Horror film is a film genre that seeks to elicit a negative emotional reaction from viewers by playing on their fears. Inspired by literature from authors like Edgar Allan Poe, Bram Stoker, the macabre and the supernatural are frequent themes. Horror may also overlap with the fantasy, supernatural fiction and thriller genres, Horror films often deal with viewers nightmares, fears, revulsions and terror of the unknown. Plots within the genre often involve the intrusion of an evil force, event. Another of his projects was 1898s La Caverne maudite. Japan made early forays into the genre with Bake Jizo and Shinin no Sosei. The era featured a slew of literary adaptations, with the works of Poe and Dante, in 1908, Selig Polyscope Company produced Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. In 1910, Edison Studios produced the first filmed version of Frankenstein, the macabre nature of the source materials used made the films synonymous with the horror film genre. Before and during the Weimar Republic era, German Expressionist filmmakers would significantly influence later productions, the first vampire-themed movie, Nosferatu, was made during this period, though it was an unauthorized adaptation of Bram Stokers Dracula. Other European countries also, contributed to the genre during this period, though the word horror to describe the film genre would not be used until the 1930s, earlier American productions often relied on horror themes. Some notable examples include The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Phantom of the Opera, The Cat and the Canary, The Unknown, and The Man Who Laughs. Many of these films were considered dark melodramas because of their stock characters and emotion-heavy plots that focused on romance, violence, suspense. The trend of inserting an element of macabre into American pre-horror melodramas continued into the 1920s, directors known for relying on macabre in their films during the 1920s were Maurice Tourneur, Rex Ingram, and Tod Browning. Ingrams The Magician contains one of the first examples of a mad doctor and is said to have had a influence on James Whales version of Frankenstein. The Unholy Three is an example of Brownings use of macabre and unique style of morbidity, he remade the film in 1930 as a talkie, during the early period of talking pictures, Universal Pictures began a successful Gothic horror film series. Tod Brownings Dracula was quickly followed by James Whales Frankenstein and The Old Dark House, some of these films blended science fiction with Gothic horror, such as Whales The Invisible Man and featured a mad scientist, mirroring earlier German films. Frankenstein was the first in a series of remakes which lasted for years, the Mummy introduced Egyptology as a theme, Make-up artist Jack Pierce was responsible for the iconic image of the monster, and others in the series. Universals horror cycle continued into the 1940s with B-movies including The Wolf Man, the once controversial Freaks, based on the short story Spurs, was made by MGM, though the studio disowned the completed film, and it remained banned, in the UK, for thirty years
The cuckoos are a family of birds, Cuculidae, the sole taxon in the order Cuculiformes. The cuckoo family includes the common or European cuckoo, roadrunners, koels, malkohas, couas, coucals, the coucals and anis are sometimes separated as distinct families, the Centropodidae and Crotophagidae respectively. The cuckoos are generally medium-sized slender birds, the majority are arboreal, with a sizeable minority that are terrestrial. The family has a distribution, with the majority of species being tropical. The cuckoos feed on insects, insect larvae and a variety of other animals, some species are brood parasites, laying their eggs in the nests of other species, but the majority of species raise their own young. Cuckoos have played a role in culture for thousands of years. In Europe, the cuckoo is associated with spring, and with cuckoldry, in India, cuckoos are sacred to Kamadeva, the god of desire and longing, whereas in Japan, the cuckoo symbolises unrequited love. Cuckoos are medium-sized birds that range in size from the little cuckoo, at 17 g and 15 cm, to the channel-billed cuckoo. There is generally sexual dimorphism in size, but where it exists. One of the most important distinguishing features of the family are the feet, there are two basic body forms, arboreal species which are slender and have short tarsi, and terrestrial species which are more heavy set and have long tarsi. Almost all species have long tails which are used for steering in terrestrial species, the subfamily Cuculinae are the brood-parasitic cuckoos of the Old World. They tend to conform to the shape, with long tails, short legs, long narrow wings. The largest species, the cuckoo, also has the most outsized bill in the family. The subfamily Phaenicophaeinae are the cuckoos of the Old World, and include the couas, malkohas. They are more terrestrial cuckoos, with strong and often long legs, the subfamily typically has brighter plumage and brightly coloured bare skin around the eye. The coucals are another terrestrial subfamily of long tailed long legged and they are large heavyset birds with the largest, the greater black coucal, being around the same size as the channel-billed cuckoo. The subfamily Coccyzinae are arboreal and long tailed as well, with a number of large insular forms, the final subfamily are the atypical anis, which include the small clumsy anis and the larger guira cuckoo. The anis have massive bills and smooth glossy feathers, the feathers of the cuckoos are generally soft, and often become waterlogged in heavy rain
Mind control is a theory that human subjects can be indoctrinated in a way that causes an impairment of autonomy, an inability to think independently, and a disruption of beliefs and affiliations. In this context, brainwashing refers to the involuntary reeducation of basic beliefs and these theories were later expanded and modified by psychologists including Margaret Singer and Philip Zimbardo to explain conversions to some new religious movements. This resulted in scientific and legal debate, with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, other theories have been proposed by scholars including, Robert Cialdini, Stanley A. Deetz, Robert Jay Lifton, Michael J. Freeman, Daniel Romanovsky, Kathleen Taylor, and Benjamin Zablocki. However, in the view of most scholars, the theory of control is not accepted as scientific fact. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of brainwashing in an article by newspaperman Edward Hunter, in Miami News, the term punned on the Taoist custom of cleansing/washing the heart/mind before conducting certain ceremonies or entering certain holy places. British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne also claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment. The U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine detailed confessions made by military personnel to war crimes, if they did, however, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want. The men themselves are not to blame, and they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way, the report states exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal even one conclusively documented case of brainwashing of an American prisoner of war in Korea. In contrast American POWs in the custody of North Koreas Chinese Communist allies did face a concerted interrogation and indoctrination program, however, systematic, physical torture was not employed in connection with interrogation or indoctrination, the report states. The enemy introduced himself as a friend of the workers of America, in many instances the Chinese did not search the American captives, but frequently offered them American cigarettes. This display of friendship caught most Americans totally off-guard and they never recovered from the impression made by the Chinese. Fter the initial contact with the enemy, some Americans seemed to believe that the enemy was sincere and they relaxed and permitted themselves to be lulled into a well-disguised trap the cunning enemy. Two academic studies of the repatriation of American prisoners of war by Robert Jay Lifton and by Edgar Schein concluded that brainwashing, in 1961, they both published books expanding on these findings. Schein published Coercive Persuasion and Lifton published Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism and he argued that the books of Edward Hunter pushed the CIA brainwashing theory onto the general public. CIA experiments using various drugs such as LSD and Mescaline drew from Nazi scientist research during World War II. In the 1970s, the movement applied mind control theories to explain seemingly sudden. The media was quick to follow suit, and social scientists sympathetic to the anti-cult movement, while some psychologists were receptive to these theories, sociologists were for the most part skeptical of their ability to explain conversion to NRMs. On the contrary, the theories and the fear surrounding them was used as a tool for the western anti-cult movement to rationalize the persecution of minority religious groups, most adherents participate for only a short time, and the success in retaining members is limited
Patrick David Barr was a British film and television actor. Born in Akola, India in 1908, Patrick Barr went from stage to screen with The Merry Men of Sherwood and he spent the 1930s playing various beneficent authority figures and reliable friend types. As a conscientious objector during the Second World War, Barr helped people in the Blitz in Londons East End before serving with the Friends Ambulance Unit in Africa. There he met his wife Anne Jean Williams, marrying her after ten days, it would have been sooner, but they had to get permission from London. On television, he appeared in Doctor Who in 1967 as Hobson in the serial entitled The Moonbase, in the 1970 Randall & Hopkirk episode You Can Always Find a Fall Guy and appeared once in The Avengers. In the 1981 BBC Radio 4 adaptation of The Lord of the Rings, Patrick Barr died in London in 1985 at the age of 77. Patrick Barr at the Internet Movie Database Patrick Barr at the Internet Broadway Database
The Cannon Group, Inc.
The Cannon Group, Inc. was an American group of companies, including Cannon Films, which produced a distinctive line of low-to medium-budget films from 1967 to 1994. Cannon Films was incorporated on October 23,1967 and it was formed by Dennis Friedland and Chris Dewey while they were in their early 20s. They had immediate success producing English-language versions of Swedish soft porn films directed by Joseph W. Sarno, Inga, aka Jag - en oskuld and To Ingrid, My Love, Lisa, aka Kvinnolek. By 1970, they had produced films on a production scale than a lot of major distributors, such as Joe. They managed this by limiting their budgets to $300,000 per picture—or less. However, as the 1970s moved on, a string of unsuccessful movies seriously drained Cannon’s capital and this, along with changes to film-production tax laws, led to a drop in Cannons stock price. By 1979, Cannon had hit financial difficulties, and Friedland and Dewey sold Cannon to Israeli cousins Menahem Golan. The two cousins forged a business model of buying bottom-barrel scripts and putting them into production and they tapped into a ravenous market for action B-pictures in the 1980s. Although they are most remembered for the Death Wish sequels and Chuck Norris action pictures such as The Delta Force, one of Cannon’s biggest hits was the Vietnam action B-movie Missing in Action, with Chuck Norris. The film, however, was criticized heavily as being a preemptive cash-in on the Rambo film series, james Camerons story treatment for Rambo, First Blood Part II was floating around Hollywood in 1983, which Golan and Globus reviewed and were inspired by. The writers of MIA even gave Cameron credit saying their film was inspired by his script treatment, but Cannon had initially put the prequel Missing in Action 2, The Beginning into production. Only after the two movies were completed had the company realized that the second movie was superior to the first one. So, the first movie produced became an awkward prequel, substantial pre-sales of the next years films were made based on the strong salesmanship skills of Globus, and the advertising created by Design Projects. Slavenburgs Bank in the Netherlands provided bridge financing until the pre-sales amounts were collected, by 1986, when company earnings reached their apex with 43 films in one year, Cannon Films shares had soared a hundredfold. Golan remained Chairman of the Board, while Globus served as President, during this year, Cannon Films released Robotech, The Movie for a limited run in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. Cannon was reportedly unsatisfied with Carl Macek’s first version of the movie and it was at their insistence that footage from The Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross and Megazone 23 be spliced together to produce a more action-oriented movie. Macek recalls that although he was unhappy with this version, Menahem Golan, after viewing it, happily said. Nevertheless, Robotech, The Movie was unsuccessful in its brief Texas run, Carl Macek has gone on record as disowning it