A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Zitilites is the fourth album by Kashmir. It was released in 2003. Henrik Lindstrand joined the band as a permanent member on this album. "Rocket Brothers", "Surfing the Warm Industry" and "The Aftermath" were all released as singles and were all hits in Denmark. "Rocket Brothers" was a huge hit in Denmark and Latin America. "Rocket Brothers" – 5:26 "Surfing the Warm Industry" – 4:26 "The Aftermath" – 4:22 "Ruby Over Diamond" – 3:09 "Melpomene" – 4:39 "The Push" – 4:46 "Ramparts" – 4:06 "Petite Machine" – 4:44 "The New Gold" – 3:40 "Big Fresh" – 5:11 "In the Sand" – 3:13 "Small Poem of Old Friend" – 6:04 "Zitilites" – 4:01 "Bodmin Pill" – 3:59
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
A musical ensemble known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra; some music ensembles consist of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo and one or more singers. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles; some ensembles blend the sounds of a variety of instrument families, such as the orchestra, which uses a string section, brass instruments and percussion instruments, or the concert band, which uses brass and percussion. In jazz ensembles or combos, the instruments include wind instruments, one or two chordal "comping" instruments, a bass instrument, a drummer or percussionist.
Jazz ensembles may be instrumental, or they may consist of a group of instruments accompanying one or more singers. In rock and pop ensembles called rock bands or pop bands, there are guitars and keyboards, one or more singers, a rhythm section made up of a bass guitar and drum kit. Music ensembles have a leader. In jazz bands and pop groups and similar ensembles, this is the band leader. In classical music, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. In orchestra, the concertmaster is the instrumentalist leader of the orchestra. In orchestras, the individual sections have leaders called the "principal" of the section. Conductors are used in jazz big bands and in some large rock or pop ensembles. In Western classical music, smaller ensembles are called chamber music ensembles; the terms duet, quartet, sextet, octet and dectet describe groups of two up to ten musicians, respectively. A group of eleven musicians, such as found in The Carnival of the Animals, is called either a hendectet or an undectet.
A soloist playing unaccompanied is not an ensemble. A string quartet consists of a viola and a cello. There is a vast body of music written for string quartets, as it is seen as an important genre in classical music. A woodwind quartet features a flute, an oboe, a clarinet and a bassoon. A brass quartet features a trombone and a tuba. A saxophone quartet consists of a soprano saxophone, an alto saxophone, a tenor saxophone, a baritone saxophone; the string quintet is a common type of group. It is similar to the string quartet, but with an additional viola, cello, or more the addition of a double bass. Terms such as "piano quintet" or "clarinet quintet" refer to a string quartet plus a fifth instrument. Mozart's Clarinet Quintet is a piece written for an ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, a cello and a clarinet, the last being the exceptional addition to a "normal" string quartet; some other quintets in classical music are the wind quintet consisting of flute, clarinet and horn. Classical chamber ensembles of six, seven, or eight musicians are common.
In most cases, a larger classical group is referred to as an orchestra of some type or a concert band. A small orchestra with fifteen to thirty members is called a chamber orchestra. A sinfonietta denotes a somewhat smaller orchestra. Larger orchestras are called philharmonic orchestras. A pops orchestra is an orchestra that performs light classical music and orchestral arrangements and medleys of popular jazz, music theater, or pop music songs. A string orchestra has only string instruments, i.e. violins, violas and double basses. A symphony orchestra is an ensemble comprising at least thirty musicians. A symphony orchestra is divided into families of instruments. In the string family, there are sections of violins, violas and basses; the standard woodwind section consists of flutes, soprano clarinets, bassoons. The standard brass section consists of horns, trumpets and tuba; the percussion section includes the timpani, bass drum, snare drum, a
James Guthrie (record producer)
James K. A. Guthrie is an English recording engineer and record producer best known for his work with the progressive rock band Pink Floyd, serving as a producer and engineer for the band since 1978, he is the operator of das boot recording in Lake Tahoe, California. Guthrie began his career on 1 October 1973 at Mayfair Studios in London, as a trainee tape operator and assistant engineer trained by studio owner John Hudson. A year he moved to Audio International studios, working under Richard Millard, his earliest credits are as an assistant engineer on the first two albums by glam rock singer Alvin Stardust. During this time he first worked with Greg Walsh, whom Guthrie asked to join his FOH production team for the live performances of Pink Floyd's The Wall in 1980 and 1981. By 1976 Guthrie was employed as one of the engineering team at Utopia Studios which included John Mackswith and Ian Cooper. During his tenure he worked as the engineer on The Bay City Rollers' Wouldn't You Like It? release, for producer Barry Blue on Breakout by The Dead End Kids as well as the first two albums for London-based R&B band Heatwave, which would yield the hit singles "Boogie Nights", "Always and Forever" and "The Groove Line".
Utopia was where he first worked with Andy Jackson, whom Guthrie introduced to Pink Floyd and was hired as the band's primary engineer. In addition, Guthrie is credited with suggesting Jon Carin as a keyboard player for Roger Waters' touring band, arranged for Kashmir lead vocalist and guitarist Kasper Eistrup to audition for the same tour, as well as introducing vocalist Rachel Brennock to Pink Floyd, she joined the touring band from 1987 to 1989. Guthrie worked at other London-area studios such as The Manor and Britannia Row, his initial producer credits would be for Fury. Guthrie's connection with GTO Records landed him engineering and production duties on the second and third albums for The Movies. After producing the Judas Priest track "Better By You, Better Than Me" for the album Stained Class, he was selected to produce their follow-up album Hell Bent For Leather. By 1980, Guthrie's body of work in regards to engineering and production would include a total of six hit singles on both the British and American charts: the first three singles from Heatwave, Marshall Hain's "Dancing in the City", Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall" and The Pointer Sisters' "He's So Shy".
In mid-1978, Guthrie received a request from Pink Floyd's manager, Steve O'Rourke, to meet with him regarding potential production projects. First was a pitch to produce singer/songwriter Tom Robinson; the other was for Pink Floyd, about to embark on their new project, a concept album, titled The Wall. Based on his previous production credits and after meeting with Guthrie, Roger Waters believed he would be a good fit. Guthrie accepted the assignment with the request that he would be allowed to engineer the record himself. Guthrie was the only member of the production team to be awarded by NARAS for his contributions, receiving the 1980 Grammy award for Best Engineered Recording, Non-Classical. A case can be made for Guthrie's involvement as an important element of the timeless sound Pink Floyd was able to achieve with The Wall. David Gilmour stated in a March 2000 interview with Record Collector, regarding the contributors, "Another crucial figure is James Guthrie; the album's wonderfully clear and punchy, modern-sounding."
Nick Mason acknowledged Guthrie's contribution in regards to the drum sound in an interview with TapeOp magazine: "James Guthrie was great on The Wall – I thought he did a great job." Guthrie's initial involvement with Pink Floyd was to last nearly five years. Guthrie received a British Academy of Film and Television Arts award for Best Film Sound in 1982 for his work on the film, he was asked to co-produce The Final Cut, the last release of Waters-era Pink Floyd. According to Andy Jackson, who served as engineer for the recording along with Guthrie, the use of the name "Max" in the songs "Th
Kashmir known as Nirvana, is a Danish alternative rock band consisting of Kasper Eistrup. In the spring of 1991, Eistrup and Techau formed a heavy blues band under the name "Nirvana" at Kastanievej Efterskole in Frederiksberg, Denmark. Shortly after they started performing Thursday nights at Ordrup Gymnasium; when the American band Nirvana started to gain success, they changed their name to "Kashmir", after the Led Zeppelin song. In 1993, they finished second in "DM i Rock", a national amateur concert contest, behind Dizzy Mizz Lizzy and subsequently became popular in Denmark. In 2000, the band won six Danish Music Awards:'Best Danish Band','Best Danish Album','Best Danish Songwriter', and'Best Danish Rock Album' for The Good Life. In 2001, Lindstrand joined the band's lineup. In 2004, the band won four Danish Music Awards for'Best Danish Band','Best Danish Rock Album' for Zitilites,'Best Danish Music Video' for "Rocket Brothers" and'Best Album Cover' for Zitilites, their album No Balance Palace, features Lou Reed reciting a poem by Eistrup on "Black Building" and David Bowie who sings a duet with Eistrup on "The Cynic".
Additionally, the album was produced by Tony Visconti. On November 13, 2009 Kashmir released the first single "Mouthful of Wasps" on their website; the band announced via Twitter that Trespassers, their sixth full-length album, would see its release on February 1, 2010. Trespassers was produced by John O'Mahony and Andy Wallace and recorded at Jimi Hendrix' legendary studio Electric Lady Studios in New York City. Notes+ - Cruzential was re-released in 1997 with two extra songs as Cruzential. Notes~ - Danish Single Chart peak positions for "Mom in Love, Daddy in Space" and "Rocket Brothers" are for the 2010 chart entries. Rocket Brothers The Aftermath - A live concert DVD/CD from Store Vega, Copenhagen. November 2–3, 2004. E. A. R - Special Mexican Edition DVD with the making of the album E. A. R and music videos. Official website Kashmir at AllMusic Kashmir discography at Discogs