Dewey Decimal Classification
The Dewey Decimal Classification, colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Described in a four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011, it is available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers; the Decimal Classification introduced the concepts of relative location and relative index which allow new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. Libraries had given books permanent shelf locations that were related to the order of acquisition rather than topic; the classification's notation makes use of three-digit Arabic numerals for main classes, with fractional decimals allowing expansion for further detail.
Using Arabic numerals for symbols, it is flexible to the degree that numbers can be expanded in linear fashion to cover special aspects of general subjects. A library assigns a classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume in a position relative to other books in the library, on the basis of its subject; the number makes it possible to find any book and to return it to its proper place on the library shelves. The classification system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries. Melvil Dewey was self-declared reformer, he was a founding member of the American Library Association and can be credited with the promotion of card systems in libraries and business. He developed the ideas for his library classification system in 1873 while working at Amherst College library, he applied the classification to the books in that library, until in 1876 he had a first version of the classification. In 1876, he published the classification in pamphlet form with the title A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library.
He used the pamphlet, published in more than one version during the year, to solicit comments from other librarians. It is not known who received copies or how many commented as only one copy with comments has survived, that of Ernest Cushing Richardson, his classification system was mentioned in an article in the first issue of the Library Journal and in an article by Dewey in the Department of Education publication "Public Libraries in America" in 1876. In March 1876, he applied for, received copyright on the first edition of the index; the edition was 44 pages in length, with 2,000 index entries, was printed in 200 copies. The second edition of the Dewey Decimal system, published in 1885 with the title Decimal Classification and Relativ Index for arranging and indexing public and private libraries and for pamflets, notes, scrap books, index rerums, etc. comprised 314 pages, with 10,000 index entries. Five hundred copies were produced. Editions 3–14, published between 1888 and 1942, used a variant of this same title.
Dewey modified and expanded his system for the second edition. In an introduction to that edition Dewey states that "nearly 100 persons hav contributed criticisms and suggestions". One of the innovations of the Dewey Decimal system was that of positioning books on the shelves in relation to other books on similar topics; when the system was first introduced, most libraries in the US used fixed positioning: each book was assigned a permanent shelf position based on the book's height and date of acquisition. Library stacks were closed to all but the most privileged patrons, so shelf browsing was not considered of importance; the use of the Dewey Decimal system increased during the early 20th century as librarians were convinced of the advantages of relative positioning and of open shelf access for patrons. New editions were readied as supplies of published editions were exhausted though some editions provided little change from the previous, as they were needed to fulfill demand. In the next decade, three editions followed on: the 3rd, 4th, 5th.
Editions 6 through 11 were published from 1899 to 1922. The 6th edition was published in a record 7,600 copies, although subsequent editions were much lower. During this time, the size of the volume grew, edition 12 swelled to 1243 pages, an increase of 25% over the previous edition. In response to the needs of smaller libraries which were finding the expanded classification schedules difficult to use, in 1894, the first abridged edition of the Dewey Decimal system was produced; the abridged edition parallels the full edition, has been developed for most full editions since that date. By popular request, in 1930, the Library of Congress began to print Dewey Classification numbers on nearly all of its cards, thus making the system available to all libraries making use of the Library of Congress card sets. Dewey's was not the only library classification available. Charles Ammi Cutter published the Expansive Classification in 1882, with initial encouragement from Melvil Dewey. Cutter's system was not adopted by many libraries, with one major exception: it was used as the basis for the Library of Congress Classification system.
In 1895, the International Institute of Bibliography, located in Belgium and led by Paul Otlet, contacted Dewey about the possibility of translating the classification into French, using the classification system for bibliographies. This would have
The Navajos are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States. The Navajo people are politically divided between two federally recognized tribes, the Navajo Nation and the Colorado River Indian Tribes. At more than 300,000 enrolled tribal members as of 2015, the Navajo Nation is the second-largest federally recognized tribe in the U. S. and has the largest reservation in the country. The reservation straddles the Four Corners region and covers more than 27,000 square miles of land in Arizona and New Mexico; the Navajo language is spoken throughout the region, most Navajo speak English. The states with the largest Navajo populations are New Mexico. More than three-quarters of the enrolled Navajo population resides in these two states; the Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan language. The language comprises mutually intelligible dialects; the Apache language is related to the Navajo language. Speakers of various other Athabaskan languages located in Canada may still comprehend the Navajo language despite the geographic and linguistic deviation of the languages.
Additionally, some Navajo speak Navajo Sign Language, either a dialect or daughter of Plains Sign Talk. Some speak Plains Sign Talk itself. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo and Apache entered the Southwest around 1400 CE; the Navajo oral tradition is said to retain references to this migration. Until contact with the Pueblo and the Spanish peoples, the Navajo were hunters and gatherers; the tribe adopted crop-farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing the traditional "Three Sisters" of corn and squash. After the Spanish colonists influenced the people, the Navajo began keeping and herding livestock—sheep and goats—as a main source of trade and food. Meat became an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep became a form of currency and status symbols among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, women began to weave wool into blankets and clothing. Oral history indicates a long relationship with Pueblo people and a willingness to incorporate Puebloan ideas and linguistic variance into their culture.
There were long-established trading practices between the groups. Spanish records from the mid-16th century recount the Pueblo exchanging maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat and stone from Athabaskans traveling to the pueblos or living in their vicinity. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajo maintaining large herds of livestock and cultivating large crop areas. Western historians believe that the Spanish before 1600 referred to the Navajo as Apaches or Quechos. Fray Geronimo de Zarate-Salmeron, in Jemez in 1622, used Apachu de Nabajo in the 1620s to refer to the people in the Chama Valley region, east of the San Juan River and northwest of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. Navahu comes from the Tewa language. By the 1640s, the Spanish began using the term Navajo to refer to the Diné. During the 1670s, the Spanish wrote that the Diné lived in a region known as Dinétah, about sixty miles west of the Rio Chama valley region. In the 1770s, the Spanish sent military expeditions against the Navajo in the Mount Taylor and Chuska Mountain regions of New Mexico.
The Spanish and Hopi continued to trade with each other and formed a loose alliance to fight Apache and Commanche bands for the next twenty years. During this time there were minor raids by Navajo bands and Spanish citizens against each other. In 1800 Governor Chacon led 500 men in an expedition to the Tunicha Mountains against the Navajo. Twenty Navajo chiefs asked for peace. In 1804 and 1805 the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other's settlements. In May 1805 another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making and trading among the Navajo, Apache and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in 1846; the Navajo encountered the United States Army in 1846, when General Stephen W. Kearny invaded Santa Fe with 1,600 men during the Mexican–American War. On November 21, 1846, following an invitation from a small party of American soldiers under the command of Captain John Reid, who journeyed deep into Navajo country and contacted him and other Navajo negotiated a treaty of peace with Colonel Alexander Doniphan at Bear Springs, Ojo del Oso.
This agreement by some New Mexicans. The Navajo raided New Mexican livestock, New Mexicans took women and livestock from the Navajo. In 1849, the military governor of New Mexico, Colonel John MacRae Washington—accompanied by John S. Calhoun, an Indian agent—led a force of 400 soldiers into Navajo country, penetrating Canyon de Chelly, he signed a treaty with two Navajo leaders: Mariano Martinez as Head Chief and Chapitone as Second Chief. The treaty acknowledged the transfer of jurisdiction from the United Mexican States to the United States; the treaty allowed forts and trading posts to be built on Navajo land. The United States, on its part, promised "such donations such other liberal and humane measures, as may deem meet and proper." While en route to this treaty signing, Narbona, a prominent Navajo peace leader
Scholastic Corporation is an American multinational publishing and media company known for publishing and distributing books and educational materials for schools, teachers and children. Products are distributed to schools and districts, to consumers through the schools via reading clubs and fairs, through retail stores and online sales; the business has three segments: Children Book Publishing & Distribution and International. Scholastic holds the perpetual US publishing rights to the Harry Potter and Hunger Games book series. Scholastic is the world's largest publisher and distributor of children's books and print and digital educational materials for pre-K to grade 12. In addition to Harry Potter and The Hunger Games, the company is known for its school book clubs and book fairs, classroom magazines such as Scholastic News, popular book series: Clifford the Big Red Dog, The Magic School Bus, Captain Underpants, I Spy. Scholastic publishes instructional reading and writing programs, offers professional learning and consultancy services for school improvement.
Clifford the Big Red Dog serves as the mascot for Scholastic. In 1920, Maurice R. "Robbie" Robinson founded the business he named Scholastic Publishing Company in his hometown of Wilkinsburg, right outside Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. As a publisher of youth magazines, the first publication was The Western Pennsylvania Scholastic, it covered high school sports and social activities and debuted on October 22, 1920. In the 1960s, international publishing locations were added in New Zealand and Sydney. In February 2012, it bought Weekly Reader Publishing from Reader's Digest Association, announced in July that year that it planned to discontinue separate issues of Weekly Reader magazines after more than a century of publication, co-branded the magazines as "Scholastic News/Weekly Reader". Founded in 1923 by Maurice R. Robinson, The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards, administered by the Alliance for Young Artists & Writers, have recognized more than 9 million young artists and writers, provided more than $25 million in awards and scholarships and are the nation's longest-running art and writing awards.
Recipients of The Scholastic Art and Writing Awards include Richard Anuszkiewicz, Richard Avedon, Harry Bertoia, Mel Bochner, Truman Capote, Paul Davis, Frances Farmer, Red Grooms, Robert Indiana, Bernard Malamud, Joyce Maynard, Joyce Carol Oates, Philip Pearlstein, Peter S. Beagle, Sylvia Plath, Robert Redford, Jean Stafford, Mozelle Thompson, Ned Vizzini, Kay WalkingStick, Andy Warhol, Charles White, all of whom won when they were in high school. In March 2018, author James Patterson announced an increase in his annual donations for classroom libraries from $1.75 million to $2 million, in a program run in conjunction with the Scholastic Book Clubs. Patterson is distributing 4,000 gifts of $500 each to teachers around the country. Trade Publishing Imprints include: Arthur A. Levine Books, which specializes in fiction and non-fiction books for young readers; the imprint was founded at Scholastic in 1996 by Arthur Levine in New York City. The first book published by Arthur A. Levine Books was When She Was Good by Norma Fox Mazer in autumn of 1997.
The imprint is most notable as the publisher for the American editions of the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling. In March 2019, Levine left Scholastic to form his own new publisher. Scholastic will retain Levine's back catalogue; the Chicken House Four Winds Press Klutz Press Orchard Books Scholastic Australia made up of Koala Books, Margaret Hamilton Books, Omnibus Books, Scholastic Press. Children's Press. Founded in 1945 and based in Chicago, this press published the Rookie Read-About series and has a secondary imprint, Franklin Watts. In 1996, Children's Press became a division of Grolier, which became an imprint of Scholastic Corporation in 2000. Scholastic Media is a corporate division led by Deborah Forte since 1995, it covers "all forms of media and consumer products, is comprised of four main groups – Productions, Marketing & Consumer Products and Audio." Weston Woods is its production studio, acquired in 1996, as was Soup2Nuts from 2001–2015 before shutting down. Scholastic has produced audiobooks such as the Caldecott/Newbery Collection.
It will produce the 39 Clues and as Scholastic Productions produced the series Voyagers!, My Secret Identity, Charles in Charge. In April 2019, Scholastic signed a distribution deal with 9 Story Media Group, including 230 hours of TV series. Scholastic book clubs are offered at schools in many countries. Teachers administer the program to the students in their own classes, but in some cases, the program is administered by a central contact for the entire school. Within Scholastic, Reading Clubs is a separate unit. Reading clubs are arranged by age/grade. Scholastic Parents Media publishes the Scholastic Child magazine; the group specializes in online advertising sales and custom programs designed for parents with children aged 0–6. Scholastic has been criticized for inappropriately marketing to children. Scholastic now requires parents to submit children's names with birth dates to place online orders, creating controversy. A significant number of titles carried have strong media tie-ins and are considered relatively
Long Walk of the Navajo
The Long Walk of the Navajo called the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo, refers to the 1864 deportation and attempted ethnic cleansing of the Navajo people by the government of the United States of America. Navajos were forced to walk from their land in; some 53 different forced marches occurred between August 1864 and the end of 1866. Some anthropologists claim that the "collective trauma of the Long Walk...is critical to contemporary Navajos' sense of identity as a people". The traditional Navajo homeland spans from Arizona through western New Mexico, where the Navajo had houses, planted crops and raised livestock. There was a long historical pattern in the Southwest of groups or bands raiding and trading with each other, with treaties being made and broken; this included interactions between Navajo, Mexican, Apache, Comanche and the "Americans." Individual civilians and Native Americans could be victims of these conflicts and instigate conflicts to serve their special interests. Hostilities escalated between the Americans and Navajos following the scalping of the respected Navajo leader Narbona in 1849.
In August 1851, Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner established Fort Defiance for the U. S. government and Fort Wingate. Prior to the Long Walk, there were a series of treaties signed in 1849, 1858, 1861. There are many examples of friction between Americans and Navajo groups between 1846 and 1863. Manuelito and Barboncito reminded the Navajo that the Army was bringing in troops to wage war, it had flogged a Navajo messenger, opened fire on tribal headsman Agua Chiquito, during talks for peace, they argued that the army had refused to bring in feed for their many animals at Ft. Defiance, took over the prime grazing land, killed Manuelito's livestock, there. On April 30, 1860, Manuelito and Barboncito with 1,000 Navajo warriors attacked the fort and took control. Typical truces and treaties said. However, the army allowed other Native American tribes and Mexicans to steal livestock and capture Navajo to be used as slaves. A truce between the army and Navajo was signed on February 15, 1861, they were again given in protection, but two of their four sacred mountains were lost to them, as well as about one-third of their traditionally held land.
In March, a company of 52 citizens led by Jose Manuel Sanchez drove off a bunch of Navajo horses, but Captain Wingate followed the trail and recovered the horses for the Navajo, who had killed Sanchez. Another group of citizens ravaged Navajo rancherias in the vicinity of Beautiful Mountain. During this time, a party of Mexicans and Pueblo Indians captured 12 Navajo in a raid, three were brought in. On August 9, 1861, Lt. Col. Manuel Antonio Chaves of the New Mexico Volunteer Militia took command of a garrison of three companies numbering 8 officers and 206 men at Fort Fauntleroy. Chaves was accused of being frugal in dispensing his post's supplies to the 1,000 or more Navajos that had remained close to the fort and was maintaining remarkably lax discipline. Horse races began on September 10 and continued into the late afternoon of September 13. Col. Chaves permitted Post Sutler A. W. Kavanaugh to supply liquor to the Navajos. There was a dispute. A shot rang out, followed by a fusillade. 200 Navajo, well-armed and mounted, advanced towards the Guard, shooting at the men.
They were scattered, leaving 12 dead bodies and forty prisoners. On hearing this, Gen. Canby demanded a full report from Chaves. Col. Canby sent Captain Andrew W. Evans to the fort, named Fort Lyon since September 25, he took command. Manuel Chaves, suspended from command, was confined to the limits of Albuquerque pending court-martial. In February 1861, Manuel Chaves took the field with 400 militia and ransacked Navajo land without federal authority. With Confederate troops moving into southern New Mexico, Col. Canby sent Agent John Ward into Navajo lands to persuade any who might be friendly to move to a central encampment near the village of Cubero where they would be offered the protection of the government. Ward was instructed to warn all Navajos who refused to come in that they would be treated as enemies. Captain Evans was overseeing the abandonment of Fort Lyon and had been told that the new policy would be that the Navajo had to colonize in settlements or pueblos, mentioning the region of the Little Colorado west of Zuni as an ideal place.
In November, some Navajo were raiding again. On December 1, Col. Canby wrote to his superior in St. Louis that "recent occurrences in the Navajo country have so demoralized and broken up nation that there is now no choice between their absolute extermination or their removal and colonization at points so remote...as to isolate them from the inhabitants of the Territory. Aside from all considerations of humanity the extermination of such a people will be the work of the greatest difficulty". By 1862, the Union Army had pushed the Confederates down the Rio Grande; the United States government again turned its attention to the Navajos, determined to eliminate Navajo raiding and raids on the Navajo. James H. Carleton was ordered to relieve Canby as the Commander for the New Mexico Military Department in September 1862. Carleton gave the orders to Kit Carson to proceed to Navajo territory and to receive the Navajo surrender on July 20, 1863; when no Navajos showed up, Carson and another officer entered Navajo territory in an attempt to persuade Navajos to surrender and
Library of Congress Classification
The Library of Congress Classification is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U. S. and several other countries. LCC should not be confused with LCCN, the system of Library of Congress Control Numbers assigned to all books, which defines URLs of their online catalog entries, such as "82006074" and "http://lccn.loc.gov/82006074". The Classification is distinct from Library of Congress Subject Headings, the system of labels such as "Boarding schools" and "Boarding schools—Fiction" that describe contents systematically; the classifications may be distinguished from the call numbers assigned to particular copies of books in the collection, such as "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982 FT MEADE Copy 1" where the classification is "PZ7. J684 Wj 1982"; the classification was invented by Herbert Putnam in 1897, just before he assumed the librarianship of Congress. With advice from Charles Ammi Cutter, it was influenced by his Cutter Expansive Classification, the Dewey Decimal System, the Putnam Classification System.
It was designed for the purposes and collection of the Library of Congress to replace the fixed location system developed by Thomas Jefferson. By the time Putnam departed from his post in 1939, all the classes except K and parts of B were well developed. LCC has been criticized for lacking a sound theoretical basis. Although it divides subjects into broad categories, it is enumerative in nature; that is, it provides a guide to the books in one library's collections, not a classification of the world. In 2007 The Wall Street Journal reported that in the countries it surveyed most public libraries and small academic libraries used the older Dewey Decimal Classification system; the National Library of Medicine classification system uses the initial letters W and QS–QZ, which are not used by LCC. Some libraries use NLM in conjunction with LCC. Others include Medicine R. Subclass AC -- Collections. Series. Collected works Subclass AE – Encyclopedias Subclass AG – Dictionaries and other general reference works Subclass AI – Indexes Subclass AM – Museums.
Collectors and collecting Subclass AN – Newspapers Subclass AP – Periodicals Subclass AS – Academies and learned societies Subclass AY – Yearbooks. Almanacs. Directories Subclass AZ – History of scholarship and learning; the humanities Subclass B – Philosophy Subclass BC – Logic Subclass BD – Speculative philosophy Subclass BF – Psychology Subclass BH – Aesthetics Subclass BJ – Ethics Subclass BL – Religions. Mythology. Rationalism Subclass BM – Judaism Subclass BP – Islam. Bahaism. Theosophy, etc. Subclass BQ – Buddhism Subclass BR – Christianity Subclass BS – The Bible Subclass BT – Doctrinal theology Subclass BV – Practical Theology Subclass BX – Christian Denominations Subclass C – Auxiliary Sciences of History Subclass CB – History of Civilization Subclass CC – Archaeology Subclass CD – Diplomatics. Archives. Seals Subclass CE – Technical Chronology. Calendar Subclass CJ – Numismatics Subclass CN – Inscriptions. Epigraphy Subclass CR – Heraldry Subclass CS – Genealogy Subclass CT – Biography Subclass D – History Subclass DA – Great Britain Subclass DAW – Central Europe Subclass DB – Austria – Liechtenstein – Hungary – Czechoslovakia Subclass DC – France – Andorra – Monaco Subclass DD – Germany Subclass DE – Greco-Roman World Subclass DF – Greece Subclass DG – Italy – Malta Subclass DH – Low Countries – Benelux Countries Subclass DJ – Netherlands Subclass DJK – Eastern Europe Subclass DK – Russia.
Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics – Poland Subclass DL – Northern Europe. Scandinavia Subclass DP – Spain – Portugal Subclass DQ – Switzerland Subclass DR – Balkan Peninsula Subclass DS – Asia Subclass DT – Africa Subclass DU – Oceania Subclass DX – Romanies Class E does not have any subclasses. Class F does not have any subclasses, however Canadian Universities and the Canadian National Library use FC for Canadian History, a subclass that the LC has not adopted, but which it has agreed not to use for anything else Subclass G – Geography. Atlases. Maps Subclass GA – Mathematical geography. Cartography Subclass GB – Physical geography Subclass GC – Oceanography Subclass GE – Environmental Sciences Subclass GF – Human ecology. Anthropogeography Subclass GN – Anthropology Subclass GR – Folklore Subclass GT – Manners and customs Subclass GV – Recreation. Leisure Subclass H – Social sciences Subclass HA – Statistics Subclass HB – Economic theory. Demography Subclass HC – Economic history and conditions Subclass HD – Industries.
Land use. Labor Subclass HE – Transportation and communications Subclass HF – Commerce Subclass HG – Finance Subclass HJ – Public finance Subclass HM – Sociology Subclass HN – Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform Subclass HQ – The family. Marriage and Sexuality Subclass HS – Societies: secret, etc. Subclass HT – Communities. Classes. Races Subclass HV – Social pathology. Social and public welfare. Criminology Subclass HX – Socialism. Communism. Anarchism Subclass J – General legislative and executive papers Subclass JA – Political science Subclass JC – Political theory Subclass JF – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JJ – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JK – Political institutions and public administration Subclass JL – Political instit
Young adult fiction
Young adult fiction is a category of fiction written for readers from 12 to 18 years of age. While the genre is targeted to teenagers half of YA readers are adults; the subject matter and genres of YA correlate with the experience of the protagonist. The genres available in YA include most of those found in adult fiction. Common themes related to YA include: friendship, first love and identity. Stories that focus on the specific challenges of youth are sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming-of-age novels. Young adult fiction was developed to soften the transition between children's novels and adult literature; the history of young adult literature is tied to the history of how childhood and young adulthood has been perceived. One early writer to recognize young adults as a distinct group was Sarah Trimmer, who, in 1802, described "young adulthood" as lasting from ages 14 to 21. In her children's literature periodical, The Guardian of Education, Trimmer introduced the terms "Books for Children" and "Books for Young Persons", establishing terms of reference for young adult literature that still remains in use.
Nineteenth century literature presents several early works, that appealed to young readers, though not written for them, including The Swiss Family Robinson, Walter Scott's Waverley, Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist, Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo, Tom Brown's Schooldays, Dickens' Great Expectations, Alice in Wonderland, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnapped, Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, Moonfleet by J. Meade Falkner. In the 1950s, two influential adult novels, The Catcher in the Rye and Lord of the Flies, which were not marketed to adolescents, still attracted the attention of the adolescent demographic; the modern classification of young-adult fiction originated during the 1950s and 1960s after the publication of S. E. Hinton's The Outsiders; the novel features a truer, darker side of adolescent life, not represented in works of fiction of the time, was the first novel published marketed for young adults as Hinton was one when she wrote it.
Written during high-school and published when Hinton was only 17, The Outsiders lacked the nostalgic tone common in books about adolescents written by adults. The Outsiders remains one of the best-selling young adult novels of all time; the 1960s became the era "when the'under 30' generation became a subject of popular concern, research on adolescence began to emerge. It was the decade when literature for adolescents could be said to have come into its own"; this increased the new idea of adolescent authors. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, what has come to be known as the "fab five" were published: I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, an autobiography of the early years of American poet Maya Angelou; the works of Angelou and Plath were not written for young readers. As publishers began to focus on the emerging adolescent market and libraries began creating young adult sections distinct from children's literature and novels written for adults; the 1970s to the mid-1980s have been described as the golden age of young-adult fiction, when challenging novels began speaking directly to the interests of the identified adolescent market.
In the 1980s, young adult literature began pushing the envelope in terms of the subject matter, considered appropriate for their audience: Books dealing with topics such as rape, parental death, murder, deemed taboo, saw significant critical and commercial success. A flip-side of this trend was a strong revived interest in the romance novel, including young adult romance. With an increase in number of teenagers the genre "matured and came into its own, with the better written, more serious, more varied young adult books published during the last two decades"; the first novel in J. K. Rowling's seven-book Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997; the series was praised for its complexity and maturity, attracted a wide adult audience. While not technically YA, its success led many to see Harry Potter and its author, J. K. Rowling, as responsible for a resurgence of young adult literature, re-established the pre-eminent role of speculative fiction in the field, a trend further solidified by The Hunger Games trilogy by Suzanne Collins.
The end of the decade saw a number of awards appear such as the Michael L. Printz Award and Alex Awards, designed to recognize excellence in writing for young adult audiences; the category of young adult fiction continues to expand into other media and genres: graphic novels/manga, light novels, mystery fiction, romance novels, subcategories such as cyberpunk, techno-thrillers, contemporary Christian fiction. Many young adult novels feature coming-of-age stories; these feature adolescents beginning to transform into adults, working through personal problems, learning to take responsibility for their actions. YA serves many literary purposes, it provides a pleasurable reading experience for young people, emphasizing real life experiences and
Fort Sumner was a military fort in New Mexico Territory charged with the internment of Navajo and Mescalero Apache populations from 1863 to 1868 at nearby Bosque Redondo. On October 31, 1862, Congress authorized the construction of Fort Sumner. General James Henry Carleton justified the fort as offering protection to settlers in the Pecos River valley from the Mescalero Apache and Comanche, he created the Bosque Redondo reservation, a 1,600-square-mile area where over 9,000 Navajo and Mescalero Apaches were forced to live because of accusations that they were raiding white settlements near their respective homelands. The fort was named for General Edwin Vose Sumner; the stated purpose of the reservation was for it to be self-sufficient, while teaching Mescalero Apache and Navajo how to be modern farmers. General Edward Canby, whom Carleton replaced, first suggested that the Navajo people be moved to a series of reservations and be taught new skills; some in Washington, D. C. thought that the Navajo did not need to be moved and that a reservation should be created on their own land.
Some New Mexico citizens encouraged killing the Navajo or at least removing them from their lands. The 1865 and 1866 corn production was sufficient. Army officers and Indian Agents realized that Bosque Redondo was a failure, as it had poor water and too little firewood for the numbers of people who were living there; the Mescalero soon ran away. When the Bosque Redondo was first established, Gen. Carleton ordered Col. Christopher "Kit" Carson to do whatever necessary to bring first the Mescalero and the Navajo there. All of the Mescalero Apache had been relocated by the end of 1862, but the Navajo were not resettled in large numbers until early 1864; the Navajo refer to the journey from Navajo land to the Bosque Redondo as the Long Walk. More than 300 Navajos died making the journey, it was a bitter memory to many Navajo. One man described it as follows: "By slow stages we traveled eastward by present Gallup and Shushbito, Bear spring, now called Fort Wingate. You ask how they treated us? If there was room the soldiers put the children on the wagons.
Some let them ride behind them on their horses. I have never been able to understand a people who killed you one day and on the next played with your children...?" In April 1865 there were about 500 Mescalero Apache interned at Bosque Redondo. The Army had planned only 5,000 would be there, so lack of sufficient food was an issue from the start; as the Navajo and Mescalero Apache had long been enemies, their enforced proximity led to frequent open fighting. The environmental situation got worse; the interned people had no clean water. The water from the nearby Pecos River caused severe intestinal problems, disease spread throughout the camp. Food was in short supply because of crop failures and Indian Agent bungling, criminal activities. In 1865, the Mescalero Apache, or those strong enough to travel, managed to escape; the Navajo were not allowed to leave until May 1868 when the U. S. Army agreed that the Bosque Redondo reservation was a failure; the 1868 Treaty of Bosque Redondo was negotiated with the Navajo and they were allowed to return to their homeland, to a "new reservation."
They were joined by the thousands of Navajo, hiding out in the Arizona Territory hinterlands. This experience resulted in a more determined Navajo, never again were they surprised by raiders of the Rio Grande valley. In subsequent years, they have expanded the "new reservation" into well over 16 million acres. Fort Sumner was purchased by rancher and cattle baron Lucien Maxwell. Maxwell rebuilt one of the officers' quarters into a 20-room house. On July 14, 1881, Sheriff Pat Garrett shot and killed Billy the Kid in this house, now referred to as the Maxwell House. In 1968—one hundred years after the signing of the treaty that allowed the Navajo people to return to their original homes in the Four Corners Region—Fort Sumner was declared a New Mexico State Monument; the property is now managed by the New Mexico Historic Sites division of the New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs. On June 4, 2005, a new museum designed by Navajo architect David N. Sloan was opened on the site as the Bosque Redondo Memorial.
Congress had authorized the establishment of the memorial by the Secretary of Defense in 2000, making federal funds available for construction. The Bosque Redondo Memorial and Fort Sumner Historic Site are located 6.5 miles southeast of Fort Sumner, New Mexico: 3 miles east on U. S. Route 60/U. S. Route 84 3.5 miles south on Billy The Kid Road. National Register of Historic Places listings in De Baca County, New Mexico Bosque Redondo — destination of the long walk The Long Walk Trail Of The Navajos Thompson, Gerald; the Army and the Navajo: The Bosque Redondo Reservation Experiment 1863-1868. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-0495-4 New Mexico State Historic Sites – Fort Sumner Historic Site/Bosque Redondo Memorial New Mexico Department of Cultural Affairs History of the NASA Scientific Balloon Flight Facility from which are launched stratospheric balloons each year