas serial based on the best-selling serial novel about a super-criminal pursued by a stubborn inspector Juve. Dujardin wears a mask and costume similar to Fantomas' in an apparent tribute in The Artist, a nostalgic 2011 film about silent cinema.) Detective serials by Feuillade include The Vampires, Tih Minh, Barrabas. Feuillade's films, which combined realism, poetic imagery, pure fantasy, influenced the American The Perils of Pauline, directors such as René Clair, Surrealists such as André Breton; the earliest true mystery films include The Gold Bug from France, The Murders in the Rue Morgue. Both are derived from stories by Edgar Allan Poe, appropriate as Poe is credited with creating modern detective fiction as well as the first private detective character, C.
Auguste Dupin. Universal Pictures renamed him Pierre Dupin in Murders in the Rue Morgue, an atmospheric horror-mystery starring Bela Lugosi; the film was remade twice more in 1953 and 1971. Poe's second Dupin story, The Mystery of Marie Rogêt, was filmed in 1942. More The Raven presented a fictionalized account of the last days of Poe's life. Here, the author pursues a mysterious serial killer whose murders are directly inspired by his stories. Charles Dickens' unfinished novel The Mystery of Edwin Drood was completed by another author and adapted to the screen. Two films, now believed lost, were made in 1909 and 1914. Universal produced The Mystery of Edwin Drood; the story was remade again in 1993. Universal, known for its long list of classic horror films created the first supernatural horror-whodunit hybrid with Night Monster. American author Mary Roberts Rinehart, is credited with inventing the "Had-I-But-Known" school of mystery writing, her 1920 "old dark house" novel The Bat was filmed as The Bat, as The Bat Whispers, a third time a remake, The Bat, starring Vincent Price.
Another movie based on a play, The Cat and the Canary, pioneered the "co
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once
Sir Felix Edward Aylmer Jones, OBE, known as Felix Aylmer, was an English stage actor who appeared in the cinema and on television. Aylmer made appearances in films with comedians such as George Formby. Felix Aylmer was born in Corsham, the son of Lilian and Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Edward Aylmer Jones, he was educated at King James's Grammar School, near Huddersfield, where he was a boarder from 1897 to 1900, Magdalen College School, Exeter College, where he was a member of Oxford University Dramatic Society. He trained under the Victorian-era actress and director Rosina Filippi before securing his first professional engagement at the London Coliseum in 1911, he appeared in the world premiere of The Farmer's Wife by Eden Phillpotts at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in 1917. He acted with Sir Laurence Olivier in Shakespearean films, appearing as Polonius in Hamlet, played wise old men, such as Merlin in Knights of the Round Table, he played the Archbishop of Canterbury in the film adaptation of Becket, with Richard Burton and Peter O'Toole and gave elocution lessons to the young Audrey Hepburn.
His memorable style of delivery—dignified and learned— was mimicked by comedians such as Peter Sellers and Kenneth Williams. Indeed, as dramatist and barrister John Mortimer noted, the mannerisms Aylmer brought to bear in his roles came to be imitated in real life by judges on the bench. Williams observed that an impersonation of Aylmer was a speciality of a colleague during his days with ENSA, the Armed Forces Entertainment Association, but he was certain that none of the troops knew, being impersonated. Aylmer was President of Equity from 1950 to 1969, he was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1950 King's Birthday Honours and knighted in the 1965 Queen's Birthday Honours. At the age of 80 Felix Aylmer played a villain in an episode of Randall and Hopkirk entitled "It's Supposed to be Thicker than Water", his last major screen role was as the Abbot in the sitcom Oh, Brother!, opposite Derek Nimmo. He appeared as a doctor in an episode of the TV series Jason King called "If It's Got To Go, It's Got To Go" in 1972, at the age of 83.
Aylmer died in a nursing home, aged 90, in Pyrford, Surrey in 1979. He married Cecily Minnie Jane Byrne during the First World War, they had two children. Dickens Incognito The Drood Case Felix Aylmer on IMDb Performances in the theatre archive, University of Bristol Felix Aylmer at the Internet Broadway Database Felix Aylmer at Find a Grave