Industrial Union of Donbas
Industrial Union of Donbass is one of the biggest corporations in Ukraine. It is a horizontally integrated holding company that owns or directs stocks of 40 industrial enterprises in the East Ukraine and Poland; the company was created in 1995 and before the appearance of SCM Holdings in 2000 was a major steel rolling corporation in the East Ukraine. According to Interfax, ISD produces 9.2 million of steel annually. In 2012 World Steel Association ranking the corporation placed 33rd sharing it with JSW Steel Ltd. Serhiy Taruta Oleh Mkrtchian Vitaliy Haiduk In 2010 the Swiss-based Carbofer Group along with a "group of investors" and the Vnesheconombank has purchased the controlling interest in corporation 50%+2 stocks; because of that Vitaliy Haiduk left ISD. Earlier in 2007 Metalloinvest showed its interest to buy portion of ISD. Alchevsk Metallurgical Combine Alchevsk Coke-chemical Plant Dnieper Metallurgical Combine ISD Dunaferr ISD Huta Czestochowa In 2007 ISD obtained from SCM Holdings the Kuibyshev Kramatorsk Metallurgical Plant, fighting against bankruptcy charges since 2006.
At the end of 2012 the Donetsk Economical Court recognized Kramatorsk Metallurgical Plant as bankrupt, while most of its assets were transferred to two smaller factories - Kramatorsk Metal-rolling Plant and Kramatorsk Ferroalloy Plant. ISD obtained 75% shares of the Gdansk Shipyard, with the remaining share held by the Polish government; the Polish government regained 50% in 2018. Dnieper Pipe Plant Enerhomashspetsstal Panteleimon Refractory Plant Agrarian companies: "Olha", "Zoria" Dianivska Poultry Farm Bakhmut Agrarian Union Karansky Grain Elevator Internet publisher "ProUA" Comments newspaper Economic news newspaper Expert-Ukraine magazine Invest-Gazette ISD sports club FC Metalurh Donetsk FC Stal Kamianske HC Sokil Kyiv Khartsyzsk pipe plant Kramatorsk Metallurgical Plant Academics state that ISD provided significant financial support for Viktor Yuschenko during his presidential campaign and subsequent Orange Revolution. Vitaliy Haiduk headed the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine from October 2006 till May 2007.
Haiduk served as deputy minister and minister of fuel and energy from 2000 under former President Leonid Kuchma, who in 2002 promoted him to deputy prime minister. Haiduk served as an adviser on energy to former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko prior to 2010. Yevhen Shcherban#Assassination Official website Åslund, A. How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy. "Peterson Institute". 2009. Wolchik, S. L. Curry, J. L. Central and East European Politics: From Communism to Democracy. "Rowman & Littlefield". 2008
A public–private partnership is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of private endeavors throughout history. However, the late 20th century and early 21st century have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements. PPPs are best seen as a special kind of contract involved in infrastructure provision, such as the building and equipping of schools, transport systems and sewerage systems. There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a language game; when understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services; when understood as a governance mechanism the PPP concept encompasses at least five families of potential arrangements, one of, the long term infrastructure contract in the model of the UK's Private Finance Initiative.
Particular types of arrangements have been favored in different countries at different times. Infrastructure PPPs as a phenomenon can be understood at five different levels: as a particular project or activity, as a form of project delivery, as a statement of government policy, as a tool of government, or as a wider cultural phenomenon. Different disciplines emphasize different aspects of the PPP phenomena; the engineering and economics professions take a utilitarian, functional focus emphasising concerns such as project delivery and relative value-for-money compared to the traditional ways of delivering large infrastructure projects. In contrast, public administrators and political scientists tend to view PPPs more as a policy brand, as a useful tool for governments to achieve their objectives. Common themes of PPPs are the sharing of risk and the development of innovative, a way of financing over a long-term for the public and private sectors; the use of private finance is another key dimension of many PPPs those influenced by the UK PFI model, although this aspect has waned since the global financial crisis of 2008.
The PPP phenomenon has been controversial. The lack of a shared understanding of what a PPP is makes the process of evaluating whether PPPs have been successful complex. Evidence of PPP performance in terms of VfM and efficiency, for example, is mixed and unavailable. According to Weimer and Vining, "A P3 involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time"; because P3s are directly responsible for a variety of activities, as indicated by Weimer and Vining, P3s can evolve into monopolies motivated by rent-seeking behavior. PPPs involve a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer.
In other types, capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government contributions to a PPP may be in kind. In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make the project economically viable. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed time period. In all cases, the partnerships include a transfer of significant risks to the private sector in an integrated and holistic way, minimizing interfaces for the public entity. An optimal risk allocation is the main value generator for this model of delivering public service. There are many drivers for PPPs. One common driver involves the claim that PPPs enable the public sector to harness the expertise and efficiencies that the private sector can bring to the delivery of certain facilities and services traditionally procured and delivered by the public sector.
Another common driver is that PPPs may be structured so that the public sector body seeking to make a capital investment does not incur any borrowing. Rather, the PPP borrowing is incurred by the private sector vehicle implementing the project. On PPP projects where the cost of using the service is intended to be borne by the end user, the PPP is, from the public sector's perspective, an "off-balance sheet" method of financing the delivery of new or refurbished public sector assets. On PPP projects where the public sector intends to compensate the private sector through availability payments once the facility is established or renewed, the financing is, from the public sector's perspective, "on-balance sheet". Financing costs will be higher for a PPP than for a traditional public financing, because of the private sector higher cost of capital. However, extra financing costs can be offset by private sector efficiency, savings resulting from a holistic approach to delivering the project or se
United States Agency for International Development
The United States Agency for International Development is an independent agency of the United States federal government, responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance. With a budget of over $27 billion, USAID is one of the largest official aid agencies in the world, accounts for more than half of all U. S. foreign assistance—the highest in the world in absolute dollar terms. Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act on September 4, 1961, which reorganized U. S. foreign assistance programs and mandated the creation of an agency to administer economic aid. USAID was subsequently established by the executive order of President John F. Kennedy, who sought to unite several existing foreign assistance organizations and programs under one agency. USAID became the first U. S. foreign assistance organization whose primary focus was long-term socioeconomic development. USAID's programs are authorized by Congress in the Foreign Assistance Act, which Congress supplements through directions in annual funding appropriation acts and other legislation.
As an official component of U. S. foreign policy, USAID operates subject to the guidance of the President, Secretary of State, the National Security Council. USAID has missions in over 100 countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, Eastern Europe. USAID's mission statement, adopted in May 2013, is "to partner to end extreme poverty and to promote resilient, democratic societies while advancing the security and prosperity of the United States."USAID's decentralized network of resident field missions is drawn on to manage U. S. Government programs in low-income countries for a range of purposes. Disaster relief Poverty relief Technical cooperation on global issues, including the environment U. S. bilateral interests Socioeconomic development Some of the U. S. Government's earliest foreign aid programs provided relief in crises created by war. In 1915, USG assistance through the Commission for Relief of Belgium headed by Herbert Hoover prevented starvation in Belgium after the German invasion.
After 1945, the European Recovery Program championed by Secretary of State George Marshall helped rebuild war-torn Western Europe. USAID manages relief efforts after wars and natural disasters through its Office of U. S Foreign Disaster Assistance in Washington D. C. Funded U. S. NGOs and the U. S. military play major roles in disaster relief overseas. After 1945, many newly independent countries needed assistance to relieve the chronic deprivation afflicting their low-income populations. USAID and its predecessor agencies have continuously provided poverty relief in many forms, including assistance to public health and education services targeted at the poorest. USAID has helped manage food aid provided by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. In addition, USAID provides funding to NGOs to supplement private donations in relieving chronic poverty. Technical cooperation between nations is essential for addressing a range of cross-border concerns like communicable diseases, environmental issues and investment cooperation, safety standards for traded products, money laundering, so forth.
The USG has specialized agencies dealing with such areas, such as the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. USAID's special ability to administer programs in low-income countries supports these and other USG agencies' international work on global concerns. Among these global interests, environmental issues attract high attention. USAID assists projects that conserve and protect threatened land, water and wildlife. USAID assists projects to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and to build resilience to the risks associated with global climate change. U. S. environmental regulation laws require that programs sponsored by USAID should be both economically and environmentally sustainable. To support U. S. geopolitical interests, Congress appropriates exceptional financial assistance to allies in the form of "Economic Support Funds". USAID is called on to administer the bulk of ESF and is instructed "To the maximum extent feasible, provide assistance... consistent with the policy directions and programs of."Also, when U.
S. troops are in the field, USAID can supplement the "Civil Affairs" programs that the U. S. military conducts to win the friendship of local populations. In these circumstances, USAID may be directed by specially appointed diplomatic officials of the State Department, as has been done in Afghanistan and Pakistan during operations against al-Qaeda. U. S. commercial interests are served by U. S. law's requirement that most goods and services financed by USAID must be sourced from U. S. vendors. USAID is sometimes called upon to support projects of U. S. constituents that have exceptional interest. To help low-income nations achieve self-sustaining socioeconomic development, USAID assists them in improving management of their own resources. USAID's assistance for socioeconomic development provides technical advice, scholarships and financial assistance. Through grants and contracts, USAID mobilizes the technical resources of the private sector, other USG agencies, NGOs to participate in this assistance.
Programs of the various types above reinforce one another. For example, the Foreign Assistance Act requires USAID to use funds appropriated for geopolitical purposes to support socioeconomic development to the maximum extent possible. USAID delivers financial assistance. Technical assistance includes technical advice, scholarships and commodities. Technical assistance is contrac
For other forms of development, see Development. International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of'development' on an international scale, it is the basis for international classifications such as developed country, developing country and least developed country, for a field of practice and research that in various ways engages with international development processes. There are, many schools of thought and conventions regarding which are the exact features constituting the'development' of a country. Development has been synonymous with economic development. More writers and practitioners have begun to discuss development in the more holistic and multi-disciplinary sense of human development. Other related concepts are, for instance, quality of life or subjective well-being.'International development' is different from the simple concept of'development'. Whereas the latter, at its most basic, denotes the idea of change through time, international development has come to refer to a distinct field of practice and research.
It remains related to the set of institutions - the Bretton Woods Institutions - that arose after the Second World War with a focus on economic growth, alleviating poverty, improving living conditions in colonised countries. The international community has codified development aims in, for instance, the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals. Although international relations and international trade have existed for many hundreds of years, it is only in the past century that international development theory emerged as a separate body of ideas. More it has been suggested that'the theory and practice of development is inherently technocratic, remains rooted in the high modernist period of political thought that existed in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War'. Throughout the 20th century, before the concept of international development became a common word, four aspects were used to describe the idea: political and economic liberalism, the significance of "free markets" social evolution in hierarchized environment Marxist critiques of class and imperialism anti-colonial take on cultural differences and national self-determination The second half of the 20th century has been called the'era of development'.
The origins of this era have been attributed to: the need for reconstruction in the immediate aftermath of World War II. The start of the Cold War and the desire of the United States and its allies to prevent the Third World from drifting towards communism. International Development in its meaning is geared towards colonies that gained independence; the governance of the newly independent states should be constructed so that the inhabitants enjoy freedom from poverty and insecurity. It has been argued that this era was launched on January 20, 1949, when Harry S. Truman made these remarks in his inaugural address: Before this date, the United States had taken a leading role in the creation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund, both established in 1944, in the United Nations in 1945; the launch of the Marshall Plan was another important step in setting the agenda for international development, combining humanitarian goals with the creation of a political and economic bloc in Europe, allied to the U.
S. This agenda was given conceptual support during the 1950s in the form of modernization theory espoused by Walt Rostow and other American economists; the changes in the'developed' world's approach to international development were further necessitated by the gradual collapse of Western Europe's empires over the next decades. By the late 1960s, dependency theory arose analysing the evolving relationship between the West and the Third World. In the 1970s and early 1980s, the modernists at the World Bank and IMF adopted the neoliberal ideas of economists such as Milton Friedman or Béla Balassa, which were implemented in the form of structural adjustment programs, while their opponents were promoting various'bottom up' approaches, ranging from civil disobedience and conscientization to appropriate technology and Rapid Rural Appraisal. In response various parts of the UN system led a counter movement, which in the long run has proved to be successful, they were led by the International Labour Organization, influenced by Paul Streeten by UNICEF.
UNDP though headed by a conservative US republican, put forward the concept of Human Development, thanks to Mahboub ul Haq and Amartya Sen, thus changing the nature of the development dialogue to focus on human needs and capabilities. By the 1990s, there were some writers for whom development theory had reached an impasse and some academics were imagining a postdevelopment era; the Cold War had ended, capitalism had become the dominant mode of social organization, UN statistics showed that living standards around the world had improved over the past 40 years. A large portion of the world's population were still living in poverty, their governments were crippled by debt and concerns about the environmental impact of globalization were rising. In response to the impasse, the rhetoric of development is now focusing on the issue of pove
Alchevsk is a city of oblast significance of Luhansk Oblast of eastern Ukraine. It is located 45 kilometres from the oblast capital, Luhansk. Population: 109,377 . Alchevsk is one of the largest industrial centers in the Donbass, comprises a quarter of the entire oblast's production; the city economy depends on OJSC "Alchevsk Iron & Steel Works" and "Alchevsk Coke-Chemical Plant" companies. The city was known as Voroshylovsk from 1931 to 1961, Komunarsk until 1991. Alchevsk was founded in 1895 with the establishment of an iron works and named after the Ukrainian industrialist of the Russian Empire Oleksiy Alchevsky who founded the Donetsk–Yuryev Metallurgical Society, he was famous for the financial and industrial development of the eastern part of Ukraine and the Donbass region. His children as well as his wife made enormous contribution in the development of the Ukrainian culture through poetry and music. In 1931, Alchevsk was renamed Voroshilovsk, after Kliment Voroshilov, a Soviet military and party figure.
As Voroshilov's personality cult was diminishing, the town was renamed Kommunarsk in 1961. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the original name was restored in 1992. On January 22, 2006, the district heating system of the city entirely collapsed after an underground heat pipe line cracked in unusually cold weather; as a result, heating equipment in the majority of Alchevsk's buildings was frozen and ruptured, leaving about 60,000 residents with only the protection of individual electric heaters. A few days the sewage system froze due to a lack of warm tap water. An investigation revealed the long-time negligence of the city authorities; the whole heating system was designed in a hyper-centralized way, depending on only two boilers and few main pipelines. Moreover, the housing company failed to react to the pipe incident properly: the water from the system wasn't dumped to prevent further freezing; the Ukrainian government took massive emergency actions to protect Alchevsk residents from freezing.
Engineering teams sent by cities and industrial companies from other regions of the country were restoring heating appliances in every apartment affected. Hundreds of children together with their schoolteachers were evacuated to the resorts and hotels in the warmer regions of Ukraine. According to the governor of Luhansk Oblast G. Moskal, it has been the worst human-made disaster in the history of independent Ukraine. Starting Mid-April 2014 pro-Russian separatists captured several towns in Luhansk Oblast, including Alchevsk. In the following war in Donbass, the city became a part of the separatist Luhansk People's Republic; the main branches of Alchevsk industry - metallurgical and chemical. Electromechanical and food industry is developed; the city has 17 industrial enterprises. As of the Ukrainian Census of 2001: EthnicityUkrainians: 51.6% Russians: 44.7% Belarusians: 1.1%LanguageRussian: 83.6% Ukrainian: 15.3% Belarusian: 0.1% Armenian: 0.1% Romani: 0.1% The Donbas State Technical University founded in 1957 is located in Alchevsk.
Alchevsk is home to the football team FC Stal Alchevsk which participates in the Ukrainian First League,the second tier of national football competitions. Alchevsk is twinned with: Dąbrowa Górnicza, Poland Dunaújváros, Hungary Е. М. Поспелов. "Имена городов: вчера и сегодня. Топонимический словарь." Москва, "Русские словари", 1993. Official site of town authorities Unofficial town page Another unofficial town page Alchevsk winter disaster page Map of Alchevsk
Colin Luther Powell is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army. During his military career, Powell served as National Security Advisor, as Commander of the U. S. Army Forces Command and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, holding the latter position during the Persian Gulf War. Powell was the first, so far the only, Jamaican American to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, he was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving under U. S. President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2005, the first black person to serve in that position. Powell was raised in the South Bronx, his parents and Maud Powell, immigrated to the United States from Jamaica. Powell was educated in the New York City public schools, graduating from the City College of New York, where he earned a bachelor's degree in geology, he participated in ROTC at CCNY and received a commission as an Army second lieutenant upon graduation in June 1958. His further academic achievements include a Master of Business Administration degree from George Washington University.
Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, during which time he held myriad command and staff positions and rose to the rank of 4-star General. His last assignment, from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1993, was as the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest military position in the Department of Defense. During this time, he oversaw 28 crises, including Operation Desert Storm in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, he formulated the Powell Doctrine. Following his military retirement, Powell wrote My American Journey. In addition, he pursued a career as a public speaker, addressing audiences across the country and abroad. Prior to his appointment as Secretary of State, Powell was the chairman of America's Promise – The Alliance for Youth, a national nonprofit organization dedicated to mobilizing people from every sector of American life to build the character and competence of young people, he was nominated by President Bush on December 2000 as Secretary of State. After being unanimously confirmed by the U.
S. Senate, he was sworn in as the 65th Secretary of State on January 20, 2001. Powell is the recipient of numerous U. S. and foreign military awards and decorations. Powell's civilian awards include two Presidential Medal of Freedom, the President's Citizens Medal, the Congressional Gold Medal, the Secretary of State Distinguished Service Medal, the Secretary of Energy Distinguished Service Medal. Several schools and other institutions have been named in his honor and he holds honorary degrees from universities and colleges across the country. Powell is married to the former Alma Vivian Johnson of Alabama; the Powell family includes son Michael. In 2016, while not a candidate for that year's election, Powell received three electoral votes for the office of President of the United States. Powell was born on April 5, 1937, in Harlem, a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, to Jamaican immigrants, Maud Arial and Luther Theophilus Powell, his parents were both of mixed Scottish ancestry.
Luther worked as Maud as a seamstress. Powell was raised in the South Bronx and attended Morris High School, from which he graduated in 1954. While at school, Powell worked at a local baby furniture store, where he picked up Yiddish from the eastern European Jewish shopkeepers and some of the customers, he served as a Shabbos goy, helping Orthodox families with needed tasks on the Sabbath. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology from the City College of New York in 1958 and has said he was a'C average' student, he earned an MBA degree from the George Washington University in 1971, after his second tour in Vietnam. Despite his parents' pronunciation of his name as, Powell has pronounced his name since childhood, after the World War II flyer Colin P. Kelly Jr. Public officials and radio and television reporters have used Powell's preferred pronunciation. Powell was a professional soldier for 35 years, holding a variety of command and staff positions and rising to the rank of General.
Powell described joining the Reserve Officers' Training Corps during college as one of the happiest experiences of his life. According to Powell: It was only once I was in college, about six months into college when I found something that I liked, and, ROTC, Reserve Officer Training Corps in the military, and I not only liked it. That's what you have to look for in life, something that you like, something that you think you're pretty good at, and if you can put those two things together you're on the right track, just drive on. Cadet Powell joined the Pershing Rifles, the ROTC fraternal organization and drill team begun by General John Pershing. After he had become a general, Powell kept on his desk a pen set he had won for a drill team competition. Upon graduation, he received a commission as an Army second lieutenant. After attending basic training at Fort Benning, Powell was assigned to the 48th Infantry, in West Germany, as a platoon leader. In his autobiography, Powell said he is haunted by the nightmare of the Vietnam War and felt that the leadership was ineffective.
Captain Powell served a tour in Vietnam as a South Vietnamese Army advisor from 1962 to 1963. While on patrol in a Viet Cong-held area, he was wounded by stepping on a punji stake; the large infection