Branford Edward Clarke was an Evangelical preacher and artist who promoted the Ku Klux Klan through his art, drawn for the Pillar of Fire Church and their publications. He was born on March 1885 in London, England, his brother was a Member of Parliament. In the 1920s he converted a Model T into a mobile chapel, he was pastor of the Pillar of Fire Church in New York for at least several years. From about 1925 to 1928 he illustrated numerous religious and political publications for the Pillar of Fire Church in partnership with Bishop Alma White, the church's founder and leader. Many of his illustrations supported Bishop White's writings by attacking various minorities including Catholics, US immigrants and by promoting the Ku Klux Klan, he was buried in the Pillar of Fire cemetery in Zarephath, New Jersey. His epitaph reads "The Cross he bore, through years of service bound, on yonder shore in recompense is found, The Crown." Poems and Pictures by a Preacher The Ku Klux Klan In Prophecy Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty Heroes of the Fiery Cross Woman's Chains: 9 illustrations Guardians of Liberty Vol I-III, The Good Citizen Several of Clarke's poems were set to music by his wife Esther and published as hymns in the Pillar of Fire's Cross and Crown Hymnal.
Some of Branford Clarke's hymns include: Tell Me of the Love of Jesus, Everything Will Work Out Right, God Keep Me Strong, Prayer Changes Things, Calling Again and Again, Take Heart, Yonder Shore. Yonder Shore Life may have clouds, but when I think of Jesus The sun breaks thro' its radiance to outpour And far away I hear the song of angels Singing, singing on yonder shore. There is a cross that every one must carry Long a thorned path whose toils will soon be o'er Then at His feet shall we lay down our burdens With the fair immortals on yonder shore. While trav'ling on to that eternal haven Here in the heart can be fair Canaan's door Thro' which the love of Jesus stealing Fills the soul with glory from yonder shore. There is a death. How wonderful to dwell for aye with Jesus Ever and forever on yonder shore. Chorus Singing on that shore Singing on that shore Hark, I hear them singing Singing singing on yonder shore. Christianizing the Klan: Alma White, Branford Clarke, the Art of Religious Intolerance June 2009 by Lynn S. Neal Church History June 2009 "Branford Clarke".
Find a Grave. Retrieved August 12, 2010. Branford Clarke at Flickr
Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty
Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty was a book published by the Pillar of Fire Church in 1926 by Bishop Alma Bridwell White and illustrated by Reverend Branford Clarke. She claims that the Founding Fathers of the United States were members of the Ku Klux Klan, that Paul Revere made his legendary ride in Klan hood and robes, she said: "Jews are everywhere a separate and distinct people, living apart from the great Gentile masses... they are not home builders or tillers of the soil." Her book became popular during the United States presidential election of 1928 when Al Smith was a candidate. White founded the Pillar of Fire Church; this book espouses White's anti-Catholicism, while it promotes antisemitism, white supremacy and women's equality. Guardians is a compendium of essays and sermons by White and illustrations by Clarke that were published in her pro-KKK political periodical The Good Citizen, one of the numerous periodicals published by her Pillar of Fire Church at their communal headquarters in Zarephath, New Jersey.
The book contains an introduction by Arthur H. Bell, the Grand Dragon of the New Jersey Ku Klux Klan, it is the second of three books White published to promote the KKK. The other two books were 1926's The Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy, 1928's Heroes of the Fiery Cross. White republished her Klan books as a three volume set in 1943, three years before her death and 21 years after her initial association with the Klan, under the title Guardians of Liberty; the contents included essays entitled The Hebrew Rock, Klansmen of the Revolution, Rome's Idolatrous Shrines and Papal Prisons in America. White, Alma; the Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy. Pillar of Fire. White, Alma. Heroes of the Fiery Cross. Pillar of Fire. Klansmen: guardians of liberty at archive.org
Heroes of the Fiery Cross
Heroes of the Fiery Cross is a book in praise of the Ku Klux Klan, published in 1928 by Protestant Bishop Alma Bridwell White, in which she "sounds the alarm about imagined threats to Protestant Americans from Catholics and Jews", according to author Peter Knight. In the book she asks rhetorically, "Who are the enemies of the Klan? They are the bootleggers, law-breakers, corrupt politicians, weak-kneed Protestant church members, white slavers, toe-kissers, wafer-worshippers, every spineless character who takes the path of least resistance." She argues that Catholics are removing the Bible from public schools. Another topic is her anti-Catholic stance towards the United States presidential election of 1928, in which Catholic Al Smith was running for president. White was the author of more than 35 books published by the Pillar of Fire Church. In her writings and sermons her political views consisted of a mixture of women's equality, anti-catholicism, racism and white supremacy; the book is a compendium of essays written by White and of illustrations by Reverend Branford Clarke that were published in the pro-Ku Klux Klan political periodical The Good Citizen, one of the numerous periodicals published by the Pillar of Fire Church at their communal headquarters in Zarephath, New Jersey.
The book contains an introductory letter of commendation from Hiram Wesley Evans, the Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan. Heroes is the final work in a series of three books; the other books were The Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy in 1925, Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty, in 1926. White republished her Klan books as a three-volume set in 1943, three years before her death and 21 years after her initial association with the Klan, under the title Guardians of Liberty; the book include essays with titles such as Roman Catholic-Hebrew Alliance. Alma White emphatically expresses her sympathy for former slaveowners since they were not compensated for their loss of "property" following the American Civil War, she expresses her fear and distress toward ongoing racial mixing and uses biblical citations as divine justification for white supremacy. The slave-holder, in many instances, was as much to be pitied as the slaves, but the Northerners could not see this. He, was a victim of the system having inherited slaves along with his plantation.
Where the slaves were well treated they were happy and contented, their owners found consolation in this, using it as an argument in support of the institution. But some radicals could never see this side of the question, they dwelt continually on the cruelties of a few hard taskmasters and ignored the good people who had the welfare of their dependents at heart. It was hard for the Southerners to be reconciled to this spirit so manifested in the North. No matter what the better class of slave-owners might do, they had to bear the stigma and cruelty with the worst of tyrants.... A strong attachment as a rule existed between the negro servants and their masters which could not be broken; when it came time to taking away a colored "Mammy" who had brought up the children of her white master nursing them at her own breast in an extremity, here was more involved than a Northerner could comprehend. This aspect of slavery was never taken into serious consideration by hot-headed Abolitionists who tried to foment war and bring about disunion....
White supremacy is an issue of great importance. If some of the colored people are not curbed in their ambition to mix their blood with that of the white race, it will not be long until there will be no such thing as definite racial lines; the Negroes are settling indiscriminately among the whites. Property values are being depreciated by this influx of colored immigration, but little sympathy was shown the South. The North had no conception of what it meant for the white people of the South to preserve the color and racial lines, considering the fact that in some places the population was about divided, there was no cooperation from the North to be had in the struggle.... The Book of Genesis, in its account of Shem and Japheth, sons of Noah, teaches the supremacy of the white race. Ham saw the nakedness of his father, but made no effort to cover him, a curse was pronounced upon him and his posterity. Noah said, "Cursed be Canaan. "Blessed be the Lord of God of Shem. "God shall enlarge Japheth, he shall dwell in the tents of Shem.
This edict was imposed by a wise and just God, should not work a hardship on the black race. It can not be otherwise; until the curse is lifted from the human race, the best position that the sons of Ham could be placed in is that of servants, thus establishing white supremacy as foretold more than four thousand years ago.... Cartoon illustrations in Heroes of the Fiery Cross on Flickr. Kristin E. Kandt, "Historical Essay: In the Name of God. White, Alma; the Ku Klux Klan in Prophecy. Pillar of Fire. White, Alma. Klansmen: Guardians of Liberty. Pillar of Fire. Stanley, Susie Cunningham. Feminist Pillar of Fire: The Life of
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents. At various points after the Reformation, some majority Protestant states, including England and Scotland made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, with anti-Catholic sentiment at times leading to religious discrimination against Catholic individuals. Historian John Wolffe identifies four types of anti-Catholicism: constitutional-national, theological and socio-cultural. Catholics in Protestant countries were suspected of conspiring against the state in furtherance of papal interests. Support for the alien pope led to allegations challenging loyalty to the state. In majority Protestant countries with large scale immigration, such as the United States and Australia, suspicion or discrimination of Catholic immigrants overlapped or were conflated with nativism and ethnocentric or racist sentiments. In the Early modern period, the Catholic Church struggled to maintain its traditional religious and political role in the face of rising secular powers in Catholic countries.
As a result of these struggles, there arose a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social and religious power of the Pope and the clergy in the form of anti-clericalism. The Inquisition was a favorite target of attack. Anti-clerical forces gained strength after 1789 in some Catholic nations, such as France and Mexico. Political parties formed that expressed a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social and religious power of Catholic Church in the form of anti-clericalism, attacks on the power of the pope to name bishops, international orders the Jesuits. Protestant Reformers, including John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Roger Williams, Cotton Mather, John Wesley, as well as most Protestants of the 16th-18th centuries, identified the Papacy with the Antichrist; the Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume Magdeburg Centuries to discredit the Papacy and lead other Christians to recognize the Pope as the Antichrist.
The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran–Catholic dialogue notes, In calling the pope the "Antichrist", the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but saints had called the bishop of Rome the "Antichrist" when they wished to castigate his abuse of power. What Lutherans incorrectly understood as a papal claim to unlimited authority over everything and everyone reminded them of the Apocalyptic imagery of Daniel 11, a passage, applied to the pope as the Antichrist of the last days prior to the Reformation. Doctrinal works of literature published by the Lutherans, the Reformed churches, the Presbyterians, the Baptists, the Anabaptists, the Methodists contain references to the Pope as the Antichrist, including the Smalcald Articles, Article 4, the Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope, the Westminster Confession, Article 25.6, the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith, Article 26.4. In 1754, John Wesley published his Explanatory Notes Upon the New Testament, an official Doctrinal Standard of the United Methodist Church.
In his notes on the Book of Revelation, he commented: "The whole succession of Popes from Gregory VII are undoubtedly Antichrists. Yet this hinders not, but that the last Pope in this succession will be more eminently the Antichrist, the Man of Sin, adding to that of his predecessors a peculiar degree of wickedness from the bottomless pit."Referring to the Book of Revelation, Edward Gibbon stated that "The advantage of turning those mysterious prophecies against the See of Rome, inspired the Protestants with uncommon veneration for so useful an ally." Protestants condemned the Catholic policy of mandatory celibacy for priests. During the Enlightenment Era, which spanned the 17th and 18th centuries, with its strong emphasis on the need for religious toleration, the Inquisition was a favorite target of attack for intellectuals. Institutional anti-Catholicism in Britain and Ireland began with the English Reformation under Henry VIII; the Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the English crown to be'the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England' in place of the pope.
Any act of allegiance to the latter was considered treasonous because the papacy claimed both spiritual and political power over its followers. It was under this act that saints Thomas More and John Fisher were executed and became martyrs to the Catholic faith. Queen Mary, Henry's daughter, was a devout Catholic and during her five years as queen she tried to reverse the Reformation, she executed Protestant leaders. Protestants reviled her as "Bloody Mary". Anti-Catholicism among many of the English was grounded in their fear that the pope sought to reimpose not just religio-spiritual authority over England but secular power in alliance with their arch-enemy France or Spain. In 1570, Pope Pius V sought to depose Elizabeth with the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis, which declared her a heretic and purported to dissolve the duty of all Elizabeth's subjects of their allegiance to her; this rendered Elizabeth's subjects who persisted in their allegiance to the Catholic Church politically suspect, made the position of her Catholic subjects untenable if they tried to maintain both all
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr