Our Lady of Sorrows
As Mater Dolorosa, it is a key subject for Marian art in the Catholic Church. The Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic devotion, in common religious Catholic imagery, the Blessed Virgin Mary is portrayed in a sorrowful and lacrimating affect, with seven daggers piercing her heart, often bleeding. Devotional prayers that consist of meditation began to elaborate on her Seven Sorrows based on the prophecy of Simeon. Common examples of piety under this title are Servite rosary, or the Chaplet of the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady, the feast of Our Lady of Sorrows is liturgically celebrated every 15 of September, while a feast of Friday of Sorrows is observed in some Catholic countries. The Seven Sorrows are events in the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary that are a popular devotion and are depicted in art. These Seven Sorrows should not be confused with the five Sorrowful Mysteries of the Rosary, the escape and Flight into Egypt. The Loss of the Child Jesus in the Temple of Jerusalem, the Meeting of Mary and Jesus on the Via Dolorosa.
The Crucifixion of Jesus on Mount Calvary, the Piercing of the Side of Jesus, and His Descent from the Cross. The Burial of Jesus by Joseph of Arimathea and it is a common practice for Catholics to say daily one Our Father and seven Hail Marys for each. Earlier, in 1233, seven youths in Tuscany founded the Servite Order, five years later, they took up the sorrows of Mary, standing under the Cross, as the principal devotion of their order. Over the centuries several devotions, and even orders, arose around meditation on Marys Sorrows in particular, the Servites developed the two most common devotions to Our Ladys Sorrows, namely the Rosary of the Seven Sorrows and the Black Scapular of the Seven Dolours of Mary. The Black Scapular is a symbol of the Confraternity of Our Lady of Sorrows, most devotional scapulars have requirements regarding ornamentation or design. The devotion of the Black Scapular requires only that it be made of woollen cloth. It depicts the Virgin Mary at the moment that Simeon the Righteous says and she stands with her hands upraised in prayer, and seven swords pierce her heart, indicative of the seven sorrows.
This is one of the few Orthodox icons of the Theotokos which do not depict the infant Jesus, the refrain Rejoice, much-sorrowing Mother of God, turn our sorrows into joy and soften the hearts of evil men. The Feast of Our Lady of Sorrows grew in popularity in the 12th century, some writings would place its roots in the eleventh century, especially among the Benedictine monks. The first altar to the Mater Dolorosa was set up in 1221 at the Cistercian monastery of Schönau, the formal feast of the Our Lady of Sorrows was originated by a provincial synod of Cologne in 1423. It was designated for the Friday after the third Sunday after Easter and had the title and its object was the sorrow of Mary during the Crucifixion and Death of Christ
The Marist Brothers of the Schools, commonly known as simply the Marist Brothers, is an international community of Catholic Religious Institute of Brothers. In 1817, St. Marcellin Champagnat, a priest from France, founded the Marist Brothers, with the goal of educating young people, especially those most neglected. The decision was inspired by an event, when as a parish priest he was called to administer the last rites to a boy named Jean Baptiste Montagne. Trying to lead the boy through his last moments in prayer, from that moment, Champagnat decided to start training brothers to meet the faith needs of the young people of France. On January 2,1817, the 23-year-old Jean Marie Granjon and Jean Baptist Audras, Champagnat had rented for them in La Valla and which became the first Marist Brothers community. Their day consisted of prayer and study, their work was to make nails. Marcellin taught them reading and writing, and he looked after their formation as religious educators, other young men joined the undertaking, among them Gabriel Rivat who, as Brother François, would become the Brothers first Superior General.
They received a mandate to follow the Marist Fathers to the Pacific and administer to the new colonies of the Pacific nations. This harkens back to a Marist legend about Champagnat, from their roots in Lyons, the Brothers today have spread across the globe. Over their 200-year history, Marist Brothers have had ministries in over 100 different nations, the international Marist brotherhood is led by a Superior General, currently Br. Together with the Vicar General and a General Council, it is his job to guide the growth and administration of the ministries of the Brothers across the globe. The Marist Brothers are divided into two administrative units, either provinces or districts, depending on size. Provinces are led by a Provincial, whose job it is to oversee, there are presently 26 provinces and 5 districts. Depending on the extent of ministries within a country, there may be multiple provinces within the one country. For example, Brazil has three provinces and two districts and Australia has two, as does Mexico, mission Ad Gentes Marist District of Asia Province of East Asia.
Francis Xaviers College and St. Francis Xaviers School in Hong Kong Province of Souh Asia, notable school, Maris Stella College in Negombo. The Marist Brothers first international mandate was to the Pacific, where they accompanied Marist Fathers in evangelizing, Marist brothers own and run many technical colleges in the Central and Western Pacific, educating young men in nations ravaged by war. Marist Brothers arrived in Australia in 1872, where they opened their first school at The Rocks, there are now over 300 Brothers working with young people in schools as teachers and administrators, in retreat houses and camps for young people and in other areas of ministry
The Stabat Mater is a 13th-century Catholic hymn to Mary, which portrays her suffering as Jesus Christs mother during his crucifixion. Its author may be either the Franciscan friar Jacopone da Todi or Pope Innocent III, the title comes from its first line, Stabat Mater dolorosa, which means the sorrowful mother was standing. The hymn is sung at the liturgy on the memorial of Our Lady of Sorrows, the Stabat mater is generally ascribed to Jacopone da Todi. The Stabat Mater was well known by the end of the 14th century and Georgius Stella wrote of its use in 1388, in Provence, about 1399, it was used during the nine days processions. The following translation by Edward Caswall is not word-for-word, instead it has been adapted so as to represent the meter, rhyme scheme, and sense of the original text. George Oldroyds setting is in Latin but includes an English translation for Anglican/Episcopalian use, the Alfeyev setting is in Russian. Hymns to Mary Our Lady of Sorrows Roman Catholic Mariology This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles.
Website about 250 different Stabat Mater compositions, information about the composers, the music, the site includes translations of the text in 20 languages. Several English translations Chant performed by Exsurge Domine vocal ensemble, spanish Radio and Television Symphony Orchestra
Seven Joys of the Virgin
The Seven Joys of the Virgin is a popular devotion to events of the life of the Virgin Mary, arising from a trope of medieval devotional literature and art. The Seven Joys were frequently depicted in medieval literature and art. Depiction in art of the Assumption of Mary may replace or be combined with the Coronation, especially from the 15th century onwards, there is a matching set of seven Sorrows of the Virgin, both sets influenced the selection of scenes in depictions of the Life of the Virgin. Originally, there were five joys of the Virgin, that number increased to seven and even fifteen in medieval literature, although seven remained the most common number, and others are rarely found in art. The five joys of Mary are mentioned in the 14th-century poem Sir Gawain, the devotion was especially popular in pre-Reformation England. The French writer Antoine de la Sale completed a satire called Les Quinze Joies de Mariage in about 1462, which parodied the form of Les Quinze Joies de Notre Dame.
Franciscan Crown - rosary commemorating the seven joys of Mary Life of Jesus in the New Testament The Seven Joys of Mary - traditional carol Seven Sorrows of Mary
It is one of the eight most ancient Christian hymns and perhaps the earliest Marian hymn. Its name comes from the incipit of the Latin version of the canticles text, the text of the canticle is taken directly from the Gospel of Luke where it is spoken by Mary upon the occasion of her Visitation to her cousin Elizabeth. In the narrative, after Mary greets Elizabeth, who is pregnant with John the Baptist, Elizabeth praises Mary for her faith, and Mary responds with what is now known as the Magnificat. Within the whole of Christianity, the Magnificat is most frequently recited within the Liturgy of the Hours, in Western Christianity, the Magnificat is most often sung or recited during the main evening prayer service, Vespers in the Catholic and Lutheran churches, and Evening Prayer in Anglicanism. In Eastern Christianity, the Magnificat is usually sung at Sunday Matins, among Protestant groups, the Magnificat may be sung during worship services, especially in the Advent season during which these verses are traditionally read.
These songs are Marys Magnificat, Zechariahs Benedictus, the angels Gloria in Excelsis Deo, in form and content, these four canticles are patterned on the hymns of praise in Israels Psalter. In structure, these reflect the compositions of pre-Christian contemporary Jewish hymnology. The balance of the two lines bursts out into a dual Magnificat of declaring the greatness of and finding delight in God. Mary symbolizes both ancient Israel and the Lucan faith-community as the author/singer of the Magnificat, the canticle echoes several biblical passages, but the most pronounced allusions are to the Song of Hannah, from the Books of Samuel. Scriptural echoes from the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings complement the main allusions to Hannahs magnificat of rejoicing. Along with the Benedictus, as well as several Old Testament canticles, the Magnificat is included in the Book of Odes, the original language of the Magnificat is Koine Greek, the language of the New Testament. However, in the liturgical and devotional use in Western Christianity, Μεγαλύνει ἡ ψυχή μου τὸν Κύριον καὶ ἠγαλλίασεν τὸ πνεῦμά μου ἐπὶ τῷ Θεῷ τῷ σωτῆρί μου, ὅτι ἐπέβλεψεν ἐπὶ τὴν ταπείνωσιν τῆς δούλης αὐτοῦ. ἰδοὺ γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν μακαριοῦσίν με πᾶσαι αἱ γενεαί, ὅτι ἐποίησέν μοι μεγάλα ὁ δυνατός, καὶ ἅγιον τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, Ἐποίησεν κράτος ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ, διεσκόρπισεν ὑπερηφάνους διανοίᾳ καρδίας αὐτῶν· καθεῖλεν δυνάστας ἀπὸ θρόνων καὶ ὕψωσεν ταπεινούς, πεινῶντας ἐνέπλησεν ἀγαθῶν καὶ πλουτοῦντας ἐξαπέστειλεν κενούς. ἀντελάβετο Ἰσραὴλ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ, μνησθῆναι ἐλέους, καθὼς ἐλάλησεν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν τῷ Αβραὰμ καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.
The translation of the hymn into Church Slavonic is as follows, Transcription in modern Cyrillic alphabet, Вели́чит душа́ Моя́ Го́спода, Честне́йшую херуви́м и сла́внейшую без сравне́ния серафи́м, без истле́ния Бо́га Сло́ва ро́ждшую, су́щую Богоро́дицу, Тя велича́ем. Я́ко призре́ на смире́ние рабы́ Своея́, се бо от ны́не ублажа́т Мя вси ро́ди, Честне́йшую херуви́м… Я́ко сотвори́ Мне вели́чие Си́льный, и свя́то и́мя Его́, и ми́лость Его́ в ро́ды родо́в боя́щимся Его́. Честне́йшую херуви́м… Сотвори́ держа́ву мы́шцею Свое́ю, расточи́ го́рдыя мы́слию се́рдца их, Честне́йшую херуви́м… Низложи́ си́льныя со престо́л, и вознесе́ смире́нныя, а́лчущия испо́лни благ, и богатя́щияся отпусти́ тщи. Честне́йшую херуви́м… Восприя́т Изра́иля о́трока Своего́, помяну́ти ми́лости, я́коже глаго́ла ко отце́м на́шим, Честне́йшую херуви́м…, Magnificat anima mea Dominum, et exultavit spiritus meus in Deo salvatore meo, quia respexit humilitatem ancillae suae
Sub tuum praesidium
Beneath Thy Protection is the oldest preserved extant hymn to the Blessed Virgin Mary as Theotokos. The hymn is known in many Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox countries. The earliest text of this hymn was found in a Coptic Orthodox Christmas liturgy, the papyrus records the hymn in Greek, dated by scholar C. H. Roberts to the fourth Century, while his colleague Edgar Lobel favored a date ranging from AD 250-280 and this divergence in dates is explained by Roberts doubt that the term Theotokos was already in use by the third Century. We find it, however, in the writings of third Century theologians Origen, the hymn is used in the Coptic liturgy to this day, as well as in the Armenian, Byzantine and Roman Rite liturgies. It was part of Sulpician custom that all ended with a recitation of this prayer. Besides the Greek text, ancient versions can be found in Coptic, Armenian, henri de Villiers finds in the term blessed a reference to the salutation by Elizabeth in Luke 1,42.
Praesidium is translated as a given in time of war by fresh troops in a strong manner. In the Byzantine Rite used by the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, in Greek practice it is usually sung in Neo-Byzantine chant. In the Armenian Rite, the hymn is sung on the Eve of Theophany and is used as an acclamation in the daily compline service known as the Rest Hour. A slightly different version of the hymn is appended to the Trisagion when the latter is chanted in the daily Morning and Evening Hours of the Daily Office. The Slavonic version of the hymn is often used outside of Great Lent. Other than the traditional and modern chant settings, which are the most commonly used, the Latin version has been set to music in the West many times, notably by Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Antonio Salieri and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In 2010 the text was set as a motet in Latin, Slavonic. The prayer has a significance for Marists. and it is often heard in Marist schools. It is used by the Salesians in honor of Mary Help of Christians.
The earliest Church Slavonic manuscripts have the prayer in the following form, in the 17th century, under the liturgical reforms of Patriarch Nikon of Moscow, the Russian Orthodox Church adopted a new translation, This second version continues in use today. The Latin translation, likely derived from the Greek, dates from the 11th century, photograph of papyrus, dated to 250 AD, the earliest example of this hymn
A Marian devotion in Christianity is directed to the person of Mary, mother of Jesus consisting of external pious practices expressed by the believer. Such devotional prayers or acts may be accompanied by requests for Marys intercession with God. In 787 the Second Council of Nicaea affirmed a three-level hierarchy of latria and dulia that applies to God and they believe this devotion may distract attention from Christ. There is significant diversity of form and structure in Marian devotions practiced by different groups of Christians, Orthodox Marian devotions are well-defined and closely linked to liturgy, while Roman Catholic practices are wide-ranging. There is no single church with universal authority within the Anglican Communion, within the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement, devotions to the Virgin Mary have more emphasis within High Church and Broad Church parishes than others. The emphasis placed on Mary and Marian devotions changed over the history of Anglicanism, however, in the 17th century, there was a gradual return to Marianism and by 1662 there were five Marian feasts.
Anglican devotion for the Virgin Mary was revived during the 19th century Oxford Movement of Anglo-Catholicism, british theologians such as Father Frederick Faber took an enthusiastic approach to the promotion of Marian devotions towards the end of the 19th century. In the liturgical renewal of the 20th century, Mary gained new prominence, the gradual increase in Marian devotions among Anglicans has been manifested within the higher levels of the clergy in the Anglican Communion. Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams wrote a book on how to pray with the icons of the Virgin Mary, Anglican devotions to Mary include the Anglican Rosary, votive candles, and pilgrimages to Walsingham and Lourdes. Some Anglicans and Anglo-Catholics pray the rosary itself, for centuries, Our Lady of Walsingham has been a centerpiece in Anglican devotions to the Virgin Mary and its feast is celebrated on October 15, as well as a Catholic feast on September 24. Also common in Anglican cathedrals, Anglo-Catholic parishes, and certain Anglican shrines are chapels or side altars dedicated to the Virgin Mary called Lady chapels, a deep devotion to the Aeipartenos Mary is one of the key themes of Orthodox liturgy and spirituality.
Devotion to the Virgin Mary is taken for granted in Eastern Orthodoxy and it permeates the entire life of the Church and historically required no academic development as in the Western Church. In the Orthodox view, devotion to Mary is considered an important element of Christian spirituality, Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov called denominations that do not venerate the Virgin Mary another type of Christianity. The Theotokos title for Mary is very important in Eastern Orthodoxy and is seen as an affirmation of the fullness of Gods incarnation, Marian devotions thus form the nucleolus of Orthodox Mariology. Feasts and hymns are often combined, e. g. the Theotokos Iverskaya wonder-working icon is used on its own feast day, devotions to the Theotokos are often combined with the veneration of icons depicting her with the Child Jesus. For instance, in the Sunday of Orthodoxy the singing of Marian hymns, the Eastern Orthodox Church considers Mary to have been elevated by God to the highest status, above all other creatures, though still only a human being.
The Orthodox hymn Axion Estin speaks of Mary as being More honorable than the cherubim, although most Orthodox consider Mary sinless, they do not accept the Roman Catholic definition of the Immaculate Conception of Mary. Mary is mentioned numerous times in all of the Divine Services, the final petition of each ektenia ends with an invocation of the Virgin Mary
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The figure is named after the town where it is reported. Marian apparitions sometimes are reported to recur at the site over an extended period of time. In the majority of Marian apparitions only one person or a few people report having witnessed the apparition, exceptions to this include Zeitoun, Fátima and Assiut where thousands claimed to have seen her over a period of time. The term appearance has been used in different apparitions within a range of contexts. And its use has been different with respect to Marian apparitions and visions of Jesus Christ, in some apparitions such as Our Lady of Lourdes an actual vision is reported, resembling that of a person being present. In some of these reports the viewers do not initially report that saw the Virgin Mary. In these cases the viewers report experiences that resemble the visual and verbal interaction with a present at the site. In most cases, there are no indications as to the auditory nature of the experience.
The 1973 messages of Our Lady of Akita were to Sister Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa who went deaf before 1973, in some apparitions an image is reported absent any verbal interaction. An example is the reported apparitions at Our Lady of Assiut in which people reported a bright image atop a building. However, such image-like appearances are hardly ever reported for visions of Jesus, in most cases these involve some form of reported communication. And apparitions should be distinguished from interior locutions in which no visual contact is claimed, interior locutions consist of inner voices. Interior locutions are generally not classified as apparitions, physical contact is hardly ever reported as part of Marian apparitions. In rare cases a physical artifact is reported in apparitions, such as the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, according to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, the era of public revelation ended with the death of the last living Apostle. The Church may pronounce an apparition as worthy of belief, the Holy See has officially confirmed the apparitions at Guadalupe, Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, Paris, La Salette, Lourdes, Fátima, Pontmain and Banneux.
An authentic apparition is believed not to be a subjective experience, the purpose of such apparitions is to recall and emphasize some aspect of the Christian message. The church states that cures and other events are not the purpose of Marian apparitions
Alma Redemptoris Mater
Alma Redemptoris Mater is a Marian hymn, written in Latin hexameter, and one of four seasonal liturgical Marian antiphons sung at the end of the office of Compline. Hermannus Contractus is said to have authored the hymn based on the writings of Saints Fulgentius, Epiphanius and it is mentioned in The Prioresss Tale, one of Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales. Formerly it was recited at compline only from the first Sunday in Advent until the Feast of the Purification, depending on the period, the following combinations of a versicle and collect are added. Hear thou thy peoples cry, Star of the deep, and portal of the sky. Mother of Him Who thee from nothing made, Sinking we strive and call to thee for aid, Oh, by that joy which Gabriel brought to thee, Thou Virgin first and last, the Angel of the LORD brought tidings unto Mary ℟. And she conceived by the Holy Ghost, through the same Christ, our Lord. After childbirth, O Virgin, thou didst remain inviolate, intercede for us, O Mother of God
The Regina Cæli or Regina Cœli is an ancient Latin Marian Hymn of the Christian Church. Any one of four or of other suitable antiphons may now be sung at any time of the liturgical year. The Regina Coeli is sung or recited in place of the Angelus during the Easter season, as with many Roman Catholic prayers, it takes its name from its incipit or first word. The Latin word coelum, meaning heaven, was a medieval and early modern spelling of caelum. In medieval Latin, ae and oe were both pronounced, the form was influenced by an extremely dubious etymology from Greek koilos. While the authorship of the Regina Caeli is unknown, the hymn has been traced back to the 12th century and it was in Franciscan use, after Compline, in the first half of the following century. He was thereupon inspired to add the fourth line, there are plainsong melodies associated with Regina Caeli, the official or typical melody being found in the Vatican Antiphonary,1911, p.126. The antiphonal strophes of Regina Caeli were often set by composers of the 16th century.
Lullys motet Regina coeli, laetare was written in 1684, there are three settings by the young Mozart, and one by Brahms. In the 16th century, the antiphons of our Lady were employed to replace the office at all the hours. In Anglican churches, the translation is in 126.96.36.199 metre. Regina cæli, lætare, alleluia, R. Quia quem meruisti portare, Resurrexit, sicut dixit, alleluia, R. Ora pro nobis Deum, gaude et lætare, Virgo Maria, alleluia. R. Quia surrexit Dominus vere, deus, qui per resurrectionem Filii tui, Domini nostri Iesu Christi, mundum lætificare dignatus es, præsta, quæsumus, ut per eius Genitricem Virginem Mariam, perpetuæ capiamus gaudia vitæ. Gregorian Chant Audio Literal translation, Queen of Heaven, the Son whom you merited to bear, alleluia. Has risen, as He said, pray for us to God, alleluia. V. Rejoice and be glad, O Virgin Mary, for the Lord has truly risen, alleluia. O God, who through the resurrection of your Son Jesus Christ gave rejoicing to the grant, we pray, that through his Mother.
Joy to thee, O Queen of Heaven and he whom Thou wast meet to bear
Three Hail Marys
Three Hail Marys is a traditional Roman Catholic devotional practice of reciting three Hail Marys as a petition for purity and other virtues. Believers recommend that it be prayed after waking in the morning and this devotion has been recommended by St. Anthony of Padua, St. Alphonsus Liguori, St. John Bosco and St. Leonard of Port Maurice. Two saints and Gertrude, are said to have received revelations from the Blessed Virgin Mary regarding this practice, the practice of reciting the Hail Mary three times dates at least to the 12th century. One of the first to practice and recommend it was St. Anthony of Padua and his purpose was to honor the spotless Virginity of Mary and to preserve a perfect purity of mind and body in the midst of the dangers of the world. This practice was observed by Franciscans and eventually developed into the Angelus prayer, St. Mechtilde of Hackeborn, a Benedictine nun of the convent of Helfta, experienced three visions of the Virgin Mary. Mechtilde was distressed over her eternal salvation and prayed to the Virgin to be present at the hour of her death, in these appearances, Mary reassured her, and taught her to understand especially on how the Three Hail Marys honor the three persons of the Blessed Trinity.
Later on, St. Doctor of the Church St. Alphonsus Liguori adopted this pious practice and he told parents to train their children to acquire the habit of saying three Hail Marys in the morning and evening. After each Hail Mary, he advised that the prayer be said, By thy pure and Immaculate Conception, O Mary, make my body pure. Fatima Network EWTN on the Efficacious Novena of the Three Hail Marys Moran, the Catholic Prayer Book and manual of meditations p.519 Luppino, Giuseppe. Short History of the Angelus, LOsservatore Romano,4 September 2002, p.6