The environmental movement including conservation and green politics, is a diverse scientific and political movement for addressing environmental issues. Environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources and stewardship of the environment through changes in public policy and individual behavior. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in ecosystems, the movement is centered on ecology and human rights; the environmental movement is an international movement, represented by a range of organizations, from the large to grassroots and varies from country to country. Due to its large membership and strong beliefs, speculative nature, the environmental movement is not always united in its goals; the movement encompasses some other movements with a more specific focus, such as the climate movement. At its broadest, the movement includes private citizens, religious devotees, scientists, nonprofit organizations and individual advocates. Early interest in the environment was a feature of the Romantic movement in the early 19th century.
The poet William Wordsworth had travelled extensively in the Lake District and wrote that it is a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy". The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution; the emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers. Under increasing political pressure from the urban middle-class, the first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash; the modern conservation movement was first manifested in the forests of India, with the practical application of scientific conservation principles. The conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that the human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out.
Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments. The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles; this was the first case of state management of forests in the world. The government under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie introduced the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States. In 1860, the Department banned the use shifting cultivation. Dr. Hugh Cleghorn's 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was used by forest assistants in the subcontinent.
Sir Dietrich Brandis joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the teak forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burma's teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals, he introduced the "taungya" system, in which Karen villagers provided labour for clearing and weeding teak plantations. He helped establish research and training institutions; the Imperial Forestry School at Dehradun was founded by him. The late 19th century saw the formation of the first wildlife conservation societies; the zoologist Alfred Newton published a series of investigations into the Desirability of establishing a'Close-time' for the preservation of indigenous animals between 1872 and 1903. His advocacy for legislation to protect animals from hunting during the mating season led to the formation of the Plumage League in 1889; the society acted as a protest group campaigning against the use of great crested grebe and kittiwake skins and feathers in fur clothing. The Society attracted growing support from the suburban middle-classes, influenced the passage of the Sea Birds Preservation Act in 1869 as the first nature protection law in the world.
For most of the century from 1850 to 1950, the primary environmental cause was the mitigation of air pollution. The Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed in 1898 making it one of the oldest environmental NGOs, it was founded by artist Sir William Blake Richmond, frustrated with the pall cast by coal smoke. Although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the Public Health Act 1875 required all furnaces and fireplaces to consume their own smoke. Systematic and general efforts on behalf of the environment only began in the late 19th century. Starting with the formation of the Commons Preservation Society in 1865, the movement championed rural preservation against the encroachments of industrialisation. Robert Hunter, solicitor for the society, worked with Hardwicke Rawnsley, Octavia Hill, and
Dominique Voynet is a French politician, a member of Europe Écologie–The Greens. She is the former mayor of Montreuil and was a French senator for the département of Seine-Saint-Denis. Dominique Voynet trained as a doctor as an anaesthetist. During her studies in the late 1970s, she began participating in environmental activism, she fought against the establishment of nuclear reactors in Fessenheim and Malville, the deforestation of the Vosges area on behalf of the Belfort Association for the Protection of Nature. She became a member of Amnesty International and the French Democratic Confederation of Labour. In her student years, she was a broadcaster for an independent radio station, "Radio ondes rouges", her pacifist and environmental efforts continued with her membership of Front de lutte antimilitariste and Friends of the Earth. Politics tempted her at this time, however the issues that were dear to her – social efforts and environmentalism – were not represented in France by any party at the time.
For this reason, she became one of the founding members of The Greens in France. In 1989 she was elected a Member of the European Parliament. From 1992 to 1994 she was a member of the conseil régional of Franche-Comté, she contested the 1995 presidential election. In the first round of voting, she won 3.32% of the vote. She was elected mayor of Montreuil sous bois in the Seine Saint Denis on the second round of Municipal elections, 16 March 2008, defeating Jean Pierre Brard longstanding communist mayor since 1984. From 1997 to 2001 she was Minister of the Environment and Regional Planning under the Lionel Jospin government, she resigned on 9 July 2001 and was replaced by Yves Cochet. In 2004, she was elected senator for the Seine-Saint-Denis département. Since the 2008 French municipal elections she is the elected mayor of Montreuil Dominique Voynet was designated the Green candidate for the 2007 presidential election on 19 July 2006. In the first round of the election, she garnered 576,666 votes.
On November 25, 2013, Voynet announced she would not seek a second term as mayor of Montreuil, complaining of the "degradation of political life" in Montreuil and elsewhere. Governmental function Minister of Planning and Environment: 1997-2001. Electoral mandates European Parliament Member of European Parliament: 1989-1991. Elected in 1989. Senate of France Senator of Seine-Saint-Denis: 2004-2011. Elected in 2004. General Council General councillor of Jura: 1998-2004. Regional Council Regional councillor of Franche-Comté: 1992-1994. Municipal Council Mayor of Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis: 2008-2014. Municipal councillor of Dole, Jura: 1989-2004. Reelected in 1995, 2001. Voix off L'eau, numéro 22 Qui êtes-vous, que proposez-vous? Dominique Voynet: Une vraie nature by Murielle Szac Dominique Voynet's official senatorial site Dominique Voynet's official campaign site for the 2007 presidential election http://dominiquevoynet.eelv.fr
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas. Deep ecology argues that the natural world is a subtle balance of complex inter-relationships in which the existence of organisms is dependent on the existence of others within ecosystems. Human interference with or destruction of the natural world poses a threat therefore not only to humans but to all organisms constituting the natural order. Deep ecology's core principle is the belief that the living environment as a whole should be respected and regarded as having certain basic moral and legal rights to live and flourish, independent of its instrumental benefits for human use. Deep ecology is framed in terms of the idea of a much broader sociality, it describes itself as "deep" because it regards itself as looking more into the actual reality of humanity's relationship with the natural world arriving at philosophically more profound conclusions than that of the prevailing view of ecology as a branch of biology.
The movement does not subscribe to anthropocentric environmentalism, since deep ecology is grounded in a quite different set of philosophical assumptions. Deep ecology takes a more holistic view of the world human beings live in and seeks to apply to life the understanding that the separate parts of the ecosystem function as a whole; this philosophy provides a foundation for the environmental and green movements and has fostered a new system of environmental ethics advocating wilderness preservation, human population control, simple living. In his original 1972/73 deep ecology paper, Arne Næss claims the deep ecology movement arose from scientists – ecologists – who were out in the field studying the biodiversity and wild ecosystems throughout the world, they were doing the work of philosophers, laying the foundations for the Age of Ecology and a new ecological worldview to replace the anthropocentric, mastery of Nature, modernist worldview arising in the 17th and 18th centuries. Three of the most influential ecological spokespersons of the 1960s were Rachel Carson, David Brower, Paul R. Ehrlich.
Some consider the publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring as the beginning of the contemporary, long-range deep ecology movement. When her book appeared there was a long-standing movement for conservation of land and resources, as well as support for creating parks and other areas devoted to preserving wilderness and spectacular nature. Carson's writings were influential because they showed how human well-being depends on the condition of whole biotic communities, she explained in practical terms. She explained how pesticides used to control mosquitoes and other insects led to declines in some bird populations. Silent Spring helped show how complex food networks of biotic relationships function. Since humans are at the top of many food chains, exposure to chemicals becomes more concentrated as these move up the chains; the chemicals can be stored in human tissues and accumulate over time, adversely affecting health. Carson showed the need for deep changes in human ways of living; the 1960s was a decade of vigorous social activism in the United States, Western Europe, Australia.
Some activism focused on the issue of nuclear weapons. A well-known early environmental organization started with a focus on nuclear tests and their environmental hazards; some people in British Columbia, were opposed to the test of a nuclear weapon by the US government on Amchitka Island. They sailed towards the nuclear test site in protest; this action led to the founding of Greenpeace, which became more identified with environmental issues as time went by. These great movements were further catalyzed by the now iconic images of the whole Earth floating in space taken during the return of the Apollo space missions from their journey to the moon. Among the astronauts that witnessed seeing the whole Earth firsthand was Edgar D. Mitchell, who in 1971, during the return mission of Apollo 14, had an epiphany that what is needed to solve the eco-crisis "is a transformation of consciousness". Proponents of deep ecology believe that the world does not exist as a resource to be exploited by humans. If material goods do not guarantee happiness beyond a moderate level, over-consumption is endangering the biosphere, defining a new non-consumptive paradigm of well-being seems imperative.
The ethics of deep ecology hold that the survival of any part is dependent upon the well-being of the whole. Proponents of deep ecology offer an eight-point platform to encapsulate their claims: The well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman life on Earth have value in themselves; these values are independent of the usefulness of the nonhuman world for human purposes. Richness and diversity of life forms contribute to the realization of these values and are values in themselves Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital human needs The flourishing of human life and cultures is compatible with a substantial decrease of the human population; the flourishing of nonhuman life requires such a decrease. Present human interference with the nonhuman world is excessive, the
Individual and political action on climate change
Individual and political action on climate change can take many forms. Many actions aim to build social and political support to limit, subsequently reduce, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, with the goal of mitigating climate change. Other actions seek to address the ethical and moral aspects of climate justice with regard to the anticipated unequal impacts of climate change adaptation. Political action can change regulations that relate to climate change. Carbon pricing methods, such as a carbon tax or an emissions trading system, are favored by many economists as the most efficient and effective means to reduce GHG emissions, are being deployed around the world. In the U. S. groups such as the bipartisan legislative Climate Solutions Caucus and the Citizens Climate Lobby work to build support for carbon pricing. The first bipartisan climate policy in 10 years was introduced in the United States House of Representatives in 2018 as the Energy Innovation and Carbon Dividends Act.
Regulations can strengthen GHG emission standards from particular sectors of the economy, such as the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan for United States power plants, or vehicle standards in Europe and the United States. Political action can gain media and public attention to climate change. Political action from the community, however, is challenged by interests within the fossil-fuel industry, which have been charged with promoting climate change denial views in order to hold off a "carbon bubble" valuation crash. There are many forms of political action on climate change including letter writing, direct lobbying, public shaming of politicians and media organizations. Political action campaigns require building a base of support at local level; the climate movement has emerged in recent years, given there is an increased awareness of the importance of global warming as a factor in a range of issues. Many environmental and social issues find common ground in mitigation of global warming. A number of groups from around the world have come together to work on the issue of global warming.
Non-governmental organizations from diverse fields of work have united on this issue. A coalition of 50 NGOs called Stop Climate Chaos launched in Britain to highlight the issue of climate change; the Campaign against Climate Change was created to focus purely on the issue of climate change and to pressure governments into action by building a protest movement of sufficient magnitude to effect political change. Critical Mass is an event held on the last Friday of every month in various cities around the world wherein bicyclists and, less unicyclists, inline skaters, roller skaters and other self-propelled commuters take to the streets en masse. While the ride was founded in San Francisco with the idea of drawing attention to how unfriendly the city was to bicyclists, the leaderless structure of Critical Mass makes it impossible to assign it any one specific goal. In fact, the purpose of Critical Mass is not formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets.
One of the elements of the Occupy movement is global warming action. Succeeding environmentalist Bill McKibben's mantra that "if it's wrong to wreck the climate, it's wrong to profit from that wreckage," fossil fuel divestment campaigns attempt to get public institutions, such as universities and churches, to remove investment assets from fossil fuel companies. By December 2016, a total of 688 institutions and over 58,000 individuals representing $5.5 trillion in assets worldwide had been divested from fossil fuels. Groups such as NextGen America and Climate Hawks Vote are working in the United States to elect officials who will make action on climate change a high priority. Climate disobedience is a form of civil disobedience, deliberate action intended to critique government climate policy. In 2008, American climate activist Tim DeChristopher posed as a bidder at an auction of US Bureau of Land Management oil and gas leases of public land in Utah, won the auction, reneged on payment, was imprisoned for 21 months.
In September 2015, five climate activists known as the Delta 5 obstructed an oil train in Everett, Washington. At trial, the Delta 5 were allowed the necessity defense, that is, breaking a law in the service of preventing a greater harm. After testimony, the judge determined the grounds for the necessity defense were not met and instructed the jury to disregard testimony admitted under the necessity defense; the Delta 5 were acquitted of more serious charges. The first example of a judge accepting the climate necessity defense was on March 27, 2018 when Judge Mary Ann Driscoll acquitted all 13 defendants of civil charges from a protest held in 2016 in Boston, Massachusetts; the Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change dealing with greenhouse gases emissions mitigation and finance starting in the year 2020. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 195 countries at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Paris and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.
The head of the Paris Conference, France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius, called the plan "ambitious and balanced" and an "historic turning point" in the goal of reducing global warming. Critics note that the agreement is not sufficient to achieve the 2 °C warming target, the lack of any binding enforcement mechanism. Subsequent Conference of the Parties meetings are expected to address shortcomings in the Paris Agreement. Amid fierce opposition from scientists and other leaders around the world, U. S. President Donald Trump has
Elections in France
France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may be called to consult the French citizenry directly on a particular question one which concerns amendment to the Constitution. France elects on its national level a head of state – the president – and a legislature; the president is elected for a five-year term, directly by the citizens. The Parliament has two chambers; the National Assembly has 577 members, elected for a five-year term in single seat-constituencies directly by the citizens. The Senate has 348 members, elected for six-year terms. 328 members are elected by an electoral college consisting of elected representatives from each of 96 departments in metropolitan France, 8 of which are elected from other dependencies, 12 of which are elected by the French Assembly of French Citizens Abroad which has replaced the High Council of French Citizens Abroad a 155-member assembly elected by citizens living abroad.
In addition, French citizens elect a variety of local governments. There are public elections for some non-political positions, such as those for the judges of courts administering labour law, elected by workers and employers, or those for judges administering cases of rural land leases. France does not have a fully-fledged two-party system; however French politics has ordinarily displayed some tendencies characterizing a two-party system in which power alternates between stable coalitions, each being led by a major party: on the left, the Socialist Party, on the right, Les Républicains and its predecessors. This pattern was upset in 2017, when neither of those parties' candidates reached the second round of the presidential election and the newly-formed party En Marche! gained both the presidency and a comfortable majority in the National Assembly. Elections are conducted according to rules set down in the Constitution of France, organisational laws, the electoral code. Voting is not compulsory.
Elections are held on Sundays. The campaigns end at midnight the Friday before the election; the voting stations open at 8 am and close at 6 pm in small towns or at 8 pm in cities, depending on prefectoral decisions. By law, publication of results or estimates is prohibited prior to that time; the first estimate of the results are thus known at 8 pm, Paris time. It has been alleged. For this reason, since the 2000s, elections in French possessions in the Americas, as well as embassies and consulates there, are held on Saturdays as a special exemption; the next election will take place in 2022. Current President Emmanuel Macron is eligible for re-election in that year. With the exception of senatorial election, for which there is an electoral college, the voters are French citizens over the age of 18 registered on the electoral rolls. People are automatically registered on reaching the age of 18. For municipal and European, but not national elections, citizens aged 18 or older of other European Union countries may vote in France.
Registration is not compulsory. Citizens may register either in their place of residence or in a place where they have been on the roll of taxpayers for local taxes for at least 5 years, but not in more than one place. Citizens living abroad may register at the consulate responsible for the region. Only citizens registered as voters can run for public office. There are exceptions to the above rules. Convicted criminals may be deprived of their civic rights, which include the right to vote, for a certain period of time depending on the crime. In particular, elected officials who have abused public funds may be deprived of the right to run for national public office for as long as 10 years; the application of such rules in the case of certain politicians has been controversial. Voting by proxy is possible when the citizen cannot attend the polling station The citizen designates a proxy, who must be a voter from the same commune; the designation of the proxy must be made before a capable witness: a judge, a judicial clerk, or an officier of judicial police, or, outside France, before an ambassador or consul.
In the case of handicapped or ill people, an officer of judicial police or delegate thereof can be sent to the home of the citizen to witness the designation. The procedure is meant to avoid pressures on voters. In all elections where there is a single official to be elected for a given area, including the two major national elections, two-round runoff voting is used. For elections to the European Parliament and some local elect
Asia Pacific Greens Federation
The Asia Pacific Greens Federation is a federation of national Green parties and environmental organizations in countries in the Pacific Ocean and Asia, is one of the four federations that constitute the Global Greens. 32 Parties from 30 nations got together in February 2005 in Japan, to found the network. There they elected a Membership Panel, delegates to the Global Greens Coordination. Thereafter newly endorsed Member parties and groups participated at the Global Greens Conference in São Paulo, Brazil in 2008, in the 2nd APGN Congress held in Taipei City in April 2010; this Congress adopted a new organisational structure for the APGN, known as the (APGN rules, a 5 Year Strategic Plan. A new APGN Coordinating Committee was composed of 8 delegates from different countries; the 3 new delegates of GGC from Asia Pacific were elected. Other outcomes included a Fair Share Declaration; the final report details the proceedings and outcomes of the 2010 Congress in Taipei. Member nations and parties include: Australia: Australian Greens - http://greens.org.au Hong Kong: Green Party Hong Kong - http://www.greenparty.hk India: Uttarakhand Parivartan Party - https://web.archive.org/web/20110926181042/http://www.ukpp.org/ Japan: Greens Japan - http://www.greens.gr.jp Mongolia: Civil Will Green Party of Mongolia - https://web.archive.org/web/20120513195209/http://www.civilgreen.mn/ Mongolia: Mongolian Green Party - https://web.archive.org/web/20120511220500/http://www.greenparty.mn/ Nepal: Green Civil Society - http://tnwnepal.org, http://greenkhabar.com New Zealand: Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand - http://www.greens.org.nz Pakistan: Pakistan: Pakistan Green Party - http://pakistangreens.blogspot.com Papua New Guinea: Papua New Guinea Greens Philippines: Philippine Green Party - https://web.archive.org/web/20130830111932/http://philippinegreenparty.weebly.com/ South Korea: Green Party of Korea - http://www.kgreens.org Taiwan: Green Party Taiwan - http://www.greenparty.org.tw and Taiwan Friends of the Global Greens Associate Membership Groups Australia: Federation for a democratic China Australia - http://www.fdc64.de Nepal: Green Nepal Party - https://web.archive.org/web/20121231205621/http://www.greennepalparty.com/ Philippines: Philippine Greens Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka Green Alliance - http://surakimusrilanka.netFriends of APGN China: 中国绿人社会 China Green Man Society - https://web.archive.org/web/20140517192249/http://lvlvep.com/ China: China Green Party, Chinese Green Party, Green Party of China & Chinese Young Greens Nepal: Apex Mission Nepal Asia Pacific Greens APGN2010 Asia Pacific Greens Taipei Meeting 2010 - report Asia Pacific Greens Kyoto Meeting 2005 - preview Asia Pacific Greens Kyoto Meeting 2005 - report
Bright green environmentalism
Bright green environmentalism is an ideology based on the belief that the convergence of technological change and social innovation provides the most successful path to sustainable development. The term bright green, coined in 2003 by writer Alex Steffen, refers to the fast-growing new wing of environmentalism, distinct from traditional forms. Bright green environmentalism aims to provide prosperity in an ecologically sustainable way through the use of new technologies and improved design. Proponents promote and advocate for green energy, electric automobiles, efficient manufacturing systems and nanotechnologies, ubiquitous computing, dense urban settlements, closed loop materials cycles and sustainable product designs. One-planet living is a used phrase, their principal focus is on the idea that through a combination of well-built communities, new technologies and sustainable living practices, quality of life can be improved while ecological footprints shrink. Around the middle of the century we’ll see global population peak at something like 9 billion people, all of whom will want to live with a reasonable amount of prosperity, many of whom will want, at the least, a European lifestyle.
They will see escaping poverty as their nonnegotiable right, but to deliver that prosperity at our current levels of efficiency and resource use would destroy the planet many times over. We need to invent a new model of prosperity, one that lets billions have the comfort and opportunities they want at the level of impact the planet can afford. We can't do that without embracing better design; the term bright green has been used with increased frequency due to the promulgation of these ideas through the Internet and recent coverage in the traditional media. Alex Steffen describes contemporary environmentalists as being split into three groups, dark and bright greens. Light greens see protecting the environment foremost as a personal responsibility, they fall in on the transformational activist end of the spectrum, but light greens do not emphasize environmentalism as a distinct political ideology, or seek fundamental political reform. Instead they focus on environmentalism as a lifestyle choice.
The motto "Green is the new black" sums up this way of thinking, for many. This is different from the term lite green, which some environmentalists use to describe products or practices they believe are greenwashing. In contrast, dark greens believe that environmental problems are an inherent part of industrialized civilization, seek radical political change. Dark greens believe that and dominant political ideologies lead to consumerism, waste, alienation from nature and resource depletion. Dark greens claim this is caused by the emphasis on economic growth that exists within all existing ideologies, a tendency referred to as growth mania; the dark green brand of environmentalism is associated with ideas of ecocentrism, deep ecology, anti-consumerism, post-materialism, the Gaia hypothesis of James Lovelock, as well as support for a reduction in human numbers and/or a relinquishment of technology to reduce humanity's effect on the biosphere. More bright greens emerged as a group of environmentalists who believe that radical changes are needed in the economic and political operation of society in order to make it sustainable, but that better designs, new technologies and more distributed social innovations are the means to make those changes—and that society can neither stop nor protest its way to sustainability.
As Ross Robertson writes, right green environmentalism is less about the problems and limitations we need to overcome than the "tools and ideas" that exist for overcoming them. It forgoes the bleakness of protest and dissent for the energizing confidence of constructive solutions. While bright green environmentalism is an intellectual current among North American environmentalists, it is in Northern Europe Scandinavia, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, that the idea of bright green environmentalism has become most widespread and most discussed. For instance, the official technology showcase and business expo for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Copenhagen is called Bright Green in reference to this idea, while the Danish youth climate activism movement is called Bright Green Youth; the Next Green Revolution – Wired magazine A Brighter Shade of Green: Rebooting Environmentalism for the 21st Century – WIE magazine "Go Bright Green" – article in the Guardian Steffen's own explanation of the difference between bright and dark greens The Viridian Design Movement