William Penn Adair Will Rogers was a stage and motion picture actor, vaudeville performer, American cowboy, newspaper columnist, and social commentator. Known as Oklahomas Favorite Son, Rogers was born to a prominent Cherokee Nation family in Indian Territory and he traveled around the world three times, made 71 movies, and wrote more than 4,000 nationally syndicated newspaper columns. By the mid-1930s, the American people adored Rogers and he was the leading political wit of his time, and was the highest paid Hollywood movie star. Rogers died in 1935 with aviator Wiley Post, when their airplane crashed in northern Alaska. Rogerss vaudeville rope act led to success in the Ziegfeld Follies and his 1920s syndicated newspaper column and his radio appearances increased his visibility and popularity. Rogers crusaded for aviation expansion, and provided Americans with first-hand accounts of his world travels and his aphorisms, couched in humorous terms, were widely quoted, I am not a member of an organized political party.
Another widely quoted Will Rogers comment was I dont make jokes, I just watch the government and report the facts. I am so proud of that, I can hardly wait to die so it can be carved, Rogers was born on the Dog Iron Ranch in Indian Territory, near present-day Oologah, Oklahoma. The house he was born in had been built in 1875 and was known as the White House on the Verdigris River and his parents, Clement Vann Rogers and Mary America Schrimsher, were both of part Cherokee ancestry, making Rogers himself 9/32 Cherokee. Rogers quipped that his ancestors did not come over on the Mayflower and his mother was quarter-Cherokee and a hereditary member of the Paint Clan. She died when Will was 11, and his father remarried less than two years after her death, Rogers was the youngest of eight children. He was named for the Cherokee leader Col. William Penn Adair, only three of his siblings, sisters Sallie Clementine, Maude Ethel, and May, survived into adulthood. His father, was a leader within Cherokee society, a Cherokee judge, he was a Confederate veteran and served as a delegate to the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention.
Rogers County, Oklahoma, is named in honor of Clement Rogers and he served several terms on the Cherokee Senate. Clement Rogers achieved financial success as a rancher and used his influence to help soften the effects of white acculturation on the tribe. Roach presents a sociological-psychological assessment of the relationship between Will and his father during the formative boyhood and teenage years, Clement had high expectations for his son and desired him to be more responsible and business-minded. Will was more easygoing and oriented toward the loving affection offered by his mother, the personality clash increased after his mothers death, and young Will went from one venture to another with little success. Only after Will won acclaim in vaudeville did the rift begin to heal, will Rogers attended school at the Willow Hassel School at Neosho and Kemper Military School at Boonville, Missouri
Mariachi is a musical expression that dates back to at least 18th century Western Mexico. Modifications of the music include influences from music such as polkas and waltzes, the addition of trumpets. The musical style began to take on national prominence in the first half of the 20th century, with its promotion at presidential inaugurations, in 2011 UNESCO recognized mariachi as an Intangible Cultural Heritage, joining six others of this list from Mexico. The origin of the word is disputed, but prominent theories attribute it to indigenous roots, one states that it comes from the name of the wood used to make the dance platform. Another states that mariachi comes from the name of a tree called pilla or cirimo. In many Mexican cultures they are called Marietti, Mariachi can refer to the music, the group, or just one musician. The word mariachi was thought to have derived from the French word marriage, dating from the French intervention in Mexico in the 1860s and this was a common explanation on record jackets and travel brochures.
This theory was disproven with the appearance of documents that showed that the word existed before this invasion, prior to the arrival of the Spanish, indigenous music was played with rattles, drums and conch-shell horns as part of religious celebrations. The Spanish introduced violins, harps, brass instruments, and woodwinds, the Europeans introduced their instruments to use during Mass, but they were quickly adapted to secular events. Indigenous and mestizo peoples learned to play and make these instruments, often giving them modified shapes, in addition to instruments, the Spanish introduced the concept of musical groups—which, in the colonial period, generally consisted of two violins, a harp, and various guitars. This grouping gave rise to a number of musical styles in Mexico. One of these musical styles was the son. Modern mariachi music developed from this son style, with “mariachi” as a name for son jaliscense. Those who could play the son jaliscense/mariachi music could find work at haciendas at a higher rate than those who could not, the distinction of mariachi from the older son jaliscense occurred slowly sometime during the 19th century.
The music originated in the center-west of Mexico, most claims for its origin lie in the state of Jalisco but neighboring states of Colima and Michoacán have claimed it. However, by the late 19th century, the music was firmly centered in Jalisco, most legends put the origin of the modern mariachi in the town of Cocula, Jalisco. The distinction from son to modern mariachi comes from the modification of the music, one variety was the salon orchestras called orquestas típicas that performed in more rural settings, notably in charro outfits. This use of the outfit was repeated with urban mariachi in the 1920s
A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the cultural properties represent the combined works of nature and of man. The concept of cultural landscapes can be found in the European tradition of landscape painting, the word landscape itself combines land with a verb of Germanic origin, scapjan/ schaffen to mean, shaped lands. Lands were considered shaped by natural forces, and the details of such landshaffen became themselves the subject of landscape paintings. The geographer Otto Schlüter is credited with having first formally used “cultural landscape” as a term in the early 20th century. In 1908, Schlüter argued that by defining geography as a Landschaftskunde this would give geography a logical subject matter shared by no other discipline. He defined two forms of landscape, the Urlandschaft or landscape that existed before major human induced changes, the major task of geography was to trace the changes in these two landscapes. It was Carl O. Sauer, a geographer, who was probably the most influential in promoting and developing the idea of cultural landscapes.
Sauer was determined to stress the agency of culture as a force in shaping the visible features of the Earth’s surface in delimited areas, within his definition, the physical environment retains a central significance, as the medium with and through which human cultures act. His classic definition of a cultural landscape reads as follows, “The cultural landscape is fashioned from a landscape by a cultural group. There is still a dominant view of landscapes as a surface, akin to a map or a text, from which cultural meaning. Within academia, any system of interaction between human activity and natural habitat is regarded as a cultural landscape, the mountains at the heart of the park have cultural and religious significance for the Maori people and symbolize the spiritual links between this community and its environment. The park has active and extinct volcanoes, a range of ecosystems. This park, formerly called Uluru National Park, features spectacular geological formations that dominate the vast red sandy plain of central Australia.
Uluru, a monolith, and Kata Tjuta, the rock domes located west of Uluru. The traditional owners of Uluru-Kata Tjuta are the Anangu Aboriginal people, for 2,000 years, the high rice fields of the Ifugao have followed the contours of the mountains. In the 19th century Sintra became the first centre of European Romantic architecture, the Ligurian coast between Cinque Terre and Portovenere is a cultural landscape of great scenic and cultural value. Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe, the first Hungarian national park, it is the countrys largest protected area. A significant part of it is Biosphere Reserve and a quarter of its area enjoys international protection under the Ramsar Convention on the conservation of wetlands, the area exhibits a profusion of distinctive rock landforms rising above the granite shield that covers much of Zimbabwe
United States Army Reserve
The United States Army Reserve is the federal reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the Army element of the Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. On 30 June 2016, Lieutenant General Charles D. Luckey became the 33rd Chief of Army Reserve, on 23 April 1908 Congress created the Medical Reserve Corps, the official predecessor of the Army Reserve. This organization provided a pool of trained Reserve officers and enlisted men for use in war. The Organized Reserve included the Officers Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, the Organized Reserves were redesignated 25 March 1948 as the Organized Reserve Corps. Recognizing the importance of the Organized Reserve to the World War II effort, Congress authorized retirement, a tentative troop basis for the Organized Reserve Corps, prepared in March 1946, outlined 25 divisions, three armored, five airborne, and 17 infantry. These divisions and all other Organized Reserve Corps units were to be maintained in one of three categories, labeled Class A, Class B, and Class C.
The troop basis listed nine divisions as Class A, nine as Class B, eventually the War Department agreed and made the appropriate changes. Although the dispute over Class A units lasted several months, the War Department proceeded with the reorganization of the Organized Reserve Corps divisions during the summer of 1946. That all divisions were to begin as Class C units, progressing to the categories as men and equipment became available. Also, the War Department wanted to take advantage of the pool of trained reserve officers, by that time Army Ground Forces had been reorganized as an army group headquarters that commanded six geographic armies. The armies replaced the nine areas of the prewar era. The First United States Army declined to support a division. After the change, the Organized Reserve Corps had four airborne, the Second Army insisted upon the number 80 for its airborne unit because the division was to be raised in the prewar 80th Divisions area, not that of the 99th. Finally, the 103rd Infantry Division, organized in 1921 in New Mexico and Arizona, was moved to Iowa, South Dakota, a major problem in forming divisions and other units in the Organized Reserve Corps was adequate housing.
While many National Guard units owned their own armories, some dating back to the nineteenth century, although the War Department requested funds for needed facilities, Congress moved slowly in response. During the summer and fall of 1951 the six army commanders in the United States, staff agencies, the army commanders urged that all divisions in the Organized Reserve Corps be infantry divisions because they believed that the reserves could not adequately support armored and airborne training. They thought thirteen, rather than twelve, reserve divisions should be maintained to provide a geographic distribution of the units
Spanish missions in California
The missions were part of a major effort by the Spanish Empire to extend colonization into the most northern and western parts of Spains North American claims. Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, Mexico achieved independence in 1821, taking Alta California along with it, but the missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of vast land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the mission system controlled an area equal to approximately one-sixth of Alta California. The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833 and this divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives, to convert, today, the surviving mission buildings are the states oldest structures, and its most-visited historic monuments. Prior to 1754, grants of lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown.
The missions were to be interconnected by a route which became known as the Camino Real. The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serras death in 1784. Plans to build a mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a mother mission, in addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. California was months away from the nearest base in colonized Mexico, to sustain a mission, the padres required converted Native Americans, called neophytes, to cultivate crops and tend livestock in the volume needed to support a fair-sized establishment. The scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the missionaries to employ simple building materials, although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of priestly whim.
The padres blessed the site, and with the aid of their military escort fashioned temporary shelters out of tree limbs or driven stakes and it was these simple huts that ultimately gave way to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present. The first priority when beginning a settlement was the location and construction of the church, once the spot for the church had been selected, its position was marked and the remainder of the mission complex was laid out. The cuadrángulo was rarely a perfect square because the missionaries had no surveying instruments at their disposal and it was a doctrine established in 1531, which based the Spanish states right over the land and persons of the Indies on the Papal charge to evangelize them. It was employed wherever the indigenous populations were not already concentrated in native pueblos, the civilized and disciplined culture of the natives, developed over 8,000 year, was not considered. A total of 146 Friars Minor, mostly Spaniards by birth, were ordained as priests, sixty-seven missionaries died at their posts, while the remainder returned to Europe due to illness, or upon completing their ten-year service commitment
Spencer Bonaventure Tracy was an American actor, noted for his natural style and versatility. One of the stars of Hollywoods Golden Age, Tracy was nominated for nine Academy Awards for Best Actor. Tracy first discovered his talent for acting while attending Ripon College and he spent seven years in the theatre, working in a succession of stock companies and intermittently on Broadway. Tracys breakthrough came in 1930, when his performance in The Last Mile caught the attention of Hollywood. After a successful debut in Up the River, Tracy was signed to a contract with Fox Film Corporation. His five years with Fox were unremarkable, and he remained unknown to audiences after 25 films. In 1935 Tracy joined Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, at the time Hollywoods most prestigious studio and his career flourished with a series of hit films, and in 1937 and 1938 he won consecutive Oscars for Captains Courageous and Boys Town. By the 1940s, Tracy was one of the top stars. In 1942 he appeared with Katharine Hepburn in Woman of the Year, Tracy left MGM in 1955 and continued to work regularly as a freelance star, despite an increasing weariness as he aged.
His personal life was troubled, with a struggle against alcoholism. Tracy became estranged from his wife in the 1930s, but never divorced, towards the end of his life, Tracy worked almost exclusively for director Stanley Kramer. It was for Kramer that he made his last film, Guess Whos Coming to Dinner in 1967, during his career, Tracy appeared in 75 films and developed a reputation among his peers as one of the screens greatest actors. In 1999 the American Film Institute ranked Tracy as the 9th greatest male star of Classic Hollywood Cinema, Tracy was born on April 5,1900, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. He was the son of Caroline and John Edward Tracy. His mother was a Presbyterian from a wealthy Midwestern family, and his one brother, was four years older. Spencer was a difficult and hyperactive child with poor school attendance, raised as a Catholic, at nine years old he was placed in the care of Dominican nuns in the hope of transforming his behavior. Later in life he remarked, I never would have back to school if there had been any other way of learning to read the subtitles in the movies.
He became fascinated with motion pictures, watching the same ones repeatedly and re-enacting scenes to his friends, Tracy attended several Jesuit academies in his teenage years, which he claimed took the badness out of him and helped him improve his grades
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California. As of 2013 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated Santa Cruzs population at 62,864, Santa Cruz is known for its moderate climate, the natural beauty of its coastline, redwood forests, alternative community lifestyles, and socially liberal leanings. The present-day site of Santa Cruz was the location of Spanish settlement beginning in 1791, including Mission Santa Cruz, following the Mexican–American War of 1846–48, California became the 31st state in 1850. The City of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1866 and chartered in April 1876, important early industries included lumber, gunpowder and agriculture. Late in the 19th century, Santa Cruz established itself as a resort community. Prior to the arrival of Spanish soldiers and colonists in the late 18th century, the diverse and numerous tribes of this region were earlier referred to by the Spanish as Coastanoan. The term Ohlone has been used in place of Costanoan since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature.
Awaswa was one of the eight Coastanoan languages and made up a tribe of Native Americas living in Western Santa Cruz County, the Awaswas tribe was made up of no more than one thousand people and their language is now extinct. The only remnants of their language are three local place names, Aptos and Zayante, and the name of a native shellfish - abalone. The majority of Ohlone or Coastanoan tribes had no written language, within fifty years of the Spaniards arrival, the Ohlone or Coastanoan culture and way of life had virtually disappeared in the Bay area. The party forded the river and camped nearby on October 17,1769, franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, This river was named San Lorenzo. Next morning, the set out again, and Crespi noted that. Santa Cruz was the mission to be founded in California. The creek, lost the name, and is today as Laurel Creek because it parallels Laurel Street. It is the feeder of Neary Lagoon. One of only three towns established in California during the Spanish colonial period, the Villa was located across the San Lorenzo River.
Its original main street is now North Branciforte Avenue, Villa de Branciforte lost its civic status, and in 1905 the area was annexed into the City of Santa Cruz. In the 1820s, newly independent Mexico assumed control of the area, following the secularization of the Mission in 1834, the community that had grown up around the Mission was renamed Pueblo de Figueroa
Spanish Colonial Revival architecture
The Panama-California Exposition of 1915 in San Diego, highlighting the work of architect Bertram Goodhue, is credited with giving the style national exposure. Embraced principally in California and Florida, the Spanish Colonial Revival movement enjoyed its greatest popularity between 1915 and 1931, the antecedents of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style can be traced to the Mediterranean Revival architectural style. The possibilities of the Spanish Colonial Revival Style were brought to the attention of architects attending late 19th and they integrated porticoes and colonnades influenced by Beaux Arts classicism as well. By the early years of the 1910s, architects in Florida had begun to work in a Spanish Colonial Revival style, Frederick H. Trimbles Farmers Bank in Vero Beach, completed in 1914, is a fully mature early example of the style. The city of St. Cloud, espoused the style both for homes and commercial structures and has a collection of subtle stucco buildings reminiscent of colonial Mexico.
Many of these were designed by architectural partners Ida Annah Ryan, the major location of design and construction in the Spanish Colonial Revival style was California, especially in the coastal cities. In 1915 the San Diego Panama-California Exposition, with architects Bertram Goodhue and Carleton Winslow Sr. popularized the style in the state and it is best exemplified in the California Quadrangle, built as the grand entrance to that Exposition. In the early 1920s, architect Lilian Jeannette Rice designed the style in the development of the town of Rancho Santa Fe in San Diego County, the city of Santa Barbara adopted the style to give it a unified Spanish character after widespread destruction in the 1925 Santa Barbara earthquake. Its County Courthouse is an example of the style. Real estate developer Ole Hanson favored the Spanish Colonial Revival style in his founding and development of San Clemente, the Pasadena City Hall, as well as the Sonoma and Beverly Hills City Halls are other notable civic examples in California.
Between 1922 and 1931, architect Robert H. Spurgeon constructed 32 Spanish colonial revival houses in Riverside California, many houses of this style can still be seen in the Colonia Nápoles, Condesa and Lomas de Chapultepec areas of Mexico City. By the time the United States liberated the Philippines from the Spaniards, American architects further developed this style in the Philippines, given the Philippines Spanish heritage, but at the same time modernizing the buildings with American amenities. The best example of the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture and California mission style is the famed Manila Hotel designed by William E. Parsons and built in 1909. Other examples exist throughout the country such as Gota de Leche, Paco Market, the majority of these buildings though were lost through earthquakes and most especially during World War II when the Americans bombed Manila to counter the Japanese. Mediterranean style became popular in places like Sydney suburbs Manly and Bondi in the 1920s and 1930s.
One variant, known as Spanish Mission or Hollywood Spanish, became popular as Australians saw films of, Spanish mission houses began to appear in the wealthier suburbs, the most famous being Boomerang, at Elizabeth Bay. The Plaza Theatre in Sydney is a cinema in the style. In the 1930s, numerous houses in Spanish Revival style were built in Shanghai, although Shanghai was not culturally linked to the Spanish-speaking world, these buildings were probably inspired by Hollywood movies, which were highly influential in the city at the time
United States Army
The United States Armed Forces are the federal armed forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, from the time of its inception, the military played a decisive role in the history of the United States. A sense of unity and identity was forged as a result of victory in the First Barbary War. Even so, the Founders were suspicious of a permanent military force and it played an important role in the American Civil War, where leading generals on both sides were picked from members of the United States military. Not until the outbreak of World War II did a standing army become officially established. The National Security Act of 1947, adopted following World War II and during the Cold Wars onset, the U. S. military is one of the largest militaries in terms of number of personnel. It draws its personnel from a pool of paid volunteers. As of 2016, the United States spends about $580.3 billion annually to fund its military forces, put together, the United States constitutes roughly 40 percent of the worlds military expenditures.
For the period 2010–14, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute found that the United States was the worlds largest exporter of major arms, the United States was the worlds eighth largest importer of major weapons for the same period. The history of the U. S. military dates to 1775 and these forces demobilized in 1784 after the Treaty of Paris ended the War for Independence. All three services trace their origins to the founding of the Continental Army, the Continental Navy, the United States President is the U. S. militarys commander-in-chief. Rising tensions at various times with Britain and France and the ensuing Quasi-War and War of 1812 quickened the development of the U. S. Navy, the reserve branches formed a military strategic reserve during the Cold War, to be called into service in case of war. Time magazines Mark Thompson has suggested that with the War on Terror, Command over the armed forces is established in the United States Constitution. The sole power of command is vested in the President by Article II as Commander-in-Chief, the Constitution allows for the creation of executive Departments headed principal officers whose opinion the President can require.
This allowance in the Constitution formed the basis for creation of the Department of Defense in 1947 by the National Security Act, the Defense Department is headed by the Secretary of Defense, who is a civilian and member of the Cabinet. The Defense Secretary is second in the chain of command, just below the President. Together, the President and the Secretary of Defense comprise the National Command Authority, to coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor. The collective body has only power to the President