Mordecai Richler, CC was a Canadian writer. His best known works are The Apprenticeship of Barney's Version, his 1970 novel St Urbain's Horseman and 1989 novel Solomon Gursky Was Here were shortlisted for the Man Booker Prize. He is well known for the Jacob Two-Two children's fantasy series. In addition to his fiction, Richler wrote numerous essays about the Jewish community in Canada, about Canadian and Quebec nationalism. Richler's Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!, a collection of essays about nationalism and anti-Semitism, generated considerable controversy. The son of Lily and Moses Isaac Richler, a scrap yard dealer, Richler was born on January 27, 1931, raised on St. Urbain Street in the Mile End area of Montreal, Quebec, he learned English and Yiddish, graduated from Baron Byng High School. Richler did not complete his degree there. Years Richler's mother published an autobiography, The Errand Runner: Memoirs of a Rabbi's Daughter, which discusses Mordecai's birth and upbringing, the sometimes difficult relationship between them.
Richler moved to Paris at age nineteen, intent on following in the footsteps of a previous generation of literary exiles, the so-called Lost Generation of the 1920s, many of whom were from the United States. Richler returned to Montreal in 1952, working at the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation moved to London in 1954, he published seven of his ten novels, as well as considerable journalism. Worrying "about being so long away from the roots of my discontent", Richler returned to Montreal in 1972, he wrote about the Anglophone community of Montreal and about his former neighbourhood, portraying it in multiple novels. In England, in 1954, Richler married Catherine Boudreau, a non Jewish French-Canadian divorcee nine years his senior. On the eve of their wedding, he met and was smitten by Florence Mann, another non Jewish young woman married to Richler's close friend, screenwriter Stanley Mann; some years Richler and Mann both divorced their prior spouses and married each other, Richler adopted her son Daniel.
The couple had four other children together: Jacob, Noah and Emma. These events inspired his novel Barney's Version. Richler died of cancer on July 3, 2001 at the age of 70, he was a second cousin of novelist Nancy Richler. Throughout his career, Mordecai wrote journalistic commentary, contributed to The Atlantic Monthly, The New Yorker, The American Spectator, other magazines. In his years, Richler was a newspaper columnist for The National Post and Montreal's The Gazette. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, he wrote a monthly book review for Gentlemen's Quarterly, he was critical of Quebec but Canadian Federalism as well. Another favourite Richler target was the government-subsidized Canadian literary movement of the 1970s and 1980s. Journalism constituted an important part of his career, bringing him income between novels and films. Richler published his fourth novel, The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, in 1959; the book featured a frequent Richler theme: Jewish life in the 1930s and 40s in the neighbourhood of Montreal east of Mount Royal Park on and about St. Urbain Street and Saint Laurent Boulevard.
Richler wrote of the neighbourhood and its people, chronicling the hardships and disabilities they faced as a Jewish minority. To a middle-class stranger, it is true, one street would have seemed as squalid as the next. On each corner a cigar store, a grocery, a fruit man. Outside staircases everywhere. Winding ones, wooden ones and risky ones. Here a prized lot of grass splendidly barbered, there a spitefully weedy patch. An endless repetition of precious peeling balconies and waste lots making the occasional gap here and there. Following the publication of Duddy Kravitz, according to The Oxford Companion to Canadian Literature, Richler became "one of the foremost writers of his generation". Many critics distinguished Richler the author from Richler the polemicist. Richler said his goal was to be an honest witness to his time and place, to write at least one book that would be read after his death, his work was championed among others. Admirers praised Richler for daring to tell uncomfortable truths.
Critics cited his repeated themes, including incorporating elements of his journalism into novels. Richler's ambivalent attitude toward Montreal's Jewish community was captured in Mordecai and Me, a book by Joel Yanofsky; the Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz has been performed on film and in several live theater productions in Canada and the United States. Richler's most frequent conflicts were with members of the Quebec nationalist movement. In articles published between the late 1970s and the mid-1990s, Richler criticized Quebec's restrictive language laws and the rise of sovereigntism. Critics took particular exception to Richler's allegations of a long history of anti-Semitism in Quebec. Soon after the first election of the Parti Québécois in 1976, Richler published "Oh Canada! Lament for a divided country" in the Atlantic Monthly to considerable controversy. In it, he claimed the PQ had borrowed the Hitler Youth song "Tomorrow belongs to me..." for their anthem "À partir d'aujourd'hui, demain nous apartient", though he acknowledged his error o
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Bones Are Forever
Bones are Forever is the fifteenth novel by Kathy Reichs starring forensic anthropologist Temperance Brennan. The book was the 48th most borrowed from libraries in the United Kingdom in 2012-2013; the discovery of three dead new-born babies in Montreal leads Brennan and on-off lover Detective Andrew Ryan to follow the trail of the missing mother first to Edmonton and on to Yellowknife, where they find links to drug trafficking and diamond mining. Writing in the Daily Express, Michelle Davies rated the book 4/5 and said Bones are Forever would make readers "want to keep turning the pages long after lights out to find out what happens next." But that the forensic details provide by Reiches meant some scenes "drag like a science textbook". Entertainment Weekly gave the novel a B-, saying that "If you can get past the lab jargon" the novel was a "decent detective yarn"; the Irish Independent called it a "genuinely gripping tale", "peppered with authentic forensic science and peopled with well drawn, rounded characters."
Publishers Weekly said that Reichs had delivered a "pulse-pounding story". Kathy Reichs' site on Bones are Forever
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of 1,144,000 km2 and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada, its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission; the Northwest Territories, a portion of the old North-Western Territory, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 15, 1870, but the current borders were formed on April 1, 1999, when the territory was subdivided to create Nunavut to the east, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. While Nunavut is Arctic tundra, the Northwest Territories has a warmer climate and is both boreal forest, tundra, its most northern regions form part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory. In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, "beautiful land."There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut to a term from an Aboriginal language. One proposal was "Denendeh", among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory "Bob" – began as a prank, but for a while it was at or near the top in the public-opinion polls. In the end, a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name "Northwest Territories"; this name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canada's north-central and northeastern areas. Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south.
It meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has a land area of 1,183,085 km2. Geographical features include Great Bear Lake, the largest lake within Canada, Great Slave Lake, the deepest body of water in North America at 614 m, as well as the Mackenzie River and the canyons of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island, parts of Victoria Island and Melville Island, its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north; the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with daytime highs of 14-17 Celsius, lows of 1-5 Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C and lows around −40 °C.
Extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, but they can reach the low teens during the day. In the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C but they can reach the single digits during the day. Thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower; the Territory has a dry climate due to the mountains in the west. About half of the territory is above the tree line. There are not many trees in the north islands; the present-day territory came under government authority in July 1870, after the Hudson's Bay Company transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the British Crown, which subsequently transferred them to Canada, giving it the name the North-west Territories.
This immense region comprised all of today's Canada except that, encompassed within the early signers of Canadian Confederation, that is, British Columbia, early forms of present-day Ontario and Quebec, the Maritimes, the Labrador coast, the Arctic Islands, except the southern half of Baffin Island. The first residential school opened in 1867 in Fort Resolution, followed by several others in regions across the territory, thus contributing to the Northwest Territories reaching the highest percentage of students in residential schools of any area in Canada. After the 1870 transfer, some of the North-west Territories was whittled away; the province of Manitoba was created on July 15, 1870, at first a small square area around Winnipeg
Yellowknife is the capital and only city, as well as the largest community, in the Northwest Territories, Canada. It is on the northern shore of Great Slave Lake, about 400 km south of the Arctic Circle, on the west side of Yellowknife Bay near the outlet of the Yellowknife River. Yellowknife and its surrounding water bodies were named after a local Dene tribe once known as the'Copper Indians' or'Yellowknife Indians', referred to locally as the Yellowknives Dene First Nation, who traded tools made from copper deposits near the Arctic Coast, its population, ethnically mixed, was 19,569 in 2016. Of the eleven official languages of the Northwest Territories, five are spoken in significant numbers in Yellowknife: Dene Suline, Dogrib and North Slavey and French. In the Dogrib language, the city is known as Sǫ̀mbak'è; the Yellowknife settlement is considered to have been founded in 1934, after gold was found in the area, although commercial activity in the present-day waterfront area did not begin until 1936.
Yellowknife became the centre of economic activity in the NWT, was named the capital of the Northwest Territories in 1967. As gold production began to wane, Yellowknife shifted from being a mining town to a centre of government services in the 1980s. However, with the discovery of diamonds north of the city in 1991, this shift began to reverse. In recent years, tourism and communications have emerged as significant Yellowknife industries. Traditionally, First Nations people of Yellowknives Dene culture had occupied this region; the current municipal area of Yellowknife was occupied by prospectors who ventured into the region in the mid-1930s. A Klondike-bound prospector, E. A. Blakeney, made the first discovery of gold in the Yellowknife Bay area in 1898; the discovery was viewed as unimportant in those days because of the Klondike Gold Rush and because Great Slave Lake was too far away to attract attention. In the late 1920s, aircraft were first used to explore Canada's Arctic regions. Samples of uranium and silver were uncovered at Great Bear Lake in the early 1930s, prospectors began fanning out to find additional metals.
In 1933 two prospectors, Herb Dixon and Johnny Baker, canoed down the Yellowknife River from Great Bear Lake to survey for possible mineral deposits. They found gold samples at Quyta Lake, about 30 km up the Yellowknife River, some additional samples at Homer Lake; the following year, Johnny Baker returned as part of a larger crew to develop the previous gold finds and search for more. Gold was found on the east side of Yellowknife Bay in 1934 and the short-lived Burwash Mine was developed; when government geologists uncovered gold in more favourable geology on the west side of Yellowknife Bay in the fall of 1935, a small staking rush occurred. From 1935 to 1937, one prospector and trapper named Winslow C. Ranney staked in the area between Rater Lake with few commercial results; the nearby hill known as Ranney Hill is a popular hiking destination today. Con Mine was the most impressive gold deposit and its development created the excitement that led to the first settlement of Yellowknife in 1936–1937.
Some of the first businesses were Corona Inn, Weaver & Devore Trading, Yellowknife Supplies and post office, The Wildcat Cafe. Con Mine entered production on 5 September 1938. Yellowknife boomed in the summer of 1938 and many new businesses were established, including the Canadian Bank of Commerce, Hudson's Bay Company, Vic Ingraham's first hotel, Sutherland's Drug Store, a pool hall; the population of Yellowknife grew to 1,000 by 1940, by 1942, five gold mines were in production in the Yellowknife region. However, by 1944, gold production had ground to a halt. An exploration program at the Giant Mine property on the north end of town had suggested a sizable gold deposit in 1944; this new find resulted in a massive post-war staking rush to Yellowknife. It resulted in new discoveries at the Con Mine extending the life of the mine; the Yellowknife townsite expanded from the Old Town waterfront, the new townsite was established during 1945–1946. The Discovery Mine, with its own townsite, operated 81 km to the north-northeast of Yellowknife from 1950 to 1969.
Between 1939 and 1953, Yellowknife was controlled by the Northern Affairs department of the Government of Canada. A small council elected and appointed, made decisions. By 1953, Yellowknife had grown so much that it was made a municipality, with its own council and town hall; the first mayor of Yellowknife was Jock McNiven. In September 1967, Yellowknife became the capital of the Northwest Territories; this important new status sparked. New sub-divisions were established to house an influx of government workers. In 1978 the Soviet nuclear-powered satellite Kosmos 954 crashed to Earth near Yellowknife. There were no known casualties, although a small quantity of radioactive nuclear fuel was released into the environment, Operation Morning Light—an attempt to retrieve it—was only successful. A new mining rush and fourth building boom for Yellowknife began with the discovery of diamonds 300 km north of the city in 1991; the last of the gold mines in Yellowknife closed in 2004. Today, Yellowknife is a government town and a service centre for the diamond mines.
On 1 April 1999, its purview as capital of the NWT was reduced when the territory of Nunavut was split from the NWT. As a result, jurisdiction for that reg
Solomon Gursky Was Here
Solomon Gursky Was Here is a novel by Canadian author Mordecai Richler first published by Viking Canada in 1989. The novel tells of several generations of the fictional Gursky family, who are connected to several disparate events in the history of Canada, including the Franklin Expedition and rum-running; some fans and critics have cited this as Mordecai Richler's best book, in terms of scope and style it is unmatched by his other works. The parallels between the Gursky family and the Bronfmans are such that the novel "may be seen as a thinly disguised account of the family". While Richler himself denied any similarities, "one longtime Bronfman associate put it,'I don't know why Mordecai bothered to change the names.'" The tale centres on Moses Berger, an alcoholic failed writer, obsessed with Solomon Gursky, the brother of Bernard and Morrie and absent from the family empire after a fatal plane crash. It is implied that it is disappointment with his own father, the failed poet L. B. Berger, with whom Moses has a dysfunctional relationship that put him on the trail of Solomon, a character as strong-willed as he was mysterious.
Solomon Gursky is told in a non-linear fashion, jumping around in both Moses' personal timeline as well as through four generations of the legendary Gursky family. Though much of the story is told from Moses' perspective, parts are told from the perspectives of different members of the family and the people attached to them, creating a much more ambiguous picture of the Gurskys
Kathleen Joan Toelle Reichs is an American crime writer, forensic anthropologist and academic. She is an adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, she is affiliated with the Laboratoire des Sciences Judiciaires et de Médecine Légale for the province of Quebec. She is one of 100 anthropologists certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology and is on the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, her schedule involves a number of speaking engagements around the world. Reichs was a producer for the TV series Bones, loosely based on her novels, which in turn, are inspired by her life, she has two daughters and Courtney, one son, Brendan. Reichs earned her Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in anthropology from American University in 1971. In 1972, she completed her Master of Arts in physical anthropology from Northwestern University, in 1975 she completed her Ph. D. in physical anthropology from Northwestern University. Since Reichs has taught at Northern Illinois University, University of Pittsburgh, Concordia University, McGill University, is on leave from a position as adjunct professor of anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
In the past, Kathy Reichs has consulted for the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in North Carolina. Reichs has appeared in Tanzania to testify at the United Nations's International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, she has assisted Dr. Clyde Snow and the Foundation for Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology in an exhumation in the area of Lake Atitlan in the highlands of southwest Guatemala, she was a member of the Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team assigned to assist at the World Trade Center disaster. "Quantified comparison of frontal sinus patterns by means of computed tomography". Forensic Science International. 61: 141–68. October 1993. Doi:10.1016/0379-073890222-v. "Effect of age and osteoarthritis on bone mineral in rhesus monkey vertebrae". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 8: 909–17. August 1993. Doi:10.1002/jbmr.5650080803. "Forensic anthropology in the 1990s". The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 13: 146–53. June 1992.
Doi:10.1097/00000433-199206000-00014. "Treponematosis: a possible case from the late prehistoric of North Carolina". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 79: 289–303. July 1989. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330790305. "Cranial suture eccentricities: a case in which precocious closure complicated determination of sex and commingling". Journal of Forensic Science. 34: 263–73. January 1989. DeRousseau, CJ. "Ontogenetic plasticity in nonhuman primates: I. Secular trends in the Cayo Santiago macaques". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 73: 279–87. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330730302. PMID 3618758. Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. 1986. ISBN 9780398068042. Reichs, Kathy, ed.. Hominid Origins: Inquiries Past and Present. University Press of America. ISBN 9780819128645. In addition to technical books, as at January 2019 Reichs has written 21 novels to date, which have been translated into 30 languages. 20 of those novels constitute the'Temperance Brennan' series.
Her first novel, Déjà Dead, won the 1997 Arthur Ellis Award for Best First Novel. The fictional heroine in her novels, Temperance "Tempe" Brennan, is a forensic anthropologist, her lifestyle mimics that of her creator, with Reichs stating that Brennan and she "have the same CV" and that "Some of Tempe's personality traits are mine", but there are differences in their personal lives such as the character's alcoholism. A good portion of the novels are based on real life science, Reichs has stated that she is "fastidiously conscientious about getting the science right", she has used experience from her career in her novels, said about Déjà Dead that "Everything I describe in the book, I did". In the novel Grave Secrets, she uses her experience from her visit to Guatemala, she has written the young adult novels series named Virals centered on Tempe's great-niece, Tory Brennan, a pack of her friends Ben, Hiram and wolfdog Cooper. Her latest novel, Two Nights, published July 11, 2017, features Sunday Night, a tough-talking, scarred heroine.
Reichs has released six downloadable short stories: The 2005 Fox television series Bones is inspired by Reichs' life and writing. The series borrows the name of Temperance "Bones" Brennan; as in the books, Brennan is a forensic anthropologist. C. Additionally, the TV-Brennan moonlights as an author, writing about a fictional forensic anthropologist named Kathy Reichs. Aside from the character name and occupation, there are few tie-ins between the TV show and the books. Reichs works as a producer on the show to "keep the science honest", she appeared in the second season episode "Judas on a Pole", playing Professor Constance Wright, a forensic anthropologist on the board conducting Zack Addy's dissertation defense. She wrote the Season Five episode "The Witch in the Wardrobe" and the Season Nine episode "The Dude in the Dam" and the Season Eleven episode "The Stiff in the Cliff" with her daughter Kerry. In 2011, Reichs was an expert witness in the Casey Anthony murder trial. After refusing to be a part of Anthony's defense, she cited biased media coverage as the reason she changed her mind.
"Initially, I said no, I started seeing media coverage a