The Guitar Player (Vermeer)

The Guitar Player is an oil painting by Dutch Baroque artist Johannes Vermeer, dated c. 1672. This work of art is one of Vermeer's final artistic activities, providing insight into the techniques he mastered and approaches to painting he favored; the painting has been on display at Kenwood House, London since the 1920s, as part of the Iveagh Bequest collection. After being recovered from a theft in 1974, when the painting was held for ransom, The Guitar Player was returned to Kenwood House. Vermeer's artistic style in the 1670s is compared to his earlier style of the mid-1660s; the Guitar Player properly demonstrates the energy of Vermeer's late style. His earlier paintings portray quiet self-contained worlds, his late style demonstrated abstract painting techniques, in which the depiction of motion is portrayed through the diffused illustration of shifting objects. With Vermeer's experience, he began to create paintings that demonstrate dynamic poses and actions, implying that a movement is taking place.

The Guitar Player is compared to Vermeer's, Woman with a Lute. The Guitar Player represents a new direction in Vermeer's art; because he developed and perfected compositional balance and harmony during the 1660s, he was able to expand and paint scenes that show imbalance and fluctuation. Vermeer's painting of The Guitar Player rejects compositional balance and harmony, which contradicts his previous paintings; this painting exhibits an unbalanced arrangement that depicts a lack of compositional consistency, but rejects the past instrument of the lute to focus on the modern guitar. The rejection of the lute and depiction of the guitar may be linked to Vermeer's compositional organization. Vermeer painted the young guitar player far to the left, covering the right half of the paining in light and shadow; this imbalance gives the viewer a sense of movement. The combination of an uneven arrangement conjoined with a gleam of light coming from the right rather than the left, forces the viewer engage with the character and instrument in this painting.

The compositional arrangement is reinforced by Vermeer's decision to direct the light onto the guitar player, which helps the viewer feel the impact of her presence. As a result of Vermeer's decision to paint a single personality, a greater importance and focus is placed on the instrument; the inclusion of a pastoral landscape, dark curtains, three books, a blue tablecloth provide a counterbalance to the overriding composition displayed on the left of this artwork. The late style of Vermeer utilized a number of painting techniques, most of which suggest an abstract style, his fascination with objects and actions that portray movement and sound are represented by an approach to painting that establishes objects as diffused and illuminated. In his painting, Vermeer integrated the use of abstraction through the strum of the guitar strings and movement of the right hand; because this painting stayed with him until he died in 1675, we are to assume that this was his own stylistic direction, not a request of a patron.

In this painting, Vermeer depicts a young girl strumming a guitar. The instrument is placed comfortably on her lap while she plays near a window, sitting in the corner of a room, her attire is made up of an ermine-bordered yellow jacket, an ivory-colored satin dress, a pearl necklace. Surrounding her is a painted pastoral landscape bordered by an extravagant picture frame, a blank wall, three books, a guitar. Prior to this painting, Vermeer portrayed individuals with obscure expressions. On the contrary, this young girl has an open expression, joyous and flirtatious; the girl's smile and tipped head, along with the fixed gaze on something just outside the painting suggests that she is playing not for us, but for an unseen individual. Her dress and hairstyle reflect the relevant fashions of the wealthy Dutch, in that day; the young girl is portrayed with wholesome features and a free expression, as if she is in the act of speaking or singing. The joyous demeanor established in this painting is conveyed through the young girl's self expression, the peaceful landscape pictured behind her, the soft tones of light and dark.

Due to these factors, Vermeer is able to provoke feelings of contentment. The morning jacket portrayed in this painting resembles five separate Vermeer paintings, three of which are A Lady Writing a Letter and Maid, Woman with a Pearl Necklace. In each painting, the jacket depicts different types of folds, distribution of spots, fur trim; the thin patches of gray and yellow led-tin paint categorize the abstract pattern that establishes the folds in the jackets fabric and fur trim. Vermeer's devotion to painting light and shade can be acknowledged through the inclusion of dark brown shadows painted on the young musicians right arm and shoulder. From a distance these small patches seem blended, but they are laying side-by-side. Historians conclude that the fur on Vermeer's morning jacket was not made from ermine, but either cat, squirrel, or mouse; the fur was decorated with faux spots. The jacket in The Guitar Player is one of the few surviving examples of 17th century overcoats; the depiction of a satin dress implies a life of luxury.

The young girls gown is starched satin. For the dress to appear heavy and shimmery, the material was stiffened with starch and ironed; the act of painting fine materials such as satin, took talent. To realistically represent luxurious materials, the artist had to be able to depict small details in the folds and patterns of the dress. To complete such a task, the artist set up a life-sized wooden manikin dressed in the garments. Vermeer's depiction of a pearl necklace alludes t


A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.

Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.

This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.

While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books

High Street Phoenix

High Street Phoenix known as Phoenix Mall, is one of the largest shopping malls in India, situated in Lower Parel, Mumbai. Its gross floor area is 3,300,000 square feet, it is a luxurious mall in Parel, featuring luxury brands like H&M, etc.. In addition to the mall, the compound hosts a five-star hotel, a multiplex, commercial space and a residential tower; the mall consists of SkyZone and Grand Galleria. South Asia's largest 20 lane bowling concourse, was first started here in 1996. India's first Hyper market concept Big Bazaar was introduced in 2001 at High Street Phoenix. Phoenix Mills was started in 1905 to manufacture cotton textiles in Bombay; the company, listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange since 1959, is owned by the Ruia family. In 1938, the British government ordered firing at workers who were peacefully protesting the proposed Bombay Trades Disputes Bill; the workers at Phoenix Mills went on strike between 11 April 1939 and 1 November 1939, demanding an increase in pay. Phoenix was affected by the general strike that shut down all mills in Mumbai for over a year in 1982–83.

Mumbai's mills went through a turbulent time in the 1980s and'90s owing to labour unrest in addition to higher operating costs of a mill inside Mumbai, making mills such as Phoenix loss-making and nonviable entities. The management chose redevelopment of mill land. Sections of the mill were still operational when redevelopment began with the establishment of the Bowling Co. Workers were unhappy with the management's decision. In 2005, The Phoenix Mills celebrated its 100th anniversary. Phoenix was one of the first mill companies to go in for redevelopment. While existing structures have been retained due to government rules, they have been refurbished and additional structures have been built around them in phases. In 1977, a fire destroyed its spinning units and the company decided to replace the area with a 28-story residential tower which came up in 1992. By the late 1990s, Bowling Co, India's first bowling company and sports bar, a night club and Ice, had been built at Phoenix mills, facing trouble with keeping afloat as a mill.

Standard Chartered Bank too moved its offices into Phoenix Mills, taking a 30,000-square-foot area in 1998. In 2007, Phoenix joined up with Shangri-La Hotels and Resorts to run a five-star hotel for them in the Phoenix Mills compound. Today, High Street Phoenix, divided into the Palladium and Grand Galleria, hosts brands such as OnePlus, Bath & Body Works, Zara, Hamleys at the higher end and Big Bazaar at the lower end. PVR Cinemas runs a multiplex at Phoenix. In 2007, Phoenix Mills announced the development of Market Cities in Mumbai, Pune and Chennai. In Bangalore they have developed the residential project named as One Bangalore West in the heart of the city, Rajajinagar, listed amongst the tallest building in Bangalore. In Pune they are developing a residential property named as Phoenix Fountainhead near by Phoenix Market City. List of shopping malls in India High Street Phoenix Take a virtual tour of High Street Phoenix Fountainhead- Luxury Residential project in Pune by Phoenix Group