Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom, described as an alliance of social democrats, democratic socialists and trade unionists. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights; the Labour Party was founded in 1900, having grown out of the trade union movement and socialist parties of the nineteenth century. It overtook the Liberal Party to become the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s, forming two minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in the 1920s and early 1930s. Labour served in the wartime coalition of 1940-1945, after which Clement Attlee's Labour government established the National Health Service and expanded the welfare state from 1945 to 1951. Under Harold Wilson and James Callaghan, Labour again governed from 1964 to 1970 and 1974 to 1979. In the 1990s Tony Blair took Labour closer to the centre as part of his "New Labour" project, which governed the UK under Blair and Gordon Brown from 1997 to 2010.
After Corbyn took over in 2015, the party has moved leftward. Labour is the Official Opposition in the Parliament of the United Kingdom, having won the second-largest number of seats in the 2017 general election; the Labour Party is the largest party in the Welsh Assembly, forming the main party in the current Welsh government. The party is the third largest in the Scottish Parliament. Labour is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, holds observer status in the Socialist International, sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament; the party includes semi-autonomous Scottish and Welsh branches and supports the Social Democratic and Labour Party in Northern Ireland. As of 2017, Labour had the largest membership of any party in Western Europe; the Labour Party originated in the late 19th century, meeting the demand for a new political party to represent the interests and needs of the urban working class, a demographic which had increased in number, many of whom only gained suffrage with the passage of the Representation of the People Act 1884.
Some members of the trades union movement became interested in moving into the political field, after further extensions of the voting franchise in 1867 and 1885, the Liberal Party endorsed some trade-union sponsored candidates. The first Lib–Lab candidate to stand was George Odger in the Southwark by-election of 1870. In addition, several small socialist groups had formed around this time, with the intention of linking the movement to political policies. Among these were the Independent Labour Party, the intellectual and middle-class Fabian Society, the Marxist Social Democratic Federation and the Scottish Labour Party. At the 1895 general election, the Independent Labour Party put up 28 candidates but won only 44,325 votes. Keir Hardie, the leader of the party, believed that to obtain success in parliamentary elections, it would be necessary to join with other left-wing groups. Hardie's roots as a lay preacher contributed to an ethos in the party which led to the comment by 1950s General Secretary Morgan Phillips that "Socialism in Britain owed more to Methodism than Marx".
In 1899, a Doncaster member of the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Thomas R. Steels, proposed in his union branch that the Trade Union Congress call a special conference to bring together all left-wing organisations and form them into a single body that would sponsor Parliamentary candidates; the motion was passed at all stages by the TUC, the proposed conference was held at the Memorial Hall on Farringdon Street on 26 and 27 February 1900. The meeting was attended by a broad spectrum of working-class and left-wing organisations—trades unions represented about one third of the membership of the TUC delegates. After a debate, the 129 delegates passed Hardie's motion to establish "a distinct Labour group in Parliament, who shall have their own whips, agree upon their policy, which must embrace a readiness to cooperate with any party which for the time being may be engaged in promoting legislation in the direct interests of labour." This created an association called the Labour Representation Committee, meant to co-ordinate attempts to support MPs sponsored by trade unions and represent the working-class population.
It had no single leader, in the absence of one, the Independent Labour Party nominee Ramsay MacDonald was elected as Secretary. He had the difficult task of keeping the various strands of opinions in the LRC united; the October 1900 "Khaki election" came too soon for the new party to campaign effectively. Only 15 candidatures were sponsored. Support for the LRC was boosted by the 1901 Taff Vale Case, a dispute between strikers and a railway company that ended with the union being ordered to pay £23,000 damages for a strike; the judgement made strikes illegal since employers could recoup the cost of lost business from the unions. The apparent acquiescence of the Conservative Government of Arthur Balfour to industrial and business interests intensified support for the LRC against a government that appeared to have little concern for the industrial proletariat and its problems. In the 1906 election, the LRC won 29 seats—helped by a secret 1903 pact between Ramsay MacDonald and Liberal Chief Whip Herbert Gladstone that aimed to avoid splitting the opposition vote between Labour and Liberal candidates in the interest of removing the Conservatives from office.
In their first meeting after the election the group's Members of Parliament decided to adop
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
Edinburgh Evening News
The Edinburgh Evening News is a daily newspaper and website based in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was founded by John Wilson and first published in 1873, it is printed daily, except on Sundays. It is owned by JPIMedia, which owns The Scotsman. Much of the content of the Evening News concerns local issues such as transport, the local council and crime in Edinburgh and the Lothians; the paper has a significant number of journalists covering sport, with a dedicated reporter assigned to each of the city's football teams, Heart of Midlothian and Hibernian. According to ABC figures for February 2014, the paper's circulation was 28,000, down from 32,160 in the preceding February. In 2016 this had dropped to 18,362, falling again to 16,660 by February 2018. In November 2018, the owners of the Edinburgh Evening News holding company The Scotsman Publications, Johnston Press, went into administration; the assets were sold to JPIMedia. Alongside its sister publications The Scotsman and Scotland on Sunday, the Edinburgh Evening Edinburgh News was headquartered in the Scottish capital at Barclay House at 109 Holyrood Road.
The newspapers vacated the premises to Rockstar North in 2014 downsizing to Orchard Brae House on Queensferry Road, in a move which saved the the Johnson Press group one million pounds per year in costs. List of newspapers in Scotland Official website
George MacDonald Fraser
George MacDonald Fraser OBE FRSL was a Scottish author who wrote historical novels, non-fiction books and several screenplays. He is best known for a series of works. Fraser was born to Scottish parents in Carlisle, England on 2 April 1925, his father was his mother a nurse. It was his father who passed on to Fraser his love of reading, a passion for his Scottish heritage. Fraser was educated at Carlisle Grammar Glasgow Academy; this meant. In 1943, during World War II, Fraser enlisted in the Border Regiment and served in the Burma Campaign, as recounted in his memoir Quartered Safe Out Here. After completing his OCTU course, Fraser was granted a commission into the Gordon Highlanders, he served with them in the Middle East and North Africa after the war, notably in Tripoli. In 1947, Fraser took up his demobilisation, he has written semi-autobiographical stories and anecdotes of his time with the Gordon Highlanders in the "McAuslan" series. After his discharge, Fraser returned to the United Kingdom.
Through his father he got a job as a trainee reporter on the Carlisle Journal and married another journalist, Kathleen Hetherington. They travelled to Canada. Starting in 1953, Fraser worked for many years as a journalist at the Glasgow Herald newspaper, where he was deputy editor from 1964 until 1969, he held the title of acting editor. In 1966, Fraser got the idea to turn Flashman, a fictional coward and bully created by Thomas Hughes in Tom Brown's School Days, into a hero, he wrote a novel around the character's exploits; the book proved popular and sale of the film rights enabled Fraser to become a full-time writer. He moved to the Isle of Man. There were a series of further Flashman novels, presented as packets of memoirs written by the nonagenarian Flashman looking back on his days as a hero of the British Army during the 19th century; the series is notable for the accuracy of its historical settings and praise it received from critics. For example, P. G. Wodehouse said of Flashman, "If there was a time when I felt that'watcher-of-the-skies-when-a-new-planet' stuff, it was when I read the first Flashman."The first Flashman sequel was Royal Flash.
It was published in 1970, the same year that Fraser published The General Danced at Dawn, a series of short stories which fictionalised his post-war military experience as the adventures of "Dand" MacNeill in a Scottish Highland regiment. The following year Fraser published a third Flashman, Flash for Freedom!, as well as a non fiction work, The Steel Bonnets, a history of the Border Reivers of the Anglo-Scottish Border. The film rights to Flashman were bought by Richard Lester, unable to get the film funded but hired Fraser to write the screenplay for The Three Musketeers in Christmas 1972; this would be turned into two films, The Three Musketeers and The Four Musketeers, both popular at the box office, it launched Fraser as a screenwriter. Following Flashman at the Charge, Fraser wrote the screenplay for the movie Royal Flash directed by Richard Lester, it was not a success at the box office. There was another collection of Dand McNeill stories, McAuslan in the Rough Flashman in the Great Game and Flashman's Lady.
He was hired to rewrite Force 10 from Navarone. The latter was directed by Guy Hamilton who arranged for Fraser to do some work on the script for Superman, he did some uncredited work on the film Ashanti and wrote an unused script for Tai Pan to star Steve McQueen. He wrote a biopic of General Stilwell for Martin Ritt, not filmed. Fraser tried a more serious historical novel with Mr American, although Flashman still appeared in it. Flashman and the Redskins was a traditional Flashman and The Pyrates was a comic novel about pirates, he was one of several writers. Richard Fleischer arranged. After Flashman and the Dragon he was reunited with Lester on The Return of the Musketeers released a final volume of McAusland stories, The Sheikh and the Dustbin and did another history, The Hollywood History of the World; when that film book came out he was working on a science fiction film Colossus and adapting Conan Doyle's The Lost World for TV but neither project was filmed. Following Flashman and the Mountain of Light, Fraser wrote a version of The Lone Ranger for John Landis which ended up not being filmed.
He did his memoirs of his experiences during World War Two, Quartered Safe Out Here. He wrote a short novel about the Border Reivers of the 16th century, The Candlemass Road Flashman and the Angel of the Lord and Black Ajax, a novel about Tom Molineaux, which featured Flashman's father as a support character. Flashman and the Tiger consisted of three different Flashman stories; the Light's on at Signpost was a second volume of memoirs, focusing on Fraser's adventures in Hollywood and his criticisms of modern-day Britain. The latter could be found in Flashman on the March, the final Flashman, The Reavers, a comic novel about the Border Reivers in the style of The Pyrates. Following his death a novel was discovered amongst Captain in Calico; this was published in 2015. George MacDonald Fraser was made an Officer of the Order of
George Outram was a humorous poet, Scottish advocate, friend of Professor John Wilson, for some time editor of The Herald in Glasgow. Outram was born on 25 March 1805 the son of Elizabeth Knox and Joseph Outram, manager of the Clyde Ironworks, he was born in the parish of New Coatbridge. In 1807 the family moved to the harbour area of Edinburgh, he attended Leith High School and the University of Edinburgh. He qualified as an advocate in 1827. In the 1830s he is listed as living at 14 Fettes Row, on the northern fringe of Edinburgh's New Town. In 1837 he married Frances McRobbie, born in Jamaica. In the same year he took over the parent company which printed the Glasgow Herald, founded in 1783 by John Mennons. Under Outram's leadership the company grew becoming the "eponymous" Scottish printing company and renaming itself George Outram & Co. From 19 July 1839 the newspaper bore the name of Co as its printer, he died at his country residence of Rosemore on the Holy Loch near Dunoon on 15 September 1856.
He is buried in Warriston Cemetery in north Edinburgh. The grave lies close to the sealed east gate, behind the large monument to the poet Alexander Smith, he is buried with his wife, three sons, mother. He printed in 1851 Legal lyrics and metrical illustrations of the Scotch form of process, some of his work was collected posthumously in Lyrics and Miscellaneous, published with short biography in 1874; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Outram, George". Dictionary of National Biography. 42. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Lyrics and Miscellaneous
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Roy Thomson, 1st Baron Thomson of Fleet
Roy Herbert Thomson, 1st Baron Thomson of Fleet, GBE was a Canadian newspaper proprietor who became one of the moguls of Fleet Street. He first came to prominence when he was selling radios in Ontario, to give his customers more programmes to listen to, decided to launch his own radio station, he moved into newspapers, buying The Scotsman as a salute to his Scottish ancestors, followed by the first Scottish independent television channel. By 1966, he owned both The Sunday Times. On 5 June 1894, Thomson was born as Roy Herbert Thomson in Toronto, Canada. Thomson's father was Herbert Thomson, a telegraphist turned barber who worked at Toronto's Grosvenor Hotel, English-born Alice Maud. Thomson's family lived off Church Street in Toronto, Ontario. Thomson's paternal grand-parents were Mary Nichol Sylvester. Thomson's grand-father Hugh was one of ten children of George Thomson, son of Archibald Thomson, who emigrated from Westerkirk, Scotland to Canada in 1773. Archibald was brother of first European settler of Scarborough, Ontario.
Thomson’s ancestors were small tenant farmers on the estates of the Dukes of Buccleuch at Bo'ness, in the parish of Westerkirk, Scotland. Thomson's ancestor, Archibald Thomson, migrated to British North America in 1773, marrying Elizabeth McKay, of Quebec; the family settled in Upper Canada, but retained a sentimental attachment to their country of origin. During World War I, Roy Thomson attended a business college, owing to bad eyesight he was rejected by the army, he was unsuccessful. Thomson travelled to Toronto again. However, he found selling radios difficult because the only district left for him to work in was Northern Ontario. In order to give his potential customers something to listen to he undertook to establish a radio station. By quite a stroke of luck, he was able to procure a radio frequency and transmitter for $201. CFCH went on the air in North Bay, Ontario on 3 March 1931, he sold radios for quite some time after that, but his focus shifted to his radio station, rather than the actual radios.
In 1934, Thomson acquired his first newspaper. With a down payment of $200 he purchased the Timmins Daily Press, in Ontario, he began an expansion of both radio stations and newspapers in various Ontario locations in partnership with fellow Canadian, Jack Kent Cooke. In addition to his media acquisitions, by 1949 Thomson was the owner of a diverse group of companies, including several ladies' hairstyling businesses, a fitted kitchen manufacturer, an ice-cream cone manufacturing operation. By the early 1950s, he owned 19 newspapers and was president of the Canadian Daily Newspaper Publishers Association, began his first foray into the British newspaper business by starting up the Canadian Weekly Review to cater to expatriate Canadians living in Britain. In 1952, Thomson purchased The Scotsman newspaper. In 1957, Thomson launched a successful bid for the commercial television franchise for Central Scotland, named Scottish Television, which he was to describe as a "permit to print money". In 1959, Thomson purchased the Kemsley group of newspapers, the largest in Britain, which included The Sunday Times.
Over the years, Thomson expanded his media empire to include more than 200 newspapers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom. His Thomson Organization became a multinational corporation, with interests in publishing, printing and travel. In 1966, Thomson bought The Times newspaper from members of the Astor family. In the 1970s, Thomson joined with J. Paul Getty in a consortium that explored for oil in the North Sea. A modest man, who had little time for pretentious displays of wealth, in Britain he got by unnoticed, riding the London Underground to his office each day. Nonetheless, he made his son Kenneth promise to use the hereditary title that he had received in 1964, if only in the London offices of the firm. On 29 July 1916, Thomson married Edna Annis Irvine in Toronto, Canada. Edna A. Irvine was the daughter of John Irvine and Rebecca Caldwell.. Thomson had three children: Irma Jacqueline Thomson and Phyllis Audrey Thomson. On 22 February 1951, Thomson's wife Edna died in Florida.
In 1952, Thomson moved to Edinburgh. In 1976, Thomson died in England. A plaque was placed in the crypt of St Paul's Cathedral. After Thomson's death in 1976, his son Kenneth Thomson became chair of Thomson Corporation and inherited the baronial title becoming the 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet. With the Thomson operations now principally again in Canada, the younger Thomson did not use his title in Canada though he did so in Britain, used two sets of stationery reflecting this dichotomy. In any case, as the peerage title he had was inherited, it did not debar him from retaining his Canadian citizenship, he never took up his right to a seat in the pre-1999 House of Lords. Roy Thomson Hall, one of Toronto's main concert halls, is named in his honour as the Thomson family donated $5.4 million to its construction. In the 1964 New Year Honours, it was announced that Thomson would be elevated to the peerage as a Baron "for public services". On 10 March 1964 he was made Baron Thomson of Northbridge in the City of Edinburgh.
In order to receive this title, it was necessary for Thomson to acquire British citizenship, as the Canadian government