A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
The Happening (1967 film)
The Happening is a 1967 American crime film directed by Elliot Silverstein, starring Anthony Quinn, Michael Parks, George Maharis, Robert Walker Jr. Martha Hyer and Faye Dunaway, it tells the story of four hippies, holding him for ransom. The film is an anti-establishment story that questions the values of Middle America and the older generation. Four bored beach bums from Miami come across kids playing with toy guns, they chase one of them into a house, which, by chance, belongs to one Roc Delmonico, a former gangster, now retired from organized crime and has become a respectable businessman. Delmonico assumes it to be volunteers to go quietly; the hippies like the idea their leader, Taurus, a gigolo who lives off rich ladies. He and his accomplices, Sureshot and Sandy, drive off with Delmonico in the trunk of their car, they hide out and demand a ransom of $200,000. No one will pay the ransom—not Delmonico's unhappy wife, Monica, or his business partner, Fred, or Sam, his old mob boss; the frustrated crooks decide that it is hopeless, but Delmonico is so offended that he takes charge of his own kidnapping.
He raises the demand to $3 million, vowing to reveal secrets that will ruin Monica and Sam. The money is paid, whereupon the greedy Taurus suggests to Delmonico that they kill the others, leaving a two-way split. However, Delmonico knows not only that the boy cannot be trusted, but that the bank has marked the bills from the ransom and that the police will trace them. Delmonico walks away; when asked what he will do now, Delmonico responds, without looking back, "Who knows?" Only a minor success as a film, The Happening is most notable today both as one of Faye Dunaway's earliest films and for its self-titled theme song. Recorded by The Supremes, "The Happening" became a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 when released as a single on the Motown label. Another music piece, "The Fuzz", was used by several local area TV news programs in the United States and Canada in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a rearrangement of the same composition is still used by Brazil's Rede Globo national newscast Jornal Nacional, Televisa in Mexico for national newcast 24 Horas.
Anthony Quinn as Delmonico George Maharis as Taurus Michael Parks as Sureshot Robert Walker Jr. as Herby Martha Hyer as Monica Faye Dunaway as Sandy Jack Kruschen as the Inspector Oscar Homolka as Sam Milton Berle as Fred List of American films of 1967 The Happening on IMDb The Happening at AllMovie
Florence Glenda Chapman was an American singer. Ballard was the founding member of the popular Motown vocal female group the Supremes. Ballard sang including ten number-one hits. After being removed from the Supremes in 1967, Ballard tried an unsuccessful solo career with ABC Records before she was dropped from the label at the end of the decade. Ballard struggled with alcoholism and poverty for three years, she was making an attempt for a musical comeback when she died of a heart attack in February 1976 at the age of 32. Ballard's death was considered by one critic as "one of rock's greatest tragedies". Ballard was posthumously inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Supremes in 1988. Florence Glenda Ballard was born in Detroit, Michigan on June 30, 1943 to Lurlee and Jesse Ballard, as the ninth of fifteen children, her siblings were Bertie, Jesse, Jr. Gilbert, Barbara, Billy, Pat and Roy, her mother was a resident of Mississippi. Her father was born Jesse Lambert in Alabama.
Jesse Ballard left his adoptive parents at 13, soon engaged in an affair with Ballard's mother, only 14, in Rosetta. The Ballards moved to Detroit in 1929. Jesse soon worked at General Motors. Jesse, an amateur musician, helped instigate Florence's interest in singing. Financial difficulties forced the Ballard family to move to different Detroit neighborhoods. Named "Blondie" and "Flo" by family and friends, Ballard attended Northeastern High School and was coached vocally by Abraham Silver. Ballard met future singing partner Mary Wilson during a middle-school talent show and they became friends while attending Northeastern High. From an early age, Ballard aspired to be a singer and agreed to audition for a spot on a sister group of the local Detroit attraction, the Primes, who were managed by Milton Jenkins. After she was accepted, Ballard recruited Mary Wilson to join Jenkins' group. Wilson, in turn, enlisted another neighbor, Diana Ross going by "Diane". Betty McGlown completed the original lineup and Jenkins named them as "The Primettes".
The group performed at talent showcases and at school parties before auditioning for Motown Records in 1960. Berry Gordy, head of Motown, advised the group to graduate from high school before auditioning again. Ballard dropped out of high school though her groupmates graduated. In 1960, Ballard was raped at knifepoint by local high-school basketball player Reggie Harding after leaving a sock hop at Detroit's Graystone Ballroom; the rape occurred in an empty parking lot off Woodward Avenue. Ballard responded by secluding herself in her house refusing to come outside, which worried her groupmates. Weeks Ballard told Wilson and Ross what had happened. Though Ross and Wilson were sympathetic, they were confused because Ballard was considered to be strong-willed and unflappable. Both Wilson and Jesse Green, an early boyfriend of Florence's, had described her as a "generally happy if somewhat mischievous and sassy teenager." Wilson believes that the incident contributed to the more self-destructive aspects of Ballard's adult personality, like cynicism and fear or distrust of others, but the rape was never mentioned again.
In 1960, the Primettes signed a contract with Lu Pine Records, issuing two songs that failed to perform well. During that year, they kept pursuing a Motown contract and agreed to do anything, required, including adding handclaps and vocal backgrounds. By the end of the year, Berry Gordy agreed to have the group record songs in the studio. In January 1961, Gordy agreed to sign them on the condition they change their name. Janie Bradford approached Ballard with a list of names to choose from before Ballard chose "Supremes"; when the other members heard of the new name, they were not pleased. Diana Ross feared. Gordy agreed to sign them under that name on January 15, 1961; the group struggled in their early years with the label, releasing eight singles that failed to crack the Billboard Hot 100, giving them the nickname "no-hit Supremes". One track, "Buttered Popcorn", led by Ballard, was a regional hit in the Midwest, but still failed to chart. During a 1962 Motortown Revue tour, Ballard replaced the Marvelettes' Wanda Young while she was on maternity leave.
Before the release of their 1962 debut album, Meet the Supremes, Barbara Martin, who had replaced Betty McGlown a year before they signed to Motown, left the group. Ballard and Wilson remained a trio. After the hit success of 1963's "When the Love Light Starts Shining Through His Eyes", Diana Ross became the group's lead singer. In the spring of 1964, the group released "Where Did Our Love Go", which became their first number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100, paving the way for ten number-one hits recorded by Ross and Wilson between 1964 and 1967. After many rehearsals with Cholly Atkins and Maurice King, the Supremes' live shows improved as well. During this time, Ballard sang lead on several songs on Supremes' albums, including a cover of Sam Cooke's " Good News". During live shows, Ballard performed the Barbra Streisand standard, "People". According to Mary Wilson, Ballard's vocals were so loud she was made to stand 17 feet away from her microphone during recording
Labelle is an American all-female singing group who were a popular vocal group of the 1960s and 1970s. The group was formed after the disbanding of two rival girl groups in the Philadelphia/Trenton areas, the Ordettes and the Del-Capris, forming as a new version of the former group changing their name to The Blue Belles; the founding members were Cindy Birdsong, Nona Hendryx and Sarah Dash. As The Bluebelles, Patti LaBelle and the Bluebelles, the group found success with ballads in the doo-wop genre, most notably "Down the Aisle", "You'll Never Walk Alone" and "Over the Rainbow". After Birdsong departed to join The Supremes in 1967, the group, following the advice of Vicki Wickham, changed its look, musical direction, style and reformed as Labelle in 1971, their funk rock recordings of that period became cult favorites for their brash interpretation of rock and roll and for dealing with subject matter, not touched by female black groups. After adapting glam rock and wearing outlandish space-age and glam-rock costumes, the group found success with the proto-disco smash "Lady Marmalade" in 1974, leading to their parent album, which achieved gold success.
They are notable for being the first contemporary pop group and first black pop group to perform at the Metropolitan Opera House. They were the first black vocal group to appear on the cover of Rolling Stone; the group members each went on their own after the end of a tour in 1976, going on to have significant solo success. Nona Hendryx followed an idiosyncratic muse into her own solo career, which bordered on the avant-garde, Sarah Dash became a celebrated session singer while Patti LaBelle enjoyed a successful Grammy winning and receiving lifetime achievement awards from the Apollo Theatre, World Music Awards and BET Awards; the group returned with their first new album in 32 years with 2008's Back to Now. Labelle had nine Top 20 R&B hits between 1963 and 1976. In 1959, a fifteen-year-old teenager, Patricia "Patti" Holt won her first talent contest in high school. Following this, she sought to form her own singing group. Holt formed the group with Yvonne Hogen and Johnnie Dawson; the group gained a local following.
Dawson was replaced by Sundray Tucker. By 1961, Jean Brown and Yvonne Hogan had ditched the group to get married and Patti and Sundray carried on as soloists. In 1961, Patti and Sundray's manager Bernard Montague contacted two singers from the Trenton, NJ singing group the Del-Capris, Nona Hendryx and Sarah Dash. Hendryx and Dash became official replacements for Brown and Hogan as the Ordettes; the group soon began working diligently by musician Morris Bailey. Bailey and Montague's schedule led to Tucker's parents to disband her from the group. Another singer, Cindy Birdsong, from Camden, New Jersey, was allowed to join the group after an audition, under the advice of Patti; the group soon toured the chitlin' circuit, gaining a following in the eastern U. S. In 1962, Chicago-based group The Starlets had traveled to Philadelphia to do sessions for producer Bobby Martin and record label owner Harold Robinson, president of Newtown Records. One of the sessions included a cover of the standard, "I Sold My Heart to the Junkman".
At the time of the song's release, the group had a hit with the song "Better Tell Him No" and were unable to promote the song due to them being signed to another label. The song was credited under the name "The Blue Belles"; the Ordettes auditioned by singing the song. Before hearing the group, Robinson turned them down due to being unimpressed with Patti's looks but upon hearing Patti singing, he changed his mind and signed the group to Newtown; when "I Sold My Heart" became popular, Robinson sent the Ordettes to promote it under the assumed name of the Blue Belles. After a televised performance at American Bandstand featuring the Ordettes, the Starlets' manager sued Harold Robinson and Bobby Martin. Around the same time, Robinson was sued for having another group use the name "Blue Belles". Following the aftermath of the ordeals, Robinson gave Patti Holt a new name, "Patti LaBelle", the group's name was rechristened as Patti LaBelle and The Blue Belles Following several releases such as "Academy Award" and "Tear After Tear", the group recorded their first national hit under their new name in 1963 with the release of the ballad, "Down the Aisle", first released under Newtown, before it received national distribution from King Records.
As a result, the record reached the top 40 on both the pop and R&B charts, formally launching the group to national stardom. Frequent performances at the Apollo Theater helped to give the group the nickname "Sweethearts of the Apollo". Newtown released two albums on the group before Harold Robinson sold Newtown in 1963. Cameo-Parkway soon signed them and re-released the Newtown single, "You'll Never Walk Alone", at the end of the year; the record became another top 40 hit for the group in 1964 and became one of Patti LaBelle's first signature performances. They recorded another charted hit with "Danny Boy". In 1965, the group opened for the Rolling Stones during a lengthy American tour. Shortly afterwards, Atlantic Records signed the act to the label, in hopes of bringing the group mainstream success, their first Atlantic single, "All or Nothing" made a dent on the pop charts in 1966. They had a notable entry as background singers of Wilson Pickett's first major hit, "634-5789". In 1966, Atlantic released the group's first studio album, Over the Rainbow, which included "All or Nothing" and the title track to be a standard for Patti.
Around this time, the g
Greatest Hits (The Supremes album)
Diana Ross & the Supremes: Greatest Hits is a two-LP collection of singles and b-sides recorded by The Supremes, released by Motown in August 1967. The collection was the first LP to credit the group under the Supremes. Although founding member Florence Ballard is pictured on all album artwork and sings on all the tracks, by the time the set was released, she had been fired from the group and replaced by Cindy Birdsong, it would rank as their second #1 album holding a distinction that it would take decades for another female group to achieve. The 2-LP set topped the Billboard Album Chart for 5 consecutive weeks, spending 20 weeks in the top 5 and 24 weeks total in the top 10, it remained on the Billboard Album Chart for 89 weeks. According to Motown data the album sold over 6,200,000 copies. In 2018, the Official Charts Company published that The Supremes' Greatest Hits has a total of 60 weeks in the UK top 40. Greatest Hits includes fifteen Supremes singles, 10 of which went to number-one, among them were "Where Did Our Love Go", "Stop!
In the Name of Love", "You Can't Hurry Love", the most recent Supremes number-one, "The Happening". Included are five popular Supremes B-sides: "Standing at the Crossroads of Love", "Ask Any Girl", "There's No Stopping Us Now", "Everything is Good About You", "Whisper You Love Me Boy"; the packaging for the set includes liner notes by actress Carol Channing and paintings by Robert Taylor, including collectable 12 inch by 12 inch pin-up portraits of Diana Ross, Florence Ballard, Mary Wilson. Greatest Hits was their second number-one album on the Billboard 200 and their fifth on the Billboard R&B Albums charts in the United States, it reached the top of the pop album chart in the United Kingdom. The album sold over six million copies, world-wide as of 1988. However, it was never accorded Platinum Status as Motown did not submit to RIAA Certification until years later. Although not nominally credited because of their estranged relationship with Motown, all of the songs included were produced by the songwriting/production team of Holland–Dozier–Holland.
Greatest Hits was released overseas in some markets shortened to one LP. The track listing for this version includes only the major singles, omitting "Ask Any Girl", "Standing at the Crossroads of Love", "Everything is Good About You", "There's No Stopping Us Now", "When the Lovelight Starts Shining Through His Eyes", "Run, Run". Diana Ross & the Supremes: Greatest Hits is referred to as Diana Ross & the Supremes: Greatest Hits, Vols. 1 & 2, as its 1969 single-disc follow-up is titled Greatest Hits Vol. 3. Volume 3 was a million seller; the double-LP was issued by Motown as two separate halves in 1986. Greatest Hits Vol. 1, Greatest Hits Vol. 2, Greatest Hits Vol. 3, the American variant of The Supremes: At Their Best were compiled and issued as The Supremes: Gold in 2005. All songs produced by Lamont Dozier. All songs written by Holland -- Dozier -- Holland. Superscripts denote original album sources, referenced below. "When the Lovelight Starts Shining Through His Eyes" a – 2:38 "Where Did Our Love Go" a – 2:30 "Ask Any Girl" a, b – 2:44 "Baby Love" a – 2:37 "Run, Run" a – 2:30 "Stop!
In the Name of Love" b – 2:53 "Back in My Arms Again" b – 2:52 "Come See About Me" a – 2:42 "Nothing but Heartaches" b – 2:57 "Everything is Good About You" c – 2:57 "I Hear a Symphony" c – 2:38 "Love Is Here and Now You're Gone" e – 2:46 "My World Is Empty Without You" c – 2:33 "Whisper You Love Me Boy" b – 2:40 "The Happening" – 2:49 "You Keep Me Hangin' On" e – 2:40 "You Can't Hurry Love" d – 2:45 "Standing at the Crossroads of Love" a – 2:27 "Love Is Like an Itching in My Heart" d – 2:55 "There's No Stopping Us Now" e – 2:55Notes a from Where Did Our Love Go b from More Hits by The Supremes c from I Hear a Symphony d from The Supremes A' Go-Go: e from The Supremes Sing Holland–Dozier–Holland "The Happening" is new to album. The single "Reflections" was also intended for inclusion, but was heldover and replaced with "Standing in The Crossroads of Love". "Reflections" was included on the subsequent Reflections LP in March 1968. Diana Ross – lead vocals Mary Wilson – background vocals Florence Ballard – background vocals The Andantes, The Four Tops, Holland-Dozier-Holland – additional background vocals Brian Holland – producer Lamont Dozier – producer The Funk Brothers – instrumentation on all tracks except for "Love Is Here and Now You're Gone".
Los Angeles studio musicians – additional instrumentation Hal Blaine – drums on "The Happening" List of number-one R&B albums of 1967
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is