Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination. Alexandria was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 332 BC by Alexander the Great, king of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexandria became an important center of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat. Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Alexandria was at one time the second most powerful city of the ancient Mediterranean region, after Rome.
Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, during the Ptolemaic dynasty. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. Although it has long been believed only a small village there, recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show significant human activity at the location for two millennia preceding Alexandria's founding.
Alexandria was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks and Syrians; the city was plundered and lost its significance. In the early Christian Church, the city was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, one of the major centers of early Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands; as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis existed on the shore and gave its name to Alexandria in the Egyptian language, it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy, continued the expansion.
Following a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy Lagides succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was lost after being separated from its burial site there. Although Cleomenes was in charge of overseeing Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters seem to have been Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome, it became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world; the Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning, but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek and Egyptian.
By the time of Augustus, the city walls encompassed an area of 5.34 km2, the total population in Roman times was around 500-600,000. According to Philo of Alexandria, in the year 38 of the Common era, disturbances erupted between Jews and Greek citizens of Alexandria during a visit paid by the Jewish king Agrippa I to Alexandria, principally over the respect paid by the Jewish nation to the Roman emperor, which escalated to open affronts and violence between the two ethnic groups and the desecration of Alexandrian synagogues; the violence was quelled after Caligula intervened and had the Roman governor, removed from the city. In AD 115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. In 215, the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Mercurius was a Christian saint and a martyr. He was born in the city of Eskentos in Eastern Asia Minor. St. Mercurius was born around 225 A. D. in Cappadocia. His parents were converts to Christianity and they called him "Philopater" or "Philopatyr", they reared him in a Christian manner. When he grew to adulthood, he enlisted in the Roman army during the days of Emperor Decius, the pagan; the Lord gave Philopater the strength and the courage, he gained a great reputation among his superiors as a swordsman and a good tactician for many battles. They called him Mercurius and he grew close to the Emperor. Saint Mercurius is known by the name Abu-Seifein, which in Arabic means "the holder of two swords," referring to a second sword given to him, by the Archangel Michael, he was given this name by The Berbers. Some accounts state. However, others refer to Rome as his place of birth. Philopater was the son of a Scythian officer in the Roman army. One day, while Yares was hunting in the forest with his father, the two were attacked by an animal.
The animal jumped on Yares' father. While Yares was unconscious, he had a vision with a brilliant light and a voice saying:Yares, I am your God who loves you. I know that you hate the pagan idols. I want to inform you that your son, will become like a tree bearing good fruits, because of him, I will bless you and your wife. Philopatyr will defy all prejudice in my name. Yares, his wife, his son were baptized shortly after. All three were given new names. Yares became Noah, his wife became Saphina, Mercurius became Philopater. News of their baptism spread in the city and the prince ordered them to be arrested and thrown to wild animals. However, the animals did not harm them and the prince decided to release Noah and his family; when the Berbers attacked, Noah went to fight them. He was brought to their country where he was kept for seventeen months; when the war ended, he went back to his city and joined his family, but died shortly after. St. Philopater Mercurius is said to be the cousin of St. George of Cappadocia.
After the death of Noah, the pagan Roman Emperor Decius chose Mercurius to replace his father. Described as strong and courageous, Mercurius earned the respect of his fellow soldiers and gained renown as a swordsman; when the Berbers attacked Rome, Decius went out to fight them but became afraid when he saw how many there were. Mercurius came to him and said, "Do not be afraid, because God will kill our enemies and will bring us victory."After several days of fighting, the Archangel Michael appeared to Mercurius holding a shining sword. The saint took the sword from the archangel, hence the name Abu-Seifein - "the holder of two swords": a military sword and a divine sword, he conquered the Berbers. When Decius heard news of the triumphant victory, he named Mercurius as a prince. Nonetheless, in 249, Decius began his persecution of Christians, compelling everyone to offer sacrifices to his pagan gods; the Archangel Michael appeared to Mercurius and told him to remember God and not be fearful of persecution.
The saint was encouraged and spent the whole night praying fervently, confessing his weakness to God. The Emperor sent messengers to summon Mercurius to the palace, saying: "Dear Mercurius, let us go offer incense to the gods who helped us attain victory in the war." As they were leaving, Mercurius went away. However, one of the guards reported his absence, the Emperor called Mercurius and asked him: "Is it true that you refused to worship the idols who helped us during the war?" Mercurius declared himself a Christian, saying, "I do not worship anyone except my Lord and my God, Jesus Christ."The Emperor tried to persuade him to give up his faith but failed. He ordered Mercurius to be stripped of his rank and tortured. Fearing a revolt because the people loved Mercurius, the emperor had him bound in iron fetters and sent him to Caesarea. Mercurius was beheaded on 4 December 250 AD, he was only 25 years old. After the end of the first persecution, the place of the saint's burial was revealed. Mercurius appeared to a poor man in the city and told him that he was "Mercurius, the Martyr of the Lord."
"My body is buried under the old house on the way to the royal palace. My body looks as white as snow, because Jesus was present at the time of my martyrdom," said the saint; the next morning, the man went to dig under the old house. He began seeing the body of the saint; the news spread and many people came to take a look at the blessed body. They moved it temporarily to the local church until they built a new church bearing his name where Mercurius' body was buried with respect and devotion. A few years the Catholicos of Armenia and the Chief bishop of the Armenian Apostolic Church, visited Egypt and met with the Patriarch of Alexandria, the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church; the latter asked him if Egypt could have part of the relics of Saint Mercurius to be placed in the church that bears his name in Egypt. On 9 Paoni, part of the blessed relics of Saint Mercurius were transferred to Egypt. According to one tradition, Saint Basil once prayed before an icon on which Mercurius was portrayed as a soldier carrying a spear.
He asked God not to permit the emperor Julian the Apostate to return from his war against the Persians and resume his oppression of Chr
The Coptic Museum is a museum in Coptic Cairo, Egypt with the largest collection of Egyptian Christian artifacts in the world. It was founded by Marcus Simaika in 1908 to house Coptic antiquities; the museum traces the history of Egypt from its beginnings to the present day. It was erected on 8,000 square meter land offered by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, under the guardianship of Pope Cyril V; the Coptic museum houses the world's most important examples of Coptic art. In 1908, after receiving approval and a number of silver antiquities from Patriarch Cyril V and raising funds by public subscription, Marcus Simaika Pasha built the Coptic Museum and inaugurated it on 14 March 1910; the Coptic community was generous in their support of the museum, donating many vestments and icons. In 1931 the Coptic Museum became a state museum, under the jurisdiction of the Department of Antiquities, in 1939 the collection of Christian antiquities in the Egyptian Museum was moved there; these were housed in the New Wing, completed in 1944.
Because of damage, the Old Wing was closed in 1966, the entire museum was renovated between 1983 and 1984. The foundations of the museum were strengthened and reinforced between 1986 and 1988, which helped the museum survive the 1992 earthquake. Further renovations took place in 2005-06. Marcus Simaika Pasha was followed by Dr Togo Mina and by Dr Pahor Labib, the first to have the title of Director of the Coptic Museum. Besides the museum buildings, there are gardens and courtyards and the area is surrounded by old Coptic churches. There are six churches, some which have origins as early as the 5th century AD; these old edifices include the church of St. Sergius; the Coptic Museum's grounds are a tranquil place. Its airy building is decorated with old mashrabiya screens; the museum houses an extensive collection of objects from the Christian era, which links the Pharaonic and Islamic periods. The artefacts on display illustrate a period of Egypt's history, neglected and they show how the artistic development of the Coptic culture was influenced by the pharaonic, Graeco-Roman and Islamic cultures.
The museum was renovated in the early 1980 with two new annexes, which with the original aisles, houses the collection of 16,000 artefacts arranged in chronological order through twelve sections. The Coptic Museum contains the world's largest collection of Coptic artifacts and artwork. Coptic monuments display a rich mixture of Egyptian, Roman and Ottoman traditions, linking ancient and Islamic Egypt; the objects are grouped into different mediums, such as stonework, metalwork and manuscripts. The total number of objects on display is around 15,000 objects; the Coptic Museum houses a corpus of 1,200 Nag Hammadi manuscripts in a library open to specialist researchers only. Coptic art Coptic Orthodox Church Coptic history Coptology Coptic Museum website Kamil, Jill. "Coptic Museum countdown". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 25 March 2013. Kamel, Seif. Coptic Museum in Cairo. Tour Egypt. Kamil, Jill. Coptic Egypt: History and a Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 978-977-424-242-7.
Meinardus, Otto F. A.. Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity. Cairo: American University in Cairo. ISBN 978-977-424-511-4. Simaika, Samir M.. Markus Pasha Simaika, his life and times. Cairo: Farid Atiya Press
The Mokattam known as the Mukattam Mountain or Hills, is the name of a range of hills and a suburb in them, located in southeastern Cairo, Egypt. The Arabic name Mokattam, which means cut off or broken off, refers to how the low range of hills is divided into three sections; the highest segment is a low mountain landform called Moqattam Mountain. In the past the low mountain range was an important ancient Egyptian quarry site for limestone, used in the construction of temples and pyramids; the hills are in the region of ancient Fustat, the new capital founded by'Amr ibn al-'As after the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 642 CE. In direct contrast to Zamalek, an affluent, nearby city, in Mokattam, residents live in the midst of the city's garbage-the garbage collection system for Cairo is located on the road that leads to the Coptic church in the quarry; the Zabbaleen people, who are an integral part of collecting and processing Cairo's municipal solid waste, live in Manshiyat Naser, Garbage City, at the foot of the Mokattam Hills.
Mokattam is known in the Coptic Church, as it is believed to have moved up and down when the Coptic Pope Abraham of Alexandria performed a mass near it in order to prove to the Caliph that the Gospel is true, when it says that "if one has faith like a grain of mustard one can move a mountain". The name "Broken off Mountain" may be related to the fact that in the story the mountain breaks off from the underlying rock and rises up, before coming back down. City of the Dead, Islamic necropolis and cemetery List of types of limestone, ancient Egyptians quarried limestone in the hills Al Mokattam Official Website
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral
St. Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral is a Coptic church located in the Abbassia District in Cairo, Egypt; the cathedral is the Seat of the Coptic Orthodox Pope. It was built during the time when Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria was Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church, was inaugurated by him in 1969; the church is dedicated to St Mark the Evangelist, an apostle of Jesus and founder of the Coptic Church. Relics of his life are kept inside, it is by far the largest cathedral in the Middle East. On Palm Sunday, 9 April 2017, an Islamic State operative detonated his suicide belt in the cathedral, killing 17 people and wounding 48; the land where the Cathedral stands has been used for centuries as a cemetery for the Copts. Rumors persist that the land had been of the Tomb of Alexander the Great, as that landmark disappeared from record at the same time that this church was erected; the land had been given to the Coptic Orthodox Church in 969 by Gawhar. This land was given as a replacement for the land, taken from the church to be included in building the Palace of Ma'ad al-Muizz Li-Deenillah as part of the planning of the new capital of Egypt, Cairo.
During the twelfth century the area contained ten Coptic churches, but during the rule of Qalawun on 18 February 1280 the churches were destroyed by muslims who persecute the Copts. Two churches were subsequently built in the area under the rule of his son. In 1943 the governorate of Cairo attempted to expropriate the area for public use; this was opposed by the General Congregation Council led by its secretary at the time Habib Elmasry. The campaign proved successful as the Coptic Church maintained control of the land under the condition that a non-profit building be built on it in the following fifteen years; this condition spurred the building of the cathedral. The cathedral is where Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria has his office, thus security is high here. However, on 11 December 2016, during the Muslim festival of Mawlid, the chapel near the cathedral was the venue of a islamic terrorist attack that killed at least 25 people, most of them women and children; this attack is a copy cat of various other earlier attacks against Coptic churches in Egypt The cathedral is considered a unique example of architectural evolution which includes seven churches of which some have a great historic value such as Anba Rouis' Church.
The Cathedral represents the rapid development of Coptic architecture, the famous Coptic civil engineer Michel Bakhoum contributed in its structural design. It has a capacity for 5,000 worshipers. Before the completion of the Cathedral, the Roman Catholic pontiff of the time, Pope Paul VI, returned part of St. Mark's relics, which were stolen from Egypt in the year 828 to Venice, Italy; these relics were taken to the newly constructed Cathedral, where they were placed in a specially-built shrine brightly decorated with Coptic icons, where they have remained until the present time. The inauguration of the new Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral took place on 25 June 1968 in a ceremony attended by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie, among other foreign clergy members from other churches, it is the See of St. Mark. Athanasius of Alexandria Botroseya Church bombing / 2016 Cairo Church bombing 2017 Palm Sunday church bombings List of large Orthodox cathedrals
A Marian apparition is a reported supernatural appearance by the Blessed Virgin Mary. The figure is named after the town where it is reported, or on the sobriquet given to Mary on the occasion of the apparition. Marian apparitions sometimes are reported to recur at the same site over an extended period of time. In the majority of Marian apparitions only one person or a few people report having witnessed the apparition. Exceptions to this include Zeitoun, Assiut where thousands claimed to have seen her over a period of time; some Marian apparitions and their respective icons have received a Canonical coronation from the Pope, most notably Our Lady of Lourdes, Our Lady of Fátima, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of Manaoag, Our Lady of the Pillar, Our Lady of Walsingham, many others. Sandra L. Zimdars-Swartz describes an "apparition" as "a specific kind of vision in which a person or being not within the visionary's perceptual range appears to that person, not in a world apart as in a dream...but as part of the environment, without apparent connection to verifiable visual stimuli."
According to Zimdars-Swartz, since the increase in Western Christianity in the tenth and eleventh centuries of devotion to the Mother of God, the figure most seen has been the Virgin Mary. Robert Orsi states that an apparition is a conjunction of transcendence and temporality where the transcendent breaks into time. A public, serial apparition is one in which a seer not only says that they have experienced a vision, but that they expect it will reoccur, people gather to observe. Zimdars-Swatrz notes that this appears to be a recent phenomenon. Up until about the seventeenth century, most reported apparitions happened when the individual was alone, or at least no one else was aware of its occurrence. In some apparitions an image is reported absent any verbal interaction. An example is the reported apparitions at Our Lady of Assiut in which many people reported a bright image atop a building. Photographs at times suggest the silhouette of a statue of the Virgin Mary but the images are subject to varying interpretations, critics suggest that they may just be due to various visual effects.
However, such image-like appearances are hardly reported for visions of Jesus and Mary. In most cases these involve some form of reported communication, and apparitions should be distinguished from interior locutions in which no visual contact is claimed. Interior locutions consist of inner voices. Interior locutions are not classified as apparitions. Physical contact is hardly reported as part of Marian apparitions. In rare cases, a physical artifact is reported in apparitions, such as the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, reported to have been miraculously imprinted on the cloak of Saint Juan Diego. According to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, the era of public revelation ended with the death of the last living Apostle. A Marian apparition, if deemed genuine by Church authority, is treated as private revelation that may emphasize some facet of the received public revelation for a specific purpose, but it can never add anything new to the deposit of faith; the Church may pronounce an apparition as worthy of belief, but belief is never required by divine faith.
The Holy See has confirmed the apparitions at Guadalupe, Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, Paris, La Salette, Lourdes, Fátima, Pontmain and Banneux. According to Father Salvatore M. Perrella of the Marianum Pontifical Institute in Rome, of the 295 reported apparitions studied by the Holy See through the centuries only 12 had been approved as of May 2008. Other apparitions continue to be approved at the local level, e.g. the December, 2010 local approval of the 19th-century apparitions of Our Lady of Good Help, the first recognized apparition in the United States. An authentic apparition is not believed to be a subjective experience, but a real and objective intervention of divine power; the purpose of such apparitions is to emphasize some aspect of the Christian message. The church states that cures and other miraculous events are not the purpose of Marian apparitions, but exist to validate and draw attention to the message. Apparitions of Mary are held as evidence of her continuing active presence in the life of the Church, through which she "cares for the brethren of her son who still journey on earth."Possibly the best-known apparition sites are Lourdes and Fátima Since 1862, over sixty medical cures associated with Lourdes have been certified as "miraculous" by the Catholic Church, which established its own Medical Bureau in 1883 to review and evaluate claims of cures.
Although an independent study of cures reported in the twentieth century noted that the number of reported cures had declined over the years due to advances in medical science as well as criteria that excluded some cures during a period of time, the results of the study published in 2012 concluded that some of the cures were "currently beyond our ken but still impressive effective, awaiting a scientific explanation." The Roman Catholic Church has instituted processes for formal investigation and recognition of apparitions. In 1978 the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith issued "Norms of the Congregation for Proceeding in Judging Alleged Apparitions and Revelations" containing the following provisions: The diocesan bishop can initiate a process on his own initiative or at the request of the faithful to investigate the facts of an