Hot air balloon
A hot air balloon is a lighter-than-air aircraft consisting of a bag, called an envelope, which contains heated air. Suspended beneath is a gondola or wicker basket, which carries passengers and a source of heat, in most cases an open flame caused by burning liquid propane; the heated air inside the envelope makes it buoyant since it has a lower density than the colder air outside the envelope. As with all aircraft, hot air balloons cannot fly beyond the atmosphere. Unlike gas balloons, the envelope does not have to be sealed at the bottom, since the air near the bottom of the envelope is at the same pressure as the surrounding air. In modern sport balloons the envelope is made from nylon fabric and the inlet of the balloon is made from a fire resistant material such as Nomex. Modern balloons have been made in all kinds of shapes, such as rocket ships and the shapes of various commercial products, though the traditional shape is used for most non-commercial, many commercial, applications; the hot air balloon is the first successful human-carrying flight technology.
The first untethered manned hot air balloon flight was performed by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent d'Arlandes on November 21, 1783, in Paris, France, in a balloon created by the Montgolfier brothers. The first hot-air balloon flown in the Americas was launched from the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia on January 9, 1793 by the French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard. Hot air balloons that can be propelled through the air rather than drifting with the wind are known as thermal airships. Early unmanned hot air balloons were used in China. Zhuge Liang of the Shu Han kingdom, during the Three Kingdoms era, used airborne lanterns for military signaling; these lanterns are known as Chinese lanterns. In the 18th century the Portuguese Jesuit priest Bartolomeu de Gusmão envisioned an aerial apparatus called Passarola, the predecessor of the hot air balloon; the purpose of Passarola was to serve as air vessel in order to facilitate communication and as a strategical device. In 1709 John V of Portugal decided to fund Bartolomeu de Gusmão's project following a petition made by the jesuit priest and an unmanned demonstration was performed at Casa da India in presence of John V, the queen Maria Anna of Austria, having as witnesses the Italian cardinal Michelangelo Conti, two members of the Portuguese Royal Academy of History, one Portuguese diplomat and one chronicler.
This event would bring some European attention to this project. A article dated on October 20, 1786 by the London Daily Universal Register would state that the inventor was able to raise himself by the use of his prototype. In 1709, the Portuguese jesuit wrote Manifesto summário para os que ignoram poderse navegar pelo elemento do ar. Persecuted by the Inquisition, he was prevented from continuing his research; the French brothers Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier developed a hot air balloon in Annonay, Ardeche and demonstrated it publicly on September 19, 1783, making an unmanned flight lasting 10 minutes. After experimenting with unmanned balloons and flights with animals, the first balloon flight with humans aboard, a tethered flight, performed on or around October 15, 1783, by Jean-Francois Pilatre de Rozier who made at least one tethered flight from the yard of the Reveillon workshop in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine; that same day, Pilatre de Rozier became the second human to ascend into the air, reaching an altitude of 26 m, the length of the tether.
The first free flight with human passengers was made a few weeks on November 21, 1783. King Louis XVI had decreed that condemned criminals would be the first pilots, but de Rozier, along with Marquis François d'Arlandes, petitioned for the honor; the first military use of a hot air balloon happened in 1794 during the battle of Fleurus, when the French used the balloon l'Entreprenant for observation. Modern hot air balloons, with an onboard heat source, were developed by Ed Yost, beginning during the 1950s; the first modern hot air balloon to be made in the United Kingdom was the Bristol Belle, built in 1967. Presently, hot air balloons are used for recreation. Hot air balloons are able to fly to high altitudes. On November 26, 2005 Vijaypat Singhania set the world altitude record for highest hot air balloon flight, reaching 21,027 m, he took off from downtown Mumbai and landed 240 km south in Panchale. The previous record of 19,811 m had been set by Per Lindstrand on June 1988, in Plano, Texas.
On January 15, 1991, the'Virgin Pacific Flyer' balloon completed the longest flight in a hot air balloon when Per Lindstrand and Richard Branson of the UK flew 7,671.91 km from Japan to Northern Canada. With a volume of 74,000 cubic meters, the balloon envelope was the largest built for a hot air craft. Designed to fly in the trans-oceanic jet streams, the Pacific Flyer recorded the fastest ground speed for a manned balloon at 245 mph; the longest duration record was set by Swiss psychiatrist Bertrand Piccard, Auguste Piccard's grandson. It was the first nonstop trip around the world by balloon; the balloon left Château-d'Oex, Switzerland, on March 1, 1999, landed at 1:02 a.m. on March 21 in the Egyptian de
University of Nevada, Reno
The University of Nevada, Reno is a public research university located in Reno, Nevada. Founded October 12, 1874, Nevada is the sole land grant institution for the state of Nevada. According to the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, the University of Nevada is a research university with high research activity as of December 2018; the campus is home to the large-scale structures laboratory in the College of Engineering, which has put Nevada researchers at the forefront nationally in a wide range of civil engineering and large-scale structures testing and modeling. The Nevada Terawatt Facility, located on a satellite campus of the university, includes a terawatt-level Z-pinch machine and terawatt-class high-intensity laser system – one of the most powerful such lasers on any college campus in the country, it is home to the School of Medicine, with campuses in both of Nevada's major urban centers, Las Vegas and Reno, a health network that extends to much of rural Nevada.
The faculty are considered worldwide and national leaders in diverse areas such as environmental literature, Basque studies, social sciences such as psychology. The school includes 16 clinical departments and five nationally recognized basic science departments, it is home to the School of Journalism, which has produced six Pulitzer Prize winners. The Nevada State Constitution established the State University of Nevada in Elko, Nevada, on October 12, 1874. In 1881, it became Nevada State University. In 1885, the Nevada State University moved from Elko to Reno. In 1906, it was renamed the University of Nevada and University of Nevada, Reno in 1969 soon after University of Nevada, Las Vegas was granted full autonomy; the University of Nevada remained the only four-year academic institution in the state of Nevada until 1965, when the Nevada Southern campus separated into its own university. Bachelor's, master's and doctoral programs are offered through: Nevada sponsors a center dedicated to Basque studies due to the large Basque population in Northern Nevada.
In addition, the university sponsors many centers, institutes & facilities. The university and surrounding community is served by several campus libraries; the libraries are: Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center. Opened on August 11, 2008 it was a $75.3 million project which began in September 2005. It replaced the Getchell library. Basque Library Special Collections and University Archives DeLaMare Library Mary B. Ansari Map Library Savitt Medical Library Nell J. Redfield Learning and Resource Center The university was ranked tied for 197th among national universities by U. S. News & World Report in 2017, 445th by Forbes out of the 660 best private and public colleges and universities in the U. S. Within the College of Business at the University of Nevada, the part-time MBA program was ranked 24th in the United States in 2014 by Bloomberg Businessweek; the University of Nevada, Reno is the flagship institution of Nevada. The campus is located just north of downtown Reno overlooking Truckee Meadows and the downtown casinos.
The university's first building, Morrill Hall, was completed in 1887 and still stands on the historic quad at the campus' southern end. The hall is named after U. S. Senator Justin Morrill, author of the 1862 Land-Grant College Act. Lincoln Hall and Manzanita Hall were both opened in 1896. While Lincoln was under construction, boys were housed in the building which had held the now-defunct Bishop Whitaker's School for Girls, which had shuttered in 1894; the Quad is located in the southern part of the campus, surrounded by Morrill Hall and the Mackay School of Mines. This quadrangle is modeled after Thomas Jefferson's at the University of Virginia; the northern end of the Quad contains a statue of John William Mackay, created by Mount Rushmore designer Gutzon Borglum. The Quad and the original campus buildings surrounding it have a listing on the National Register of Historic Places. Across the campus of the university exists the University of Nevada, Reno Arboretum, established in 1985, contains a collection of trees, flowers and native flora, including over 60 genera and about 200 species of trees, many with several cultivars present.
Thirty-six mature elm trees line the Quad. The football team plays at Mackay Stadium, The modern Mackay Stadium was completed in 1966 with a seating capacity of 7,500; the facility has been expanded several times in the last 15 years and now seats 30,000. The University of Nevada began construction of a new 108,000 square foot fitness center in June 2015. Named the E. L. Wiegand Fitness Center, it opened in February 2017. Students' use of the fitness center is included in annual tuition and fees; the fitness center has four floors and includes a gym with three basketball courts, areas for weightlifting, cardio training, fitness classes, stadium stairs and an indoor running track. The project had a $46 million cost; the University of Nevada offers a variety of options to students. There are eight different residence halls, seven of which house freshman students. Options include an all upper-class residence hall, a living learning community building in which freshman students of similar academic interests are housed
Reno is a city in the U. S. state of Nevada, located in the northwestern part of the state 22 miles from Lake Tahoe. Known as "The Biggest Little City in the World", Reno is known for its casino industry, it is the county seat of Washoe County. The city sits in a high desert at the foot of the Sierra Nevada and its downtown area occupies a valley informally known as the Truckee Meadows; the city is named after Union Major General Jesse L. Reno, killed in action at the Battle of South Mountain on Fox's Gap. Reno, with an estimated population of 248,853 as of 2017, is the fourth-most populous city in Nevada after Las Vegas and North Las Vegas, all three of those cities being part of the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Reno is the most populous city in the state outside of the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Reno is part of the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area which consists of all of Washoe and Storey counties. Archaeological finds place the eastern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Reno area.
As early as the mid 1850s a few pioneers settled in the Truckee Meadows, a fertile valley through which the Truckee River made its way from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake. In addition to subsistence farming, these early residents could pick up business from travelers along the California Trail, which followed the Truckee westward, before branching off towards Donner Lake, where the formidable obstacle of the Sierra Nevada began. Gold was discovered in the vicinity of Virginia City in 1850, a modest mining community developed, but the discovery of silver in 1859 at the Comstock Lode led to a mining rush, thousands of emigrants left their homes, bound for the West, hoping to find a fortune. To provide the necessary connection between Virginia City and the California Trail, Charles W. Fuller built a log toll bridge across the Truckee River in 1859. A small community that would service travelers soon grew up near the bridge. After two years, Fuller sold the bridge to Myron C. Lake, who continued to develop the community with the addition of a grist mill and livery stable to the hotel and eating house.
He renamed it "Lake's Crossing". In 1864, Washoe County was consolidated with Roop County, Lake's Crossing became the largest town in the county. Lake had earned himself the title "founder of Reno". By January 1863, the Central Pacific Railroad had begun laying tracks east from Sacramento, California connecting with the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, Utah, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. Lake deeded land to the CPRR in exchange for its promise to build a depot at Lake's Crossing. Once the railroad station was established, the town of Reno came into being on May 9, 1868. CPRR construction superintendent Charles Crocker named the community after Major General Jesse Lee Reno, a Union officer killed in the American Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain. In 1871, Reno became the county seat of the newly expanded Washoe County, replacing the previous county seat, located in Washoe City. However, political power in Nevada remained with the mining communities, first Virginia City and Tonopah and Goldfield.
The extension of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad to Reno in 1872 provided a boost to the new city's economy. In the following decades, Reno continued to grow and prosper as a business and agricultural center and became the principal settlement on the transcontinental railroad between Sacramento and Salt Lake City; as the mining boom waned early in the 20th century, Nevada's centers of political and business activity shifted to the non-mining communities Reno and Las Vegas, today the former mining metropolises stand as little more than ghost towns. Despite this, Nevada is still the third-largest gold producer in the world, after South Africa and Australia; the "Reno Arch" was erected on Virginia Street in 1926 to promote the upcoming Transcontinental Highways Exposition of 1927. The arch included the words "Nevada's Transcontinental Highways Exposition" and the dates of the exposition. After the exposition, the Reno City Council decided to keep the arch as a permanent downtown gateway, Mayor E.
E. Roberts asked the citizens of Reno to suggest a slogan for the arch. No acceptable slogan was received until a $100 prize was offered, G. A. Burns of Sacramento was declared the winner on March 14, 1929, with "Reno, The Biggest Little City in the World". Reno took a leap when the state of Nevada legalized open-gambling on March 19, 1931, along with the passage of more liberal divorce laws than places like Hot Springs, offered. No other state offered what Nevada had in the 1930s, casinos like the Bank Club and Palace were popular. Within a few years, the Bank Club, owned by George Wingfield, Bill Graham, Jim McKay, was the state's largest employer and the largest casino in the world. Wingfield owned most of the buildings in town that housed gaming and took a percentage of the profits, along with his rent. Ernie Pyle once wrote in one of his columns, "All the people you saw on the streets in Reno were there to get divorces." In Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, published in 1943, the New York-based female protagonist tells a friend, "I am going to Reno,", taken as a different way of saying "I am going to divorce my husband."
Among others, the Belgian-French writer Georges Simenon, at the time living in the U. S. came to Reno in 1950. The divorce business died as the other states fell in line by passing their own laws easing the requirements for divorce, but gambling continued as a major Reno industry. While gaming pioneers like "Pappy" and Harold Smith of Harold's Club and
Hot air balloon festival
Hot air balloon festivals are held annually in many places throughout the year, allowing hot air balloons operators to gather- as well as for the general public- to participate in various activities. They can include races. Hot air balloon festival listings - North America Hot air balloon festival listings - Europe Worldwide Hot air balloon festival listings Ballooning over Italy Hot Air Balloon Festival Pampanga