Sooke Harbour House
The Sooke Harbour House is an inn and restaurant located in Sooke, British Columbia, Canada, on the southern tip of Vancouver Island. It was one of the first restaurants to devote itself to local foods, having done so since 1979, it serves what is now called "West Coast Canadian Cuisine." This cuisine draws inspiration from the foods of the indigenous peoples of the region, the sea, farmed products from within 25 miles of the inn. The Sooke Harbour House has been owned by Frederique and Sinclair Philip since 1979. Sinclair Philip is the Canadian representative to Slow Food in Italy and some years ago was a Slow Food Vancouver Island Convivium leader. Mr. Philip has a doctorate in political economics from the University of Grenoble in France; the head chef of the restaurant for nearly 15 years was Edward Tuson. The head gardener of the kitchen gardens for over 13 years was Byron Cook; the kitchen team was for a time under Sam Benedetto and Robin Jackson took the lead role. The restaurant's chef now is Oliver Kienast.
Sooke Harbour House
Alice Louise Waters is an American chef, restaurateur and author. She is the owner of Chez Panisse, a Berkeley, California restaurant famous for its organic, locally grown ingredients and for pioneering California cuisine, which she opened in 1971. In addition to her restaurant, Waters has written several books on food and cooking, including Chez Panisse Cooking, The Art of Simple Food I and II, 40 Years of Chez Panisse, her memoir, Coming to my Senses: The Making of a Counterculture Cook was published in September 2017 and released in paperback in May 2018. She founded the Chez Panisse Foundation in 1996, created the Edible Schoolyard program at the Martin Luther King Middle School in Berkeley, California. Waters serves as a public policy advocate on the national level for school lunch reform and universal access to healthy, organic foods, the impact of her work in organic food and nutrition is typified by Michelle Obama's White House organic vegetable garden. Waters was born in Chatham Borough, New Jersey on April 28, 1944 to Charles Allen Waters, a Rutgers University graduate, a management consultant, Margaret Waters, a stay at home mom.
Alice graduated from the University of California, Berkeley after transferring there from UC Santa Barbara. She received a degree in French Cultural Studies in 1967. During her time at UC Berkeley, she studied abroad in France, where she shopped for local produce and prepared fresh foods in order to enhance the experience of the table. During her time in France, she says she "lived at the bottom of a market street" and "took everything in by osmosis", she brought this style of food preparation back to Berkeley, where she popularized the concept of market-fresh cooking with the local products available to her in Northern California. For her, food is a way of life and not just something to eat. During her time at UC Berkeley, Waters became active in the Free Speech Movement, sweeping across the campus. Waters worked on the congressional campaign of an anti-Vietnam War politician, she cooked for and entertained her fellow campaigners. Waters returned to Europe, where she first trained at a Montessori school in London, spent time traveling in Turkey and in France once again.
Principles of the Montessori method, which emphasize practical and hands-on activities for children, are evident in Waters' idea of "edible education" and her Edible Schoolyard, which engages children in the preparation of fruits and vegetables that they tend to with the supervision of their teachers. After training in London, Waters next traveled to Turkey, which she credits with influencing her approach to hospitality and deepening her respect for local communities. In his book Alice Waters and Chez Panisse, Thomas McNamee recounts Waters' experience in Turkey, where a young Turkish boy shared tea and a small bit of cheese with Waters and her traveling companions though he had little; this small act of kindness had an effect on Waters's approach to hospitality and generosity in her own restaurant. From Turkey, Waters returned to France, where she embarked upon a year-long journey, her travels solidified her love of all things food and French and inspired her to return to California and open Chez Panisse.
Waters counts the English cookbook author and writer, as one of her influences. She credits Richard Olney, an American authority on French food who spent much of his life living in France, with influencing her simple, rustic cuisine. Olney introduced Waters to Lucien and Lulu Peyraud, owners of the Domaine Tempier vineyard in Provence. Lulu Peyraud's vineyard cooking influenced Waters' cooking and her menus at Chez Panisse. In her foreword to Olney's book, Lulu's Provençal Table, Waters wrote: "Lucien and Lulu's warmhearted enthusiasm for life, their love for the pleasures of the table, their deep connection to the beautiful earth of the South of France – these were things I had seen at the movies, but this was for real. I felt as if I had come home to second family."In addition, Waters has said that she learned Chinese cooking from Cecilia Chiang, the two became lifelong friends. Waters has said that what Chiang did to popularize Chinese cuisine in America is what Julia Child did for French Cuisine.
In 1971, Waters opened Chez Panisse, which she named for a favorite character in a trilogy of Marcel Pagnol films. From the beginning, the restaurant was a collaborative effort. Tower melded them into a more refined menu. Chez Panisse was intended to serve as a place where Waters could entertain her friends. Realizing the difficulty in sourcing fresh, high-quality ingredients, Waters began building a network of local farmers and producers, continues to source the restaurant's ingredients through her local network. Waters opened the upstairs Chez Panisse Café, a concept championed by Tower, in 1980. Café serves an a la carte menu for dinner. In 1984, Waters opened Café Fanny, named after her daughter, a few blocks from the restaurant. Café Fanny, which served breakfast and lunch in a casual, European-café setting, closed in 2012; the Waters focused on the importance of organic farmers. Through Chez Panisse foundation, the project called "Edible Schoolyard" was organized in order to make an environment for the students to grow their own products.
Central to the operations and philosophy of Chez Panisse is Waters' and the restaurant's dedication to using organic ingredients. Waters has become a crusader for organic foods, believing that they are both better for the environment and for people's heal
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Local food is a movement of people who prefer to eat foods which are grown or farmed close to the places of sale and preparation. Local food movements aim to connect food producers and food consumers in the same geographic region, in order to develop more self-reliant and resilient food networks; the term has been extended to include not only the geographic location of supplier and consumer but can be "defined in terms of social and supply chain characteristics." For example, local food initiatives promote sustainable and organic farming practices, although these are not explicitly related to the geographic proximity of producer and consumer. Local food represents an alternative to the global food model, a model which sees food traveling long distances before it reaches the consumer. A local food network involves relationships between food producers, distributors and consumers in a particular place, where they work together to increase food security and ensure economic and social sustainability of a community.
In the USA, the local food movement has been traced to the creation of the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933, which spawned today's controversial agricultural subsidies and price supports. The contemporary American movement associated with the term can be traced back to proposed resolutions to the Society for Nutrition Education's 1981 guidelines; these unsuccessful resolutions encouraged increased local production to slow farmland loss. The program described "sustainable diets" - a term new to the American public. At the time, the resolutions were met with strong criticism from pro-business institutions, but have had a strong resurgence of backing since 2000. In 2008, revisions were made to the United States Farm Bill which put an emphasis on nutrition: "it provides low-income seniors with vouchers for use at local produce markets, it added more than $1 billion to the fresh fruit and vegetable program, which serves healthy snacks to 3 million low-income children in schools". No single definition of "local" or "local food systems" exists.
The geographic distances between production and consumption varies within the movement. However, the general public recognizes. There are "a number of different definitions for local have been used or recorded by researchers assessing local food systems most informed by political or geographic boundaries. Among the more circulated and popular defining parameters is the concept of food miles, suggested for policy recommendations." The Food and Energy Act of 2008 includes a definition, with "locally" and "regionally" grouped together and defined as: ‘‘ the locality or region in which the final product is marketed, so that the total distance that the product is transported is less than 400 miles from the origin of the product. In May 2010 the USDA acknowledged this definition in an informational leaflet; the concept of "local" is seen in terms of ecology, where food production is considered from the perspective of a basic ecological unit defined by its climate, watershed and local agrisystems, a unit called an ecoregion or a food shed.
Similar to watersheds, food sheds follow the process of where it ends up. The term "local" is understood by the general public as a description of regional distribution of food, though that does not involve a regulation of distance between the farmer, their food and the consumer, it is the consumer's responsibility to conclude. The USDA included statistics about the growing local food market in the leaflet released in May 2010; the statistics are as follows: "Direct-to-consumer marketing amounted to $1.2 billion in current dollar sales in 2007, according to the 2007 Census of Agriculture, compared with $551 million in 1997. Direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.4 percent of total agricultural sales in 2007, up from 0.3 percent in 1997. If non-edible products are excluded from total agricultural sales, direct-to-consumer sales accounted for 0.8 percent of agricultural sales in 2007. The number of farmers' markets rose to 5,274 in 2009, up from 2,756 in 1998 and 1,755 in 1994, according to USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service.
In 2005, there were 1,144 community-supported agriculture organizations in operation, up from 400 in 2001 and 2 in 1986, according to a study by the nonprofit, nongovernmental organization National Center for Appropriate Technology. In early 2010, estimates exceeded 1,400; the number of farm to school programs, which use local farms as food suppliers for school meals programs, increased to 2,095 in 2009, up from 400 in 2004 and 2 in the 1996-97 school year, according to the National Farm to School Network. Data from the 2005 School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment Survey, sponsored by USDA's Food and Nutrition Service, showed that 14 percent of school districts participated in Farm to School programs, 16 percent reported having guidelines for purchasing locally grown produce."Using metrics including some of those cited above, a Vermont-based farm and food advocacy organization, Strolling of the Heifers, publishes the annual Locavore Index, a ranking of the 50 U. S. states the District of Columbia.
In the 2016 Index, the three top-ranking states were Vermont and Oregon, while the three lowest-ranking states were Nevada and Florida. Networks of local farmers and producers are
James Andrews Beard was an American cook, cookbook author and television personality. Beard was a champion of American cuisine who taught and mentored generations of professional chefs and food enthusiasts, his legacy lives on in twenty books, other writings and his foundation's annual James Beard awards in a number of culinary genres. James Andrews Beard was born in Oregon, in 1903 to Elizabeth and John Beard, his mother operated the Gladstone Hotel, his father worked at the city's customs house. The family vacationed on the Pacific coast in Gearhart, where Beard was exposed to Pacific Northwest cuisine. Common ingredients of this cuisine are salmon and other fresh seafood. Beard's earliest memory of food was at the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition, when he was two years old. In his memoir he recalled: I was taken to the exposition two or three times; the thing that remained in my mind above all others—I think it marked my life—was watching Triscuits and shredded wheat biscuits being made. Isn't that crazy?
At two years old that memory was made. It intrigued the hell out of me. At age three Beard was bedridden with malaria, the illness gave him time to focus on the food prepared by his mother and their Chinese helper. According to Beard he was raised by Thema and Jue-Let, who instilled in him a passion for Chinese culture. Beard "attributes much of his upbringing to Jue-Let," whom he refers to as his Chinese godfather. David Kamp wrote, "In 1940 he realized that part of his mission was to defend the pleasure of real cooking and fresh ingredients against the assault of the Jell-O-mold people and the domestic scientists." Beard lived in France during the 1920s. After this exposure and the widespread influence of French food culture, he became a Francophile. Beard attended Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Although he was expelled for homosexuality in 1922, the college granted Beard an honorary degree in 1976. In 1923 he joined a theatrical troupe and studied voice and theater abroad until 1927, when he returned to the United States.
After training as a singer and actor, Beard moved to New York City in 1937. Unlucky in the theater, he and friend Bill Rhodes capitalized on the cocktail party craze by opening Hors d'Oeuvre, Inc. a catering company. This led to lecturing, teaching and the publication of Beard's first cookbook in 1940: Hors D'Oeuvre and Canapés, a compilation of his catering recipes. According to fellow cooking enthusiast Julia Child, this book put him on the culinary map. World War II rationing ended. From August 1946 to May 1947, he hosted I Love to Eat, a live television cooking show on NBC, beginning his ascent as an American food authority. According to Child, "Through the years he became not only the leading culinary figure in the country, but'The Dean of American Cuisine'."In 1952, when Helen Evans Brown published her Helen Brown's West Coast Cook Book, Beard wrote her a letter igniting a friendship that spanned until Brown's death. The two, along with her husband Phillip, developed a friendship, both professional and personal.
Beard and Brown became like siblings and encouraging each other, as well as collaborating. According to the James Beard Foundation website, "In 1955, he established The James Beard Cooking School, he continued to teach cooking to men and women for the next thirty years, both at his own schools, around the country at women's clubs, other cooking schools, civic groups. He was a tireless traveler, bringing his message of good food prepared with fresh, American ingredients, to a country just becoming aware of its own culinary heritage." Beard brought French cooking to the American middle and upper classes during the 1950s, appearing on TV as a cooking personality. David Kamp noted that Beard's was the first cooking show on TV, he compares Dione Lucas' cooking show and school with Beard's, noting that their prominence during the 1950s marked the emergence of a sophisticated, New York-based and internationally known food culture. Kamp wrote, "It was in this decade that Beard made his name as James Beard, the brand name, the face and belly of American gastronomy."
He noted that Beard met Alice B. Toklas on a trip to Paris, indicative of the network of fellow food celebrities who would follow him during his life and carry on his legacy after his death. Beard made endorsement deals to promote products that he might not have otherwise used or suggested in his own cuisine, including Omaha Steaks, French's Mustard, Green Giant Corn Niblets, Old Crow bourbon, Planters Peanuts, Shasta soft drinks, DuPont chemicals, Adolph's Meat Tenderizer. According to Kamp, Beard felt himself a "gastronomic whore" for doing so. Although he felt that mass-produced food, neither fresh, local nor seasonal was a betrayal of his gastronomic beliefs, he needed the money for his cooking schools. According to Thomas McNamee, "Beard, a man of stupendous appetites—for food, money, you name it—stunned his subtler colleagues." In 1981 Beard and friend Gael Greene founded Citymeals-on-Wheels, which continues to help feed the homebound elderly in New York City. Julia Child summed up Beard's personal life: Beard was the quintessential American cook.
Well-educated and well-traveled during his eighty-two years, he