Environmental policy of India
Environment policies of the Government of India includes legislations related to environment. In the Directive Principles of State Policy, Article 48 says "the state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country". Prior to the CBD, India had different laws to govern the environment; the Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972 protected the biodiversity. It was amended multiple times; the 1988 National Forest Policy had conservation as its fundamental principle. In addition to these acts, the government passed the Environment Act 1986 and Foreign Trade Act 1992 for control of biodiversity. Since about the late 1980s, the Supreme Court of India has been pro-actively engaged in India's environmental issues. In most countries, it is the executive and the legislative branches of the government that plan and address environmental issues; the Supreme Court of India has been engaged in interpreting and introducing new changes in the environmental jurisprudence directly.
The Court has laid down new principles to protect the environment, re-interpreted environmental laws, created new institutions and structures, conferred additional powers on the existing ones through a series of directions and judgments. The Court's directions on environmental issues goes beyond the general questions of law, as is expected from the highest Court of a democratic country; the Supreme Court of India, in its order, includes executive actions and technical details of environmental actions to be implemented. Indeed, some critics of India's Supreme Court describe the Court as the Lords of Green Bench or Garbage Supervisor. Supporters of India's Supreme Court term these orders and the Indian bench as pioneering, both in terms of laying down new principles of law, in delivering environmental justice; the reasons for the increasing interjection of India's Supreme Court in governance arenas are, experts claim, complex. A key factor has been the failure of government agencies and the state owned enterprises in discharging their Constitutional and Statutory duties.
This has prompted civil society groups to file public interest complaints with the Courts the Supreme Court, for suitable remedies. Public interest litigation and judicial activism on environmental issues extends beyond India's Supreme Court, it includes the High Courts of individual states. India's judicial activism on environmental issues has, some suggest, delivered positive effects to the Indian experience. Proponents claim that the Supreme Court has, through intense judicial activism, become a symbol of hope for the people of India; as a result of judicial activism, India's Supreme Court has delivered a new normative regime of rights and insisted that the Indian state cannot act arbitrarily but must act reasonably and in public interest on pain of its action being invalidated by judicial intervention. India's judicial activism on environmental issues has, had adverse consequences. Public interest cases are filed to block infrastructure projects aimed at solving environmental issues in India, such as but not limiting to water works, land acquisition for projects, electricity power generation projects.
The litigation delays such projects for years, whilst rampant pollution continues in India, tens of thousands die from the unintended effects of pollution. After a stay related to an infrastructure project is vacated, or a court order gives a green light to certain project, new issues become grounds for court notices and new public interest litigation. Judicial activism in India has, in several key cases, found state-directed economic development ineffective and a failure interpreted laws and issued directives that encourage greater competition and free market to reduce environmental pollution. In other cases, the interpretations and directives have preserved industry protection, labour practices and polluting state-owned companies detrimental to environmental quality of India. Proactive measures should be taken to conserve the depleting environment; the Indian government tried to stop Greenpeace freedom of expression in 2015. Environmental issues in India Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education "Legislations on Environment and Wildlife" from the Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests "India's Forest Conservation Legislation: Acts, Guidelines", from the Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests Wildlife Legislations, including - "The Indian Wildlife Act" from the Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests
The kilogram or kilogramme is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units. Until 20 May 2019, it remains defined by a platinum alloy cylinder, the International Prototype Kilogram, manufactured in 1889, stored in Saint-Cloud, a suburb of Paris. After 20 May, it will be defined in terms of fundamental physical constants; the kilogram was defined as the mass of a litre of water. That was an inconvenient quantity to replicate, so in 1799 a platinum artefact was fashioned to define the kilogram; that artefact, the IPK, have been the standard of the unit of mass for the metric system since. In spite of best efforts to maintain it, the IPK has diverged from its replicas by 50 micrograms since their manufacture late in the 19th century; this led to efforts to develop measurement technology precise enough to allow replacing the kilogram artifact with a definition based directly on physical phenomena, now scheduled to take place in 2019. The new definition is based on invariant constants of nature, in particular the Planck constant, which will change to being defined rather than measured, thereby fixing the value of the kilogram in terms of the second and the metre, eliminating the need for the IPK.
The new definition was approved by the General Conference on Weights and Measures on 16 November 2018. The Planck constant relates a light particle's energy, hence mass, to its frequency; the new definition only became possible when instruments were devised to measure the Planck constant with sufficient accuracy based on the IPK definition of the kilogram. The gram, 1/1000 of a kilogram, was provisionally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic centimetre of water at the melting point of ice; the final kilogram, manufactured as a prototype in 1799 and from which the International Prototype Kilogram was derived in 1875, had a mass equal to the mass of 1 dm3 of water under atmospheric pressure and at the temperature of its maximum density, 4 °C. The kilogram is the only named SI unit with an SI prefix as part of its name; until the 2019 redefinition of SI base units, it was the last SI unit, still directly defined by an artefact rather than a fundamental physical property that could be independently reproduced in different laboratories.
Three other base units and 17 derived units in the SI system are defined in relation to the kilogram, thus its stability is important. The definitions of only eight other named SI units do not depend on the kilogram: those of temperature and frequency, angle; the IPK is used or handled. Copies of the IPK kept by national metrology laboratories around the world were compared with the IPK in 1889, 1948, 1989 to provide traceability of measurements of mass anywhere in the world back to the IPK; the International Prototype Kilogram was commissioned by the General Conference on Weights and Measures under the authority of the Metre Convention, in the custody of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures who hold it on behalf of the CGPM. After the International Prototype Kilogram had been found to vary in mass over time relative to its reproductions, the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommended in 2005 that the kilogram be redefined in terms of a fundamental constant of nature.
At its 2011 meeting, the CGPM agreed in principle that the kilogram should be redefined in terms of the Planck constant, h. The decision was deferred until 2014. CIPM has proposed revised definitions of the SI base units, for consideration at the 26th CGPM; the formal vote, which took place on 16 November 2018, approved the change, with the new definitions coming into force on 20 May 2019. The accepted redefinition defines the Planck constant as 6.62607015×10−34 kg⋅m2⋅s−1, thereby defining the kilogram in terms of the second and the metre. Since the second and metre are defined in terms of physical constants, the kilogram is defined in terms of physical constants only; the avoirdupois pound, used in both the imperial and US customary systems, is now defined in terms of the kilogram. Other traditional units of weight and mass around the world are now defined in terms of the kilogram, making the kilogram the primary standard for all units of mass on Earth; the word kilogramme or kilogram is derived from the French kilogramme, which itself was a learned coinage, prefixing the Greek stem of χίλιοι khilioi "a thousand" to gramma, a Late Latin term for "a small weight", itself from Greek γράμμα.
The word kilogramme was written into French law in 1795, in the Decree of 18 Germinal, which revised the older system of units introduced by the French National Convention in 1793, where the gravet had been defined as weight of a cubic centimetre of water, equal to 1/1000 of a grave. In the decree of 1795, the term gramme thus replaced gravet, kilogramme replaced grave; the French spelling was adopted in Great Britain when the word was used for the first time in English in 1795, with the spelling kilogram being adopted in the United States. In the United Kingdom both spellings are used, with "kilogram" having become by far the more common. UK law regulating the units to be used when trading by weight or measure does not prevent the use of either spelling. In the 19th century the French word kilo, a shortening of kilogramme, was imported into the English language where it has been used to mean both kilogram and kilometre. While kilo is acceptable in many generalist texts
Quantitative easing known as large-scale asset purchases, is a monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to inject money directly into the economy. An unconventional form of monetary policy, it is used when inflation is low or negative, standard expansionary monetary policy has become ineffective. A central bank implements quantitative easing by buying specified amounts of financial assets from commercial banks and other financial institutions, thus raising the prices of those financial assets and lowering their yield, while lowering short term interest rates which increases the money supply; this differs from the more usual policy of buying or selling short-term government bonds to keep interbank interest rates at a specified target value. Expansionary monetary policy to stimulate the economy involves the central bank buying short-term government bonds to lower short-term market interest rates. However, when short-term interest rates reach or approach zero, this method can no longer work.
In such circumstances, monetary authorities may use quantitative easing to further stimulate the economy, by buying specified quantities of financial assets without reference to interest rates, by buying riskier or of longer maturity assets, thereby lowering interest rates further out on the yield curve. Quantitative easing can help ensure. Risks include the policy being more effective than intended in acting against deflation, or not being effective enough if banks remain reluctant to lend and potential borrowers are unwilling to borrow. According to the International Monetary Fund, the U. S. Federal Reserve System, various economists, quantitative easing undertaken since the global financial crisis of 2007–08 has mitigated some of the economic problems since the crisis. Standard central bank monetary policies are enacted by buying or selling government bonds on the open market to reach a desired target for the interbank interest rate. However, if a recession or depression continues when a central bank has lowered interest rates to nearly zero, the central bank can no longer lower interest rates, a situation known as the liquidity trap.
The central bank may implement quantitative easing by buying financial assets without reference to interest rates. This policy is sometimes described as a last resort to stimulate the economy. A central bank enacts quantitative easing by purchasing—regardless of interest rates—a predetermined quantity of bonds or other financial assets on financial markets from private financial institutions; this action increases the excess reserves. The goal of this policy is to ease financial conditions and facilitate an expansion of private bank lending; the Dutch Central Bank itself sees QE as being a money creation operation:The Eurosystem directly injects money into the economy by purchasing the bonds with newly created electronic cash. This is called quantitative easing. Quantitative easing is supposed to stimulate the economy through five main channels: Credit channel: by providing liquidity in the banking sector, QE is supposed to make it easier and cheaper for banks to extend loans to companies and households, thus stimulating credit growth.
Additionally, if the central bank purchases financial instruments that are riskier than government bonds, it can lower the interest yield of those assets. Portfolio rebalancing: by doing QE, the central bank withdraws an important part of the safe assets from the market onto its own balance sheet, which may result in private investors turning to other market segments. By lack of government bonds, investors are forced to "rebalance their portfolios." Additionally, if the central bank purchases financial instruments that are riskier than government bonds, it can lower the interest yield of those assets. Exchange rate: because it increases the money supply, QE tends to depreciate a country's exchange rates relative to other currencies, through the mechanism of the interest rate. Lower interest rates lead to a capital outflow from a country, thereby reducing foreign demand for a country's money, leading to a weaker currency; this feature of QE directly benefits exporters living in the country performing QE Fiscal effect: by lowering yields on sovereign bonds, QE is making it cheaper for governments to borrow on financial markets, which may empower the government to provide fiscal stimulus to the economy.
Quantitative easing is best viewed as a debt refinancing operation of the "consolidated government", whereby the consolidated government, via the central bank, retires government debt securities and refinances them into central bank money. Signal effect: some economists argue that QE's main impact is due to its communication effect on the market. For instance, some observed that most of the effect of QE in the Eurozone on bond yields happened between the date of the announcement of QE and the actual start of the purchases by the ECB. According to the International Monetary Fund, the quantitative easing policies undertaken by the central banks of the major developed countries since the beginning of the late-2000s financial crisis have contributed to the reduction in systemic risks following the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers; the IMF states that the policies contributed to the improvements in market confidenc
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Balance of trade
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports, is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period. Sometimes a distinction is made between a balance of trade for goods versus one for services; the balance of trade measures a flow of imports over a given period of time. The notion of the balance of trade does not mean that exports and imports are "in balance" with each other. If a country exports a greater value than it imports, it has a trade surplus or positive trade balance, conversely, if a country imports a greater value than it exports, it has a trade deficit or negative trade balance; as of 2016, about 60 out of 200 countries have a trade surplus. The notion that bilateral trade deficits are bad in and of themselves is overwhelmingly rejected by trade experts and economists; the balance of trade forms part of the current account, which includes other transactions such as income from the net international investment position as well as international aid.
If the current account is in surplus, the country's net international asset position increases correspondingly. A deficit decreases the net international asset position; the trade balance is identical to the difference between its domestic demand. Measuring the balance of trade can be problematic because of problems with recording and collecting data; as an illustration of this problem, when official data for all the world's countries are added up, exports exceed imports by 1%. This cannot be true, because all transactions involve an equal credit or debit in the account of each nation; the discrepancy is believed to be explained by transactions intended to launder money or evade taxes and other visibility problems. For developing countries, the transaction statistics are to be inaccurate. Factors that can affect the balance of trade include: The cost of production in the exporting economy vis-à-vis those in the importing economy. In export-led growth, the balance of trade will shift towards exports during an economic expansion.
However, with domestic demand-led growth the trade balance will shift towards imports at the same stage in the business cycle. The monetary balance of trade is different from the physical balance of trade. Developed countries import a substantial amount of raw materials from developing countries; these imported materials are transformed into finished products, might be exported after adding value. Financial trade balance statistics conceal material flow. Most developed countries have a large physical trade deficit, because they consume more raw materials than they produce. Many civil society organisations claim this imbalance is predatory and campaign for ecological debt repayment. Many countries in early modern Europe adopted a policy of mercantilism, which theorized that a trade surplus was beneficial to a country, among other elements such as colonialism and trade barriers with other countries and their colonies; the practices and abuses of mercantilism led the natural resources and cash crops of British North America to be exported in exchange for finished goods from Great Britain, a factor leading to the American Revolution.
An early statement appeared in Discourse of the Common Wealth of this Realm of England, 1549: "We must always take heed that we buy no more from strangers than we sell them, for so should we impoverish ourselves and enrich them." A systematic and coherent explanation of balance of trade was made public through Thomas Mun's 1630 "England's treasure by foreign trade, or, The balance of our foreign trade is the rule of our treasure"Since the mid-1980s, the United States has had a growing deficit in tradeable goods with Asian nations which now hold large sums of U. S debt that has in part funded the consumption; the U. S. has a trade surplus with nations such as Australia. The issue of trade deficits can be complex. Trade deficits generated in tradeable goods such as manufactured goods or software may impact domestic employment to different degrees than do trade deficits in raw materials. Economies which have savings surpluses, such as Japan and Germany run trade surpluses. China, a high-growth economy, has tended to run trade surpluses.
A higher savings rate corresponds to a trade surplus. Correspondingly, the U. S. with its lower savings rate has tended to run high trade deficits with Asian nations. Some have said. Russia pursues a policy based on protectionism, according to which international trade is not a "win-win" game but a zero-sum game: surplus countries get richer at the expense of deficit
For another use of the term "shale oil", meaning synthetic crude oil derived from oil shale, see shale oil. Tight oil is light crude oil contained in petroleum-bearing formations of low permeability shale or tight sandstone. Economic production from tight oil formations requires the same hydraulic fracturing and uses the same horizontal well technology used in the production of shale gas. While sometimes called "shale oil", tight oil should not be confused with oil shale, shale rich in kerogen, or shale oil, oil produced from oil shales. Therefore, the International Energy Agency recommends using the term "light tight oil" for oil produced from shales or other low permeability formations, while the World Energy Resources 2013 report by the World Energy Council uses the terms "tight oil" and "shale-hosted oil". In May 2013 the International Energy Agency in its Medium-Term Oil Market Report said that the North American oil production surge led by unconventional oils - US light tight oil and Canadian oil sands - had produced a global supply shock that would reshape the way oil is transported, stored and marketed.
Tight oil formations include the Bakken Shale, the Niobrara Formation, Barnett Shale, the Eagle Ford Shale in the United States, R'Mah Formation in Syria, Sargelu Formation in the northern Persian Gulf region, Athel Formation in Oman, Bazhenov Formation and Achimov Formation of West Siberia in Russia, Arckaringa Basin in Australia, Chicontepec Formation in Mexico, the Vaca Muerta oil field in Argentina. In June 2013 the U. S. Energy Information Administration published a global inventory of estimated recoverable tight oil and tight gas resources in shale formations, "Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States." The inventory is incomplete due to exclusion of tight oil and gas from sources other than shale such as sandstone or carbonates, formations underlying the large oil fields located in the Middle East and the Caspian region, off shore formations, or about which there is little information.
Amounts include only high quality prospects which are to be developed. In 2012, at least 4,000 new producing shale oil wells were brought online in the United States. By comparison, the number of new producing oil and gas wells completed in 2012 globally outside the United States and Canada is less than 4,000. Tight oil shale formations are heterogeneous and vary over short distances. Tight oil reservoirs subjected to fracking can be divided into four different groups. Type I has little matrix porosity and permeability – leading to fractures dominating both storage capacity and fluid flow pathways. Type II has low matrix porosity and permeability, but here the matrix provides storage capacity while fractures provide fluid-flow paths. Type III are microporous reservoirs with high matrix porosity but low matrix permeability, thus giving induced fractures dominance in fluid-flow paths. Type IV is macroporous reservoirs with high matric porosity and permeability, thus the matrix provides both storage capacity and flow paths while fractures only enhance permeability.
In a single horizontal drill hole, the amount recovered may vary, as may recovery within a field or between adjacent wells. This makes evaluation of plays and decisions regarding the profitability of wells on a particular lease difficult. Production of oil from tight formations requires at least 15 to 20 percent natural gas in the reservoir pore space to drive the oil toward the borehole. Formations which formed under marine conditions contain less clay and are more brittle, thus more suitable for fracking than formations formed in fresh water which may contain more clay. Formations with more quartz and carbonate are more brittle; the natural gas and other volatiles in LTO make it more hazardous to handle and transport. This was an aggravating factor in the series of fatal explosions after the Lac-Mégantic derailment. Prerequisites for exploitation include being able to obtain rights to drill, easier in the United States and Canada where private owners of subsurface rights are motivated to enter into leases.
Analysts expect that $150 billion will be spent on further developing North American tight oil fields in 2015. The large increase in tight oil production is one of the reasons behind the price drop in late 2014. Outside the United States and Canada, development of shale oil resources may be limited by the lack of available drilling rigs: 2/3 of the world's active drill rigs are in the US and Canada, rigs elsewhere are less to be equipped for horizontal drilling. Drilling intensity may be another constraint, as tight-oil development requires far more completed wells than does conventional oil. Leonardo Maugeri considers this will be "an insurmountable environmental hurdle in Europe". Detailed studies on production behaviour in prolific shale plays were light tight oil is produced have shown that the average monthly initial production of a tight oil well is around 500 barrels/day, which yields an estimated ultimate recovery in the range 150-290 thousand barrels; as a consequence, exploitation of tight oil tends to be drilling intensive with many new wells needed to ramp up and maintain production over t
Sunar is a Hindu caste in India and Nepal referring to the community of people who work as goldsmiths. Though the community is Hindu, some members in the states of Haryana and Punjab are Sikh. Though they are the traditional goldsmiths of North India, now many are landowners, involved in cultivation, as well as selling grocery. However, their main occupation remains the selling of jewellery. Members of the community are involved in pawnbroking and moneylending; the term Sunar may derive from the Sanskrit suvarna kār, "worker in gold". In Haryana, Sunars are divided into the Hindu Sunar and the Sikh Sunar; these two groupings are further divided into the Shudre Sunar. Some Khatris adopted this occupation and were called Khatri Sunars. All these groups are endogamous, practice clan exogamy; these divisions are further divided into clans, known as gotras. There are said to be 52 gotras within the Sunar community; some of them are the Gund, Kuhal, Mai, Odhera, Deo, Vatash, Kashyap, Turar, etc. The Sunar are still involved in their traditional occupation, being goldsmiths.
There is however a steady process in taking up other occupations, the community in Haryana as whole is successful, having produced several professionals. The Sunars are divided into a large number of non-territorial groupings called alla; some of the major alla are the Santanpuriya, Mundaha, Samuhiya, Katiliya Kalidarwa, Berehele, Shahpuriya, Mathureke Paliya and Nimkheriya. Each lineage is associated with a particular area. To which its ancestors belonged to; the Sunar use Soni, Swarnkar, Sah, Sonik, Rudhra,Babbar, Verma etc. as their surnames. In Gujarat and Rajasthan, the community is known as Soni. In Harayana, the Sunars are known as Swarnakar, Soni and Verma, are their common surname. Mair caste R. K. Gupta, S. R. Bakshi. Studies In Indian History: Rajasthan Through The Ages The Heritage Of Rajputs. Sarup & Sons, 2008. ISBN 81-7625-841-5, ISBN 978-81-7625-841-8