The Carter Family is a traditional American folk music group that recorded between 1927 and 1956. Their music had a profound impact on bluegrass, Southern Gospel and rock musicians as well as on the U. S. folk revival of the 1960s. They were the first vocal group to become country music stars, were the first group to record commercially produced country music in recorded history, their first recordings were made in Bristol, Tennessee under producer Ralph Peer on August 1st, 1927, the day before country singer Jimmie Rodgers made his initial recordings under Peer. Their recordings of songs such as "Wabash Cannonball", "Can the Circle Be Unbroken", "Wildwood Flower", "Keep On the Sunny Side" and "I'm Thinking Tonight of My Blue Eyes" made these songs country standards; the latter's tune was used for Roy Acuff's "The Great Speckled Bird", Hank Thompson's "The Wild Side of Life" and Kitty Wells' "It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels", making the song a hit all over again in other incarnations.
The original group consisted of A. P. Carter, his wife Sara Carter, his sister-in-law Maybelle Carter. Maybelle was married to A. P.'s brother Ezra Carter, was Sara's first cousin. All three were born and raised in Southwest Virginia, where they were immersed in the tight harmonies of mountain gospel music and shape note singing. Throughout the group's career, Sara Carter played rhythm guitar or autoharp. P. did not perform at all but at times sang harmony and background vocals and, once in a while, lead vocal. Maybelle's distinctive guitar playing style became a hallmark of the group and her Carter Scratch has become one of the most copied styles of guitar playing; the group recorded for a number of companies including Victor, RCA, ARC group, Columbia and various imprint labels. The Carter Family made their first recordings on August 1, 1927. A. P. Carter had persuaded his wife Sara Carter, his sister-in-law Maybelle Carter the day before to make the journey from Maces Spring, Virginia, to Bristol, Tennessee, to audition for record producer Ralph Peer.
Peer was seeking new talents for the embryonic recording industry. The initial sessions are part of; the band received $50 for each song recorded, plus half a cent royalty on every copy sold of each song for which they had registered a copyright. On November 4, 1927, the Victor Talking Machine Company released a double-sided 78 rpm record of the group performing "Wandering Boy" and "Poor Orphan Child". On December 2, 1928, Victor released "The Storms Are on the Ocean" / "Single Girl, Married Girl", which became popular. By the end of 1930 they had sold 300,000 records in the United States. Realizing that he would benefit financially with each new song he collected and copyrighted, A. P. traveled around the southwestern Virginia area in search of new songs. In the early 1930s, he befriended Lesley "Esley" Riddle, a black guitar player from Kingsport, Tennessee. Lesley accompanied A. P. on his song-collecting trips. In June 1931, the Carters did a recording session in Benton, along with Jimmie Rodgers.
In 1933, Maybelle met the Speer family at a fair in Ceredo, West Virginia, fell in love with their signature sound. She asked them to tour with the Carter Family. In the winter of 1938–39 the Carter Family traveled to Texas, where they had a twice-daily program on the border radio station XERA in Villa Acuña, across the border from Del Rio, Texas. In the 1939–40 season the children of A. P. and Sara and those of Maybelle joined the group for radio performances, now in San Antonio, where the programs were prerecorded and distributed to multiple border radio stations. In the fall of 1942 the Carters moved their program to WBT radio in Charlotte, North Carolina, for a one-year contract, they occupied the sunrise slot, with the program airing between 5:15 and 6:15 a.m. By 1936 A. P. and Sara's marriage had dissolved. Sara married A. P.'s cousin, Coy Bayes, moved to California, the group disbanded in 1944. Maybelle continued to perform with her daughters Anita Carter, June Carter, Helen Carter as "The Carter Sisters".
In 1943, Maybelle Carter and her daughters, using the name "The Carter Sisters," had a program on WRNL in Richmond, Virginia. Maybelle's brother, Hugh Jack Addington, Jr. and Carl McConnell, known as The Original Virginia Boys played music and sang on the radio show. Chet Atkins joined them playing electric guitar in 1949 until leaving in 1950. A. P. Sara, their children Joe and Janette recorded 3 albums in the 1950s under the name of The A. P. Carter Family. Mother Maybelle Carter and the Carter Sisters began using the name "the Carter Family" after the death of A. P. Carter in 1960 for their act during the 1960s and 1970s. Maybelle and Sara reunited, recorded a reunion album, toured in the 1960s during the height of folk music's popularity. A documentary about the family, Sunny Side of Life, was released in 1985. In 1987, reunited sisters June Carter Cash and Helen and Anita Carter, along with June's daughter Carlene Carter, appeared as the Carter Family and were featured on a 1987 television episode of Austin City Limits along with Johnny Cash.
Revivalist folksingers during the 1960s performed much of the material the Carters had collected or written. For example, on her early V
Mobbing (animal behavior)
Mobbing in animals is an antipredator adaptation in which individuals of prey species mob a predator by cooperatively attacking or harassing it to protect their offspring. A simple definition of mobbing is an assemblage of individuals around a dangerous predator; this is most seen in birds, though it is known to occur in many other animals such as the meerkat, some bovines. While mobbing has evolved independently in many species, it only tends to be present in those whose young are preyed upon; this behavior may complement cryptic adaptations in the offspring themselves, such as camouflage and hiding. Mobbing calls may be used to summon nearby individuals to cooperate in the attack. Konrad Lorenz, in his book On Aggression, attributed mobbing among birds and animals to instincts rooted in the Darwinian struggle to survive. In his view, humans are subject to similar innate impulses but capable of bringing them under rational control. Birds that breed in colonies such as gulls are seen to attack intruders, including encroaching humans.
In North America, the birds that most engage in mobbing include mockingbirds and jays, chickadees and blackbirds. Behavior includes flying about the intruder, dive bombing, loud squawking and defecating on the predator. Mobbing can be used to obtain food, by driving larger birds and mammals away from a food source, or by harassing a bird with food. One bird might distract while others steal food. Scavenging birds such as gulls use this technique to steal food from humans nearby. A flock of birds might drive a powerful animal away from food. Costs of mobbing behavior include the risk of engaging with predators, as well as energy expended in the process; the black-headed gull is a species which aggressively engages intruding predators, such as carrion crows. Classic experiments on this species by Hans Kruuk involved placing hen eggs at intervals from a nesting colony, recording the percentage of successful predation events as well as the probability of the crow being subjected to mobbing; the results showed decreasing mobbing with increased distance from the nest, correlated with increased predation success.
Mobbing may function by reducing the predator's ability to locate nests since predators cannot focus on locating eggs while they are under attack. Besides the ability to drive the predator away, mobbing draws attention to the predator, making stealth attacks impossible. Mobbing plays a critical role in the identification of predators and inter-generational learning about predator identification. Reintroduction of species is unsuccessful, because the established population lacks this cultural knowledge of how to identify local predators. Scientists are exploring ways to train populations to identify and respond to predators before releasing them into the wild. Adaptationist hypotheses regarding why an organism should engage in such risky behavior have been suggested by Eberhard Curio, including advertising their physical fitness and hence uncatchability, distracting predators from finding their offspring, warning their offspring, luring the predator away, allowing offspring to learn to recognize the predator species, directly injuring the predator or attracting a predator of the predator itself.
The much lower frequency of attacks between nesting seasons suggests such behavior may have evolved due to its benefit for the mobber's young. Niko Tinbergen argued that the mobbing was a source of confusion to gull chick predators, distracting them from searching for prey. Indeed, an intruding carrion crow can only avoid incoming attacks by facing its attackers, which prevents it from locating its target. Besides experimental research, the comparative method can be employed to investigate hypotheses such as those given by Curio above. For example, not all gull species show mobbing behavior; the kittiwake nests on sheer cliffs that are completely inaccessible to predators, meaning its young are not at risk of predation like other gull species. This is an example of divergent evolution. Looking at variation in the behavioural responses of 22 different passerine species to a potential predator, the Eurasian Pygmy Owl, extent of mobbing was positively related with a species prevalence in the owls' diet.
Furthermore, the intensity of mobbing was greater in autumn than spring. Mobbing is thought to carry risks to roosting predators, including potential harm from the mobbing birds, or attracting larger, more dangerous predators. Birds at risk of mobbing such as owls have cryptic plumage and hidden roosts which reduces this danger. Another way the comparative method can be used here is by comparing gulls with distantly related organisms; this approach relies on the existence of convergent evolution, where distantly related organisms evolve the same trait due to similar selection pressures. As mentioned, many bird species such as the swallows mob predators, however more distantly related groups including mammals have been known to engage in this behavior. One example is the California ground squirrel, which distracts predators such as the rattlesnake and gopher snake from locating their nest burrows by kicking sand into their face, which disrupts the snake's sensory organs; this social species uses alarm calls.
Some fish engage in mobbing. Bluegills, which form large nesting colonies, were seen to attack both released and occurring turtles, which may advertise their presence, drive the predator from the area, or aid in the transmission of predator recognition. Humpback whales are kn
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
Roy Claxton Acuff was an American country music singer and promoter, freemason. Known as the "King of Country Music," Acuff is credited with moving the genre from its early string band and "hoedown" format to the singer-based format that helped make it internationally successful. In 1952, Hank Williams told Ralph Gleason, "He's the biggest singer this music knew. You booked you didn't worry about crowds. For drawing power in the South, it was Roy Acuff God."Acuff began his music career in the 1930s and gained regional fame as the singer and fiddler for his group, the Smoky Mountain Boys. He joined the Grand Ole Opry in 1938, although his popularity as a musician waned in the late 1940s, he remained one of the Opry's key figures and promoters for nearly four decades. In 1942, Acuff and Fred Rose founded Acuff-Rose Music, the first major Nashville-based country music publishing company, which signed such artists as Hank Williams, Roy Orbison, the Everly Brothers. In 1962, Acuff became the first living inductee into the Country Music Hall of Fame.
Acuff was born on September 15, 1903 in Maynardville, Tennessee, to Ida and Simon E. Neill Acuff, the third of their five children; the Acuffs were a prominent family in Union County. Roy's paternal grandfather, Coram Acuff, had been a Tennessee state senator, his maternal grandfather was a local physician. Roy's father was an accomplished fiddler and a Baptist preacher, his mother was proficient on the piano, during Roy's early years the Acuff house was a popular place for local gatherings. At such gatherings, Roy would amuse people by balancing farm tools on his chin, he learned to play the harmonica and jaw harp at an early age. In 1919, the Acuff family relocated to Fountain City, a few miles south of Maynardville. Roy attended Central High School, where he sang in the school chapel's choir and performed in "every play they had." His primary passion, was athletics. He was a three-sport standout at Central and, after graduating in 1925, was offered a scholarship to Carson-Newman University but turned it down.
He played with several small baseball clubs around Knoxville, worked at odd jobs, boxed. In 1929, Acuff tried out for the Knoxville Smokies, a minor-league baseball team affiliated with the New York Giants. A series of collapses in spring training following a sunstroke, ended his baseball career; the effects left him ill for several years, he suffered a nervous breakdown in 1930. "I couldn't stand any sunshine at all," he recalled. While recovering, Acuff began to hone his fiddle skills playing on the family's front porch after the sun went down, his father gave him several records of regionally renowned fiddlers, such as Fiddlin' John Carson and Gid Tanner, which were important influences on his early style. In 1932, Dr. Hauer's medicine show, which toured the southern Appalachian region, hired Acuff as one of its entertainers; the purpose of the entertainers was to draw a large crowd to whom Hauer could sell medicines for various ailments. While on the medicine show circuit, Acuff met the legendary Appalachian banjoist Clarence Ashley, from whom he learned "The House of the Rising Sun" and "Greenback Dollar", both of which Acuff recorded.
As the medicine show lacked microphones, Acuff learned to sing loud enough to be heard above the din, a skill that would help him stand out on early radio broadcasts. In 1934, Acuff left the medicine show circuit and began playing at local shows with various musicians in the Knoxville area, where he had become a celebrity and fixture in local newspaper columns; that year, the guitarist Jess Easterday and the Hawaiian guitarist Clell Summey joined Acuff to form the Tennessee Crackerjacks, which performed on the Knoxville radio stations WROL and WNOX. Within a year, the group had added the bassist Red Jones and changed its name to the Crazy Tennesseans after being introduced as such by a WROL announcer named Alan Stout. Fans remarked to Acuff how "clear" his voice was coming through over the radio, important in an era when singers were drowned out by string band cacophony; the popularity of Acuff's rendering of the song "The Great Speckled Bird" helped the group land a contract with ARC, for which they recorded several dozen tracks in 1936.
Needing to complete a 20-song commitment, the band recorded two ribald tunes—including "When Lulu's Gone"—but released them under a pseudonym, the Bang Boys. The group split from ARC in 1937 over a separate contract dispute. In 1938, the Crazy Tennesseans moved to Nashville to audition for the Grand Ole Opry. Although their first audition went poorly, the band's second audition impressed Opry founder George D. Hay and producer Harry Stone, they offered the group a contract that year. On Hay and Stone's suggestion, Acuff changed the group's name to the Smoky Mountain Boys, referring to the mountains near where he and his bandmates grew up. Shortly after the band joined the Opry, Clell Summey left the group and was replaced by the dobro player Beecher Kirby—best known by his stage name Bashful Brother Oswald—whom Acuff had met in a Knoxville bakery earlier that year. Acuff's powerful lead vocals and Kirby's dobro playing and high-pitched backing vocals gave the band its distinctive sound. By 1939, Jess Easterday had switched to bass to replace Red Jones, Acuff had added the guitarist Lonnie "Pap" Wilson and the banjoist Rachel Veach to fill out the band's lineup.
Within a year, Roy Acuff and the Smoky M
David Allan Coe
David Allan Coe is an American singer. His biggest hits were "Mona Lisa Lost Her Smile", "The Ride", "You Never Even Called Me by My Name", "She Used to Love Me a Lot", "Longhaired Redneck", his most popular songs are the number-one hits "Would You Lay With Me" and "Take This Job and Shove It". The latter inspired the movie of the same name. Coe was born in Akron, Ohio, on September 6, 1939, his favorite singer as a child was Johnny Ace. After being sent to the Starr Commonwealth For Boys reform school at the age of 9, he spent much of the next 20 years in correctional facilities, including three years at the Ohio Penitentiary. Coe claimed he received encouragement to begin writing songs from Screamin' Jay Hawkins, with whom he had spent time in prison. After concluding another prison term in 1967, Coe embarked on a music career in Nashville, living in a hearse which he parked in front of the Ryman Auditorium, he caught the attention of the independent record label Plantation Records and signed a contract with the label.
Early in 1970, Coe released his debut album, Penitentiary Blues, followed by a tour with Grand Funk Railroad. In October 1971, he signed as an exclusive writer with Pete and Rose Drake's publishing company Windows Publishing Company, Inc. in Nashville, where he remained until 1977. Although he developed a cult following with his performances, he was not able to develop any mainstream success, but other performers achieved charting success by recording songs Coe had written, including Billie Jo Spears' 1972 recording "Souvenirs & California Mem'rys" and Tanya Tucker's 1973 single "Would You Lay With Me,", a number-one hit, responsible for Coe becoming one of Nashville's hottest songwriters and Coe himself being signed by Columbia Records. Coe recorded his own version of the song for his second Columbia album, Once Upon a Rhyme, released in 1975. AllMusic writer Thom Jurek said of the song, "The amazing thing is that both versions are definitive." Johnny Cash covered the song in his album American III: Solitary Man in 2000.
The album contained a cover of Steve Goodman and John Prine's "You Never Even Called Me by My Name", a top-10 Billboard hit, was followed by a string of moderately successful hits. Coe was a featured performer in a 1975 documentary film by James Szalapski. Other performers featured in this film included Guy Clark, Townes Van Zandt, Rodney Crowell, Steve Young, Steve Earle, the Charlie Daniels Band. In 1977, Johnny Paycheck released a cover of Coe's "Take This Job And Shove It", a number-one hit and Coe's most successful song. While Coe lived in Key West, Shel Silverstein played his comedy album Freakin' at the Freakers Ball for Coe, spurring him to perform his own comedic songs for Silverstein, who encouraged Coe to record them, leading to the production of the independently released Nothing Sacred. Jimmy Buffett accused Coe of plagiarizing the melody of "Divers Do It Deeper" from Buffett's "Changes in Latitudes, Changes in Attitudes", stating, "I would have sued him, but I didn't want to give Coe the pleasure of having his name in the paper."
In response to the success of Buffett's song, Coe wrote a song insulting Buffett, it appeared on Nothing Sacred. The album was released by mail order in 1978, through the back pages of the biker magazine Easyriders. Coe's 1979 Columbia album Spectrum VII contained a note stating "Jimmy Buffett doesn't live in Key West anymore," a lyric from a song from Nothing Sacred. In 1982, Coe released another independent album, Underground Album, which contained his most controversial song, "Nigger Fucker", which resulted in Coe being accused of racism. Coe responded to the accusations by stating "Anyone that hears this album and says I'm a racist is full of shit." Coe's drummer, Kerry Brown, is black and married to a white woman, as was Brown's late father, Clarence "Gatemouth" Brown. During the 1980s, Coe enjoyed a resurgence in mainstream popularity, twice hitting the top 10 of the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart with "The Ride"' and "Mona Lisa Lost Her Smile". "The Ride" recounts a drifter's encounter with the ghost of country music legend Hank Williams.
"Mona Lisa" is a mid-tempo ballad about a broken love affair, featuring allusions to the famous painting by Leonardo. He just missed the top 10 in early 1985 with "She Used to Love Me a Lot". In 1990, Coe reissued his independent albums Nothing Sacred and Underground Album on compact disc, as well as the compilation 18 X-Rated Hits. Throughout the 1990s, Coe had a successful career as a concert performer in the United States and Europe. In 1999, Coe met Pantera guitarist Dimebag Darrell in Fort Worth and the two musicians, struck by the similarity of the approaches between country and heavy metal, agreed to work together, began production on an album. In 2000, Coe toured as the opening act for Kid Rock, The New York Times published an article by journalist Neil Strauss, who described the material on Nothing Sacred and Underground Album as "among the most racist, misogynist and obscene songs recorded by a popular songwriter." Coe maintains that he wrote to Strauss during the writing of the article, but the journalist did not acknowledge any interaction between the two, only stating that Coe's manager refused to speak on the record.
In 2003, Coe wrote a song for Kid Rock, "Single Father", which appeared on Kid Rock's self-titled album, was released as a single, which peaked at number 50 on the Billboard Country Singles chart. Rebel Meets Rebel, with Dimebag Darrell, Vinnie Paul, Rex Brown, recorded sporadically between 1999 and 2003, was released in 2006, two years after Darrell's murder. AllMusic described it as a "groundbreaking" country metal album. In the 2006 video
Lucinda Williams is an American rock, folk and country music singer and musician. She recorded her first albums in 1978 and 1980 in a traditional country and blues style and received little attention from radio, the media, or the public. In 1988, she released Lucinda Williams; this release featured "Passionate Kisses," a song recorded by Mary Chapin Carpenter, which garnered Williams her first Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Known for working Williams recorded and released only one other album in the next several years, Sweet Old World, in 1992, her commercial breakthrough came in 1998 with Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, an album presenting a broader scope of songs that fused rock, blues and Americana into a distinctive style that remained consistent and commercial in sound. Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, which includes the Grammy nominated track "Can't Let Go", became Williams' greatest commercial success to date; the album was certified Gold by the RIAA and earned Williams a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album, while being universally acclaimed by critics.
Williams released the critically acclaimed Essence three years and the album became a commercial success. One of the album's tracks, "Get Right With God," earned Williams the Grammy Award for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance in 2002. Williams has released a string of albums since that have earned her more critical acclaim and commercial success, she has won 3 Grammy Awards, from 15 nominations, received 2 Americana Awards, from 12 nominations. Additionally, Williams ranked No. 97 on VH1's 100 Greatest Women in Rock & Roll in 1998, was named "America's best songwriter" by Time magazine in 2002. Williams was born in Lake Charles, the daughter of poet and literature professor Miller Williams and an amateur pianist, Lucille Fern Day, her parents divorced in the mid-1960s. Williams's father gained custody of her and her younger brother, Robert Miller, sister, Karyn Elizabeth. Like her father, she has spina bifida, her father worked as a visiting professor in Mexico and different parts of the United States, including Baton Rouge.
Williams never was accepted into the University of Arkansas. Williams started writing when she was 6 years old and showed an affinity for music at an early age, was playing guitar at 12. Williams's first live performance was in Mexico City at 17, as part of a duo with her friend, a banjo player named Clark Jones. By her early 20s, Williams was playing publicly in Austin and Houston, concentrating on a folk-rock-country blend, she moved to Jackson, Mississippi, in 1978 to record her first album, for Smithsonian/Folkways Records. Titled Ramblin' on My Mind, it was a collection of blues covers; the album title was shortened to Ramblin'. She followed it up in 1980 with Happy Woman Blues. Neither album received much attention. In the 1980s, Williams moved to Los Angeles, where, at times backed by a rock band and at others performing in acoustic settings, she developed a following and a critical reputation. While based in Los Angeles, she was married to Long Ryders drummer Greg Sowders, whom she had met in a club.
In 1988 Rough Trade Records released the self-titled Lucinda Williams, produced by Gurf Morlix. The single "Changed the Locks", about a broken relationship, received radio play around the country and gained fans among music insiders, including Tom Petty, who would cover the song, its follow-up, Sweet Old World produced by Morlix, is a melancholy album dealing with themes of suicide and death. Williams' biggest success during the early 1990s was as a songwriter. Mary Chapin Carpenter recorded a cover of "Passionate Kisses" in 1992, the song became a smash country hit for which Williams received the Grammy Award for Best Country Song in 1994. Carpenter received a Grammy for her performance of the song, she duetted with Steve Earle on the song "You're Still Standin' There" from his album I Feel Alright. In 1991, the song "Lucinda Williams" appeared on Vic Chesnutt's album West of Rome. Williams had garnered considerable critical acclaim. Emmylou Harris said of Williams, "She is an example of the best of what country at least says it is, for some reason, she's out of the loop and I feel that that's country music's loss."
Harris recorded the title track from Williams's Sweet Old World for her career-redefining 1995 album, Wrecking Ball. Williams gained a reputation as a perfectionist and slow worker when it came to recording; the long-awaited release, 1998's Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, was Williams' breakthrough into the mainstream and received a Grammy Award for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Containing the single "Still I Long for Your Kiss" from the Robert Redford film The Horse Whisperer, the album received wide critical notice and soon went gold; the single "Can't Let Go" enjoyed considerable crossover radio play. Williams toured with Bob Dylan, the Allman Brothers and Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers, on her own in support of the album. An expanded edition of the album, including three additional studio recordings and a second CD documenting a 1998 concert, was released in 2006. In 1999, she appeared on Return of the Grievous Angel: A Tribute to Gram Parso