Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth
Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth is a novel written and published by Nobel Prize-winning Egyptian author Naguib Mahfouz in 1985. It was translated from Arabic into English in 1998 by Tagreid Abu-Hassabo; the form and subject of the book is the basis for a cello concerto of the same title by Mohammed Fairouz. On the way from Thebes with his father, the scribe Amunhoben points out the ruins of Akhetaten, the city that the "heretic pharaoh" Akhenaten built for his One and Only God. Seeking a balanced perspective on the events of that time, which split Egypt politically and religiously, Meriamun gets a letter of introduction from his father to many members of Akhenaten's court, among them the High Priest of Amun, his chief of security Haremhab, his queen Nefertiti; each tale adds a new dimension to the enigma, Akhenaten and the thoughts of those that were close to him allow Meriamun – and the reader – to judge for themselves whether Akhenaten was a power politician or a true believer. Akhenaten Nefertiti Ay Tey High Priest of Amun Bento Haremhab Bek Tadukhipa Toto Tey Mutnedjmet Meri-Ra Mae Maho Nakht Kaleb Becton Dannyreviews LibraryThing
Naguib Mahfouz was an Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writers of Arabic literature, along with Tawfiq el-Hakim, to explore themes of existentialism, he published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts, five plays over a 70-year career. Many of his works have been made into foreign films. Mahfouz was born into a lower middle-class Muslim Egyptian family in Old Cairo in 1911, he was the seventh and the youngest child, with four brothers and two sisters, all of them much older than him. The family lived in two popular districts of Cairo: first, in the Bayt al-Qadi neighborhood in the Gamaleya quarter in the old city, from where they moved in 1924 to Abbaseya a new Cairo suburb north of the old city, locations that would provide the backdrop for many of Mahfouz's writings, his father, Abdel-Aziz Ibrahim, whom Mahfouz described as having been "old-fashioned", was a civil servant, Mahfouz followed in his footsteps in 1934.
Mahfouz's mother, was the daughter of Mustafa Qasheesha, an Al-Azhar sheikh, although illiterate herself, took the boy Mahfouz on numerous excursions to cultural locations such as the Egyptian Museum and the Pyramids. The Mahfouz family were devout Muslims and Mahfouz had a strict Islamic upbringing. In an interview, he elaborated on the stern religious climate at home during his childhood, he stated that "You would never have thought that an artist would emerge from that family."The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 had a strong effect on Mahfouz, although he was at the time only seven years old. From the window he saw British soldiers firing at the demonstrators and women. "You could say... that the one thing which most shook the security of my childhood was the 1919 revolution", he said. In his early years, Mahfouz read extensively and was influenced by Hafiz Najib, Taha Hussein and Salama Moussa, the Fabian intellectual. After completing his secondary education, Mahfouz was admitted in 1930 to the Egyptian University, where he studied philosophy, graduating in 1934.
By 1936, having spent a year working on an M. A. in philosophy, he decided to become a professional writer. Mahfouz worked as a journalist for al-Risala, contributed short stories to el-Hilal and Al-Ahram. After receiving his bachelor's degree in Philosophy from Cairo University in 1934, Mahfouz joined the Egyptian civil service, where he continued to work in various positions and ministries until retirement in 1971, he served first as a clerk at Cairo University in 1938, in the Ministry of Islamic Endowments as parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Islamic Endowments. In 1945, he requested a transfer to the al-Ghuri Mausoleum library, where he interviewed residents of his childhood neighborhood as part of the "Good Loans Project." In the 1950s, he worked as Director of Censorship in the Bureau of Arts, as Director of the Foundation for the Support of the Cinema, as a consultant to the Ministry of Culture. Mahfouz published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts and five plays over a 70-year career.
His most famous work, The Cairo Trilogy, depicts the lives of three generations of different families in Cairo from World War I until after the 1952 military coup that overthrew King Farouk. He was a board member of the publisher Dar el-Ma'aref. Many of his novels were serialized in Al-Ahram, his writings appeared in his weekly column, "Point of View". Before the Nobel Prize only a few of his novels had appeared in the West. Most of Mahfouz's early works were set in Cairo. Abath Al-Aqdar and Kifah Tibah, were historical novels, written as part of a larger unfulfilled project of 30 novels. Inspired by Sir Walter Scott, Mahfouz planned to cover the entire history of Egypt in a series of books. However, following the third volume, he shifted his interest to the present and the psychological impact of social change on ordinary people. Mahfouz's prose is characterised by the blunt expression of his ideas, his written works covered a broad range of topics, including socialism and God. Writing about some of these subjects was prohibited in Egypt.
In his works, he described the development of his country in the 20th century and combined intellectual and cultural influences from East and West. His own exposure to the literature of non-Egyptian culture began in his youth with the enthusiastic consumption of Western detective stories, Russian classics, such modernist writers as Marcel Proust, Franz Kafka and James Joyce. Mahfouz's stories are always set in the populated urban quarters of Cairo, where his characters ordinary people, try to cope with the modernization of society and the temptations of Western values. Mahfouz's central work in the 1950s was the Cairo Trilogy, which he completed before the July Revolution; the novels were titled with the street names Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, Sugar Street. Mahfouz set the story in the parts of Cairo; the novels depict the life of the patriarch el-Sayyed Ahmed Abdel Gawad and his family over three generations, from World War I to the 1950s, when King Farouk I was overthrown. Mahfouz stopped writing for some years after finishing the trilogy.
Disappointed in the Nasser régime, which had overthrown the monarchy in 1952, he started publishing again in 1959, now prolifically pouring out novels, short stories, memoirs and screenplays. He stated in a 1998 interview, he "
A paperback known as a softcover or سعيد, is a type of book characterized by a thick paper or paperboard cover, held together with glue rather than stitches or staples. In contrast, hardcover or hardback books are bound with cardboard covered with cloth; the pages on the inside are made of paper. Inexpensive books bound in paper have existed since at least the 19th century in such forms as pamphlets, dime novels, airport novels. Modern paperbacks can be differentiated by size. In the U. S. there are "mass-market paperbacks" and larger, more durable "trade paperbacks." In the U. K. there are A-format, B-format, the largest C-format sizes. Paperback editions of books are issued when a publisher decides to release a book in a low-cost format. Cheaper, lower quality paper. Paperbacks can be the preferred medium when a book is not expected to be a major seller or where the publisher wishes to release a book without putting forth a large investment. Examples include many novels, newer editions or reprintings of older books.
Since paperbacks tend to have a smaller profit margin, many publishers try to balance the profit to be made by selling fewer hardcovers against the potential profit to be made by selling more paperbacks with a smaller profit per unit. First editions of many modern books genre fiction, are issued in paperback. Best-selling books, on the other hand, may maintain sales in hardcover for an extended period to reap the greater profits that the hardcovers provide; the early 19th century saw numerous improvements in the printing and book-distribution processes, with the introduction of steam-powered printing presses, pulp mills, automatic type setting, a network of railways. These innovations enabled the likes of Simms and McIntyre of Belfast, Routledge & Sons and Ward & Lock to mass-produce cheap uniform yellowback or paperback editions of existing works, distribute and sell them across the British Isles, principally via the ubiquitous W H Smith & Sons newsagent found at most urban British railway stations.
These paper bound volumes were offered for sale at a fraction of the historic cost of a book, were of a smaller format, 110 mm × 178 mm, aimed at the railway traveller. The Routledge's Railway Library series of paperbacks remained in print until 1898, offered the traveling public 1,277 unique titles; the German-language market supported examples of cheap paper-bound books: Bernhard Tauchnitz started the Collection of British and American Authors in 1841. These inexpensive, paperbound editions, a direct precursor to mass-market paperbacks ran to over 5,000 volumes. Reclam published Shakespeare in this format from October 1857 and went on to pioneer the mass-market paper-bound Universal-Bibliothek series from 10 November 1867; the German publisher Albatross Books revised the 20th-century mass-market paperback format in 1931, but the approach of World War II cut the experiment short. It proved an immediate financial success in the United Kingdom in 1935 when Penguin Books adopted many of Albatross' innovations, including a conspicuous logo and color-coded covers for different genres.
British publisher Allen Lane invested his own financial capital to launch the Penguin Books imprint in 1935, initiating the paperback revolution in the English-language book-market by releasing ten reprint titles. The first released book on Penguin's 1935 list was André Maurois' Ariel. Lane intended to produce inexpensive books, he purchased paperback rights from publishers, ordered large print runs to keep unit prices low, looked to non-traditional book-selling retail locations. Booksellers were reluctant to buy his books, but when Woolworths placed a large order, the books sold well. After that initial success, booksellers showed more willingness to stock paperbacks, the name "Penguin" became associated with the word "paperback". In 1939, Robert de Graaf issued a similar line in the United States, partnering with Simon & Schuster to create the Pocket Books label; the term "pocket book" became synonymous with paperback in English-speaking North America. In French, the term livre de poche is still in use today.
De Graaf, like Lane, negotiated paperback rights from other publishers, produced many runs. His practices contrasted with those of Lane by his adoption of illustrated covers aimed at the North American market. To reach an broader market than Lane, he used distribution networks of newspapers and magazines, which had a lengthy history of being aimed at mass audiences; because of its number-one position in what became a long list of pocket editions, James Hilton's Lost Horizon is cited as the first American paperback book. However, the first mass-market, pocket-sized, paperback book printed in the US was an edition of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth, produced by Pocket Books as a proof-of-concept in late 1938, sold in New York City. In World War II, the U. S. military distributed some 122 million "Armed Services Editions" paperback novels to the troops, which helped popularize the format after the war. Through the circulation of the paperback in kiosks and bookstores and intellectual knowledge was able to reach the masses.
This occurred at the same time that the masses were starting to attend university, leading to the student revolts of 1968 prompting open access to knowledge. The paperback book meant that more people were able to and access knowledge and this led to people wanting more and more of it; this accessibility posed a threat to the wealthy by imposing that
Rhadopis of Nubia
Rhadopis of Nubia is an early novel by the Egyptian writer Naguib Mahfouz. It was published in Arabic in 1943. An English translation by Anthony Calderbank appeared in 2003 published by American University in Cairo Press; the novel is one of several that Mahfouz wrote at the beginning of his career, with Pharaonic Egypt as their setting. Others in this series of novels include Khufu's Wisdom and Thebes at War. All have been translated into English and appeared in one volume under the title Three Novels of Ancient Egypt
Midaq Alley (novel)
This article is about the Naguib Mahfouz novel. For the film of the novel, see Midaq Alley. For the alley, see Khan El-Khalili. Midaq Alley is the English Translation of Zuqāq al-Midaq by Naguib Mahfouz, released in English in 1966; the story is about Midaq Alley, a teeming back street in Cairo, a microcosm of the world. Mahfouz plays on the cultural setting; the novel is introduced with description of the Arabic culture. It centers around the list of characters described below; the novel takes place in the 1940s and represents standing on the threshold of a modern era in Cairo and the rest of the nation as a whole. Each character is expressed like a caricature in which trait is over-emphasized. Mahfouz is not satirizing the individual character – he is satirizing the character type. Kirsha, a café owner who illegally sells and uses hashish and has a predilection for young boys Mrs. Kirsha, infamous for her temper Uncle Kamil, good-hearted, bachelor sweets-seller, famously bloated and sleepy Abbas, a young, kindly barber who wants to get married, joins the British army to make money to be able to marry Hamida Salim Alwan, the wealthy businessman, embittered after surviving a heart attack Dr. Booshy, the self-proclaimed dentist who sells false teeth at dirt-cheap prices by stealing them off dead bodies Sanker, the waiter at Kirsha's café Sheikh Darwish, the old poet and former English teacher, who left his former life to roam the streets.
Radwan Hussainy, a landlord who beats his wife and failed his al-Azhar exams, yet is revered for his high degree of education and devotion to God. He has lost all of his children. Hussain Kirsha, son of the café owner who works for the British, he marries a woman of lower class and returns home with her brother. Saniya Afify, widowed landlady who desires to remarry Umm Hamida, the neighborhood matchmaker and bath attendant. Husniya, the bakeress who beats her husband with her slipper Jaada, Husniya's husband Zaita, the cripple maker who lives outside the bakery and aids Dr. Booshy in his theft of false teeth. Ibrahim Farhat, a politician Ibrahim Faraj, a pimp The Poet, replaced by a radio and is barred by Kirsha Naguib Mahfouz El callejón de los milagros Nobel Prize in Literature Summary of the Novel A Book Review by Louis Proyect'Aqoul Reviews Midaq Alley Character Guide Washington Report on Middle East Affairs Review shvoong.com Review Deeb, Marius. "Najib Mahfuz's Midaq Alley: A Socio-Cultural Analysis".
Bulletin. Taylor & Francis. 10: 121–130. JSTOR 195189
The Day the Leader was Killed
The Day the Leader was Killed is a novel written and published by Nobel Prize-winning author Naguib Mahfouz in 1983. The novel follows multiple narratives written in the stream of consciousness format; the novel is set during the early 1980s whilst Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was introducing the infitah or open door free-market economic policies which led to widespread unrest. The plot revolves around a young Egyptian man, in love with a co-worker, but her father will not permit their marriage because the young man cannot earn enough money to purchase and furnish an apartment. Told from the perspective of Elwan and Elwan's grandfather Muhtashimi. Trapped in low-paid jobs amidst years of inflation and uneven distribution of wealth and Randa's engagement has persisted for years without Elwan found the means to fulfil the financial obligations for marriage. Elwan refuses to accede to corruption or outside work to improve these circumstances, both characters are noble and proud but perceived by others to be impractical and stagnant.
Randa is pressured by her family and her government superior - Anwar - to break off the engagement as her advancing years means she will soon find herself too old to be desirable to potential suitors. Anwar pressures Elwan to reconsider his circumstances and introduces him to his widowed sister, wealthy and looking for a new husband. Elwan finds himself attracted to Gulstan and feels sexual desire he has had to long suppress on account of his attenuated engagement to Randa. Muhtashimi is disappointed that his beloved grandson finds himself in his situation, his narrative questions the direction of the country which as a younger man he had ardently fought to create as an activist teacher in the nationalist movement. Punctuated throughout the novel are comments on the decline of Sadat's Egypt and the increasing national despair amidst a revolution that has lost its way. Matters come to a head when Randa's mother visits Elwan's family and lays plain the problems of the engagement. Elwan's family is sympathetic as Elwan, as a man, may marry at any age.
Elwan, unable to bear the social pressure and the lack of support for continued engagement from his family or colleagues, releases Randa from her obligations to him, despite great personal angst at betraying his love for her. Randa is in disbelief and furious at Elwan, breaking off most contact between them and dismissing her deep-seated love for Elwan, whilst Elwan remains tortured and despairing of the turn of events, she soon pursues a relationship with Anwar and marries him, seeing it as a practical and viable alternative after years of torpor with Elwan. However she is soon disenchanted when she realizes despite Anwar's long overtures, the marriage is not one of true emotional connection and Anwar desires Randa as means to befit his social position and serve domestic functions. Randa, caught between modern ideals and traditional obligations, struggles with the new role and quickly rejects it, seeking a quick divorce, which throws her and Anwar into social disrepute. Elwan meanwhile pursues a relationship of sorts Gulstan and considers marrying her, but his pride refuses the notion of him being'sold' and he feels any match with Gulstan will be embarrassing and speak to weakness.
Randa and Elwan reacquaint after Randa's divorce and Randa confesses the lie of the marriage to Anwar, which angers Elwan but does not lead to their reconciliation. At the crescendo of the story, President Sadat is assassinated, much to the horror of the characters in the story. Provoked by the events while despairing of his country and himself, Elwan goes to meet with Gulstan but finds Anwar there. In uncharacteristic rage, Elwan unleashes on Anwar kills him; the horrified Gulstan attempts to help Elwan cover up the murder on account of Anwar's pre-existing heart condition and her feelings for Elwan, but Elwan is resigned to fate and only half-heartedly attempts to conceal his crime. Elwan is imprisoned, bringing the story of Egypt's path and Elwan's into alignment; the novel ends with Muhtashimi's regret over the twin courses of disappointment, regards Egypt as a nation caught between its many problems and a national character with occasional victories but far many disappointments and failings.
Muhtashimi however recalls over the course of the novel his great faith in the teachings of the prophet and Islam, believes as he prepares to die that faith will see his family, his grandson and his country through these yet again difficult times. Like many of Mahfouz's novels, the book uses Egyptian history and society to analyze universal themes such as the relationship between love and economics, familiar relationships and the irrationality of human emotion
Dewey Decimal Classification
The Dewey Decimal Classification, colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Described in a four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011, it is available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers; the Decimal Classification introduced the concepts of relative location and relative index which allow new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. Libraries had given books permanent shelf locations that were related to the order of acquisition rather than topic; the classification's notation makes use of three-digit Arabic numerals for main classes, with fractional decimals allowing expansion for further detail.
Using Arabic numerals for symbols, it is flexible to the degree that numbers can be expanded in linear fashion to cover special aspects of general subjects. A library assigns a classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume in a position relative to other books in the library, on the basis of its subject; the number makes it possible to find any book and to return it to its proper place on the library shelves. The classification system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries. Melvil Dewey was self-declared reformer, he was a founding member of the American Library Association and can be credited with the promotion of card systems in libraries and business. He developed the ideas for his library classification system in 1873 while working at Amherst College library, he applied the classification to the books in that library, until in 1876 he had a first version of the classification. In 1876, he published the classification in pamphlet form with the title A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library.
He used the pamphlet, published in more than one version during the year, to solicit comments from other librarians. It is not known who received copies or how many commented as only one copy with comments has survived, that of Ernest Cushing Richardson, his classification system was mentioned in an article in the first issue of the Library Journal and in an article by Dewey in the Department of Education publication "Public Libraries in America" in 1876. In March 1876, he applied for, received copyright on the first edition of the index; the edition was 44 pages in length, with 2,000 index entries, was printed in 200 copies. The second edition of the Dewey Decimal system, published in 1885 with the title Decimal Classification and Relativ Index for arranging and indexing public and private libraries and for pamflets, notes, scrap books, index rerums, etc. comprised 314 pages, with 10,000 index entries. Five hundred copies were produced. Editions 3–14, published between 1888 and 1942, used a variant of this same title.
Dewey modified and expanded his system for the second edition. In an introduction to that edition Dewey states that "nearly 100 persons hav contributed criticisms and suggestions". One of the innovations of the Dewey Decimal system was that of positioning books on the shelves in relation to other books on similar topics; when the system was first introduced, most libraries in the US used fixed positioning: each book was assigned a permanent shelf position based on the book's height and date of acquisition. Library stacks were closed to all but the most privileged patrons, so shelf browsing was not considered of importance; the use of the Dewey Decimal system increased during the early 20th century as librarians were convinced of the advantages of relative positioning and of open shelf access for patrons. New editions were readied as supplies of published editions were exhausted though some editions provided little change from the previous, as they were needed to fulfill demand. In the next decade, three editions followed on: the 3rd, 4th, 5th.
Editions 6 through 11 were published from 1899 to 1922. The 6th edition was published in a record 7,600 copies, although subsequent editions were much lower. During this time, the size of the volume grew, edition 12 swelled to 1243 pages, an increase of 25% over the previous edition. In response to the needs of smaller libraries which were finding the expanded classification schedules difficult to use, in 1894, the first abridged edition of the Dewey Decimal system was produced; the abridged edition parallels the full edition, has been developed for most full editions since that date. By popular request, in 1930, the Library of Congress began to print Dewey Classification numbers on nearly all of its cards, thus making the system available to all libraries making use of the Library of Congress card sets. Dewey's was not the only library classification available. Charles Ammi Cutter published the Expansive Classification in 1882, with initial encouragement from Melvil Dewey. Cutter's system was not adopted by many libraries, with one major exception: it was used as the basis for the Library of Congress Classification system.
In 1895, the International Institute of Bibliography, located in Belgium and led by Paul Otlet, contacted Dewey about the possibility of translating the classification into French, using the classification system for bibliographies. This would have