Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone, defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,1985, Microsoft Windows came to dominate the worlds personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold and this comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. The latest version is Windows 10, the main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server 2016.
Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE10.0.10586.0, Windows Embedded, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system
Battle of Fredericksburg
A visitor to the battlefield described the battle to U. S. President Abraham Lincoln as a butchery. Burnsides plan was to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg in mid-November, bureaucratic delays prevented Burnside from receiving the necessary pontoon bridges in time and Lee moved his army to block the crossings. When the Union army was able to build its bridges and cross under fire. Union troops prepared to assault Confederate defensive positions south of the city, Burnside ordered the grand divisions of Maj. Gens. Sumner and Joseph Hooker to make frontal assaults against Lt. Gen. James Longstreets position on Maryes Heights. On December 15, Burnside withdrew his army, ending another failed Union campaign in the Eastern Theater, in November 1862, Lincoln needed to demonstrate the success of the Union war effort before the Northern public lost confidence in his administration. Confederate armies had been on the earlier in the fall, invading Kentucky and Maryland, and although each had been turned back.
Lincoln urged Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant to advance against the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi. McClellan had stopped Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, mcClellans replacement was Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside, the commander of the IX Corps. Burnside had established a reputation as an independent commander, with successful operations earlier that year in coastal North Carolina and, However, he felt himself unqualified for army-level command and objected when offered the position. Burnside assumed command on November 7, in response to prodding from Lincoln and general-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Burnside planned a late fall offensive, he communicated his plan to Halleck on November 9. The plan relied on movement and deception. He would concentrate his army in a visible fashion near Warrenton, feigning a movement on Culpeper Court House, Orange Court House and he believed that the Orange and Alexandria Railroad would be an inadequate supply line. Lincoln reluctantly approved the plan on November 14 but cautioned his general to move with great speed, the Union Army began marching on November 15, and the first elements arrived in Falmouth on November 17.
Burnside first requisitioned the pontoon bridging on November 7 when he detailed his plan to Halleck, the plan was sent to the attention of Brig. Gen. George Washington Cullum, the chief of staff in Washington. Plans called for both riverine and overland movement of the trains to Falmouth. On November 14, the 50th New York Engineers reported the pontoons were ready to move, unknown to Burnside, most of the bridging was still on the upper Potomac. Communications between Burnsides staff engineer Cyrus B, comstock and the Engineer Brigade commander Daniel P. Woodbury indicate that Burnside had assumed the bridging was en route to Washington based on orders given on November 6
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Battle of Chancellorsville was a major battle of the American Civil War, and the principal engagement of the Chancellorsville Campaign. It was fought from April 30 to May 6,1863, in Spotsylvania County, two related battles were fought nearby on May 3 in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. The campaign pitted Union Army Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers Army of the Potomac against a less than half its size. Chancellorsville is known as Lees perfect battle because his risky decision to divide his army in the presence of a larger enemy force resulted in a significant Confederate victory. The Chancellorsville Campaign began with the crossing of the Rappahannock River by the Union army on the morning of April 27,1863, Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. George Stoneman began a long distance raid against Lees supply lines at about the same time. Crossing the Rapidan River via Germanna and Elys Fords, the Federal infantry concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30, combined with the Union force facing Fredericksburg, Hooker planned a double envelopment, attacking Lee from both his front and rear.
Despite the objections of his subordinates, Hooker withdrew his men to the lines around Chancellorsville. On May 2, Lee divided his army again, sending Stonewall Jacksons entire corps on a march that routed the Union XI Corps. While performing a reconnaissance in advance of his line, Jackson was wounded by fire from his own men. Stuart temporarily replaced him as corps commander and that same day, Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River, defeated the small Confederate force at Maryes Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, and moved to the west. The Confederates fought a delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church and by May 4 had driven back Sedgwicks men to Banks Ford. Sedgwick withdrew across the early on May 5, and Hooker withdrew the remainder of his army across U. S. Ford the night of May 5–6, the campaign ended on May 7 when Stonemans cavalry reached Union lines east of Richmond. In the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, the objective of the Union had been to advance and seize the Confederate capital, Virginia.
In the first two years of the war, four attempts had failed, the first foundered just miles away from Washington. Robert E. Lee in the Seven Days Battles and that summer, Maj. Gen. John Popes Army of Virginia was defeated at the Second Battle of Bull Run. In January 1863, the Army of the Potomac, following the Battle of Fredericksburg, Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside decided to conduct a mass purge of the Army of the Potomacs leadership, eliminating a number of generals who he felt were responsible for the disaster at Fredericksburg. In reality, he had no power to anyone without the approval of Congress
Battle of Chickamauga
The Battle of Chickamauga, fought September 18–20,1863, marked the end of a Union offensive in southeastern Tennessee and northwestern Georgia called the Chickamauga Campaign. The battle was the most significant Union defeat in the Western Theater of the American Civil War and it was the first major battle of the war that was fought in Georgia. After his successful Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed the offensive, aiming to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga, in early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braggs army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union troops followed it and brushed with it at Daviss Cross Roads, Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecranss army, defeat it, and move back into the city. On September 17 he headed north, intending to attack the isolated XXI Corps, as Bragg marched north on September 18, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry, which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles.
Fighting began in earnest on the morning of September 19, Braggs men strongly assaulted but could not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg resumed his assault, in late morning, Rosecrans was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. Longstreets attack drove one-third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line on Horseshoe Ridge, forming a new right wing for the line of Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, who assumed overall command of remaining forces. Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults and his men held until twilight, Union forces retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city. General-in-chief Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln were insistent that Rosecrans move quickly to take Chattanooga, seizing the city would open the door for the Union to advance toward Atlanta and the heartland of the South. Chattanooga was a rail hub, and an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke.
Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, and Stringers Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position. Although Braxton Braggs Army of Tennessee had about 52,000 men at the end of July, into Braggs Department of Tennessee, which added 17,800 men to Braggs army, but extended his command responsibilities northward to the Knoxville area. This brought a third subordinate into Braggs command who had little or no respect for him, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee had already made their animosity well known. Buckners attitude was colored by Braggs unsuccessful invasion of Buckners native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger. A positive aspect for Bragg was Hardees request to be transferred to Mississippi in July, but he was replaced by Lt. Gen. D. H. Hill, a general who did not get along with Robert E. Lee in Virginia. The Confederate War Department asked Bragg in early August whether he could assume the offensive against Rosecrans if he were given reinforcements for Mississippi and he demurred, concerned about the daunting geographical obstacles and logistical challenges, preferring to wait for Rosecrans to solve those same problems and attack him.
He was concerned about a sizable Union force under Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside that was threatening Knoxville, Bragg withdrew his forces from advanced positions around Bridgeport, which left Rosecrans free to maneuver on the northern side of the Tennessee River
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, fought from June 9,1864, to March 25,1865, during the American Civil War. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond, many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines, overloading dwindling Confederate resources. Lee finally gave in to the pressure and abandoned cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House. The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that was common in World War I and it featured the wars largest concentration of African American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffins Farm. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and was given command of the Union Army. He devised a strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T, George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj.
Gen. Nathaniel P. Most of these failed, often because of the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butlers Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May, banks was distracted by the Red River Campaign and failed to move on Mobile. However and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, on May 4, Grant and Meades Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign. Grant spent the remainder of May maneuvering and fighting battles with the Confederate army as he attempted to turn Lees flank. Grant knew that his army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee. This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor when Grants army once again came into contact with Lees near Mechanicsville and he chose to engage Lees army directly, by ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate fortified positions on June 3.
This attack was repulsed with heavy losses, Cold Harbor was a battle that Grant regretted more than any other and Northern newspapers thereafter frequently referred to him as a butcher. On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank and he planned to cross to the south bank of the river, bypassing Richmond, and isolate Richmond by seizing the railroad junction of Petersburg to the south. While Lee remained unaware of Grants intentions, the Union army constructed a pontoon bridge 2,100 feet long, what Lee had feared most of all—that Grant would force him into a siege of Richmond—was poised to occur. This represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign, Lee at first believed that Grants main target was Richmond and devoted only minimal troops under Gen. P. G. T
Computing platform means in general sense, where any piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the system, even a web browser or other application. The term computing platform can refer to different abstraction levels, including a hardware architecture, an operating system. In total it can be said to be the stage on which programs can run. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware, platforms may include, Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS, this is referred to as running on bare metal, a browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser. An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in a scripting language. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform, software frameworks that provide ready-made functionality.
Cloud computing and Platform as a Service, the social networking sites Twitter and facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine, applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, which is executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a system, including virtualized hardware, OS, software. These allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on what is physically a Mac, some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it. In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer immediately beneath it, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS
Xbox Live is an online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery service created and operated by Microsoft. It was first made available to the Xbox system in November 2002, an updated version of the service became available for the Xbox 360 console at the systems launch in November 2005, and a further enhanced version was released in 2013 with the Xbox One. The service was extended in 2007 on the Windows platform, named Games for Windows – Live, Microsoft has announced plans to extend Live to other platforms such as handhelds and mobile phones as part of the Live Anywhere initiative. With Microsofts mobile operating system, Windows Phone, full Xbox Live functionality is integrated into new Windows Phones that launched since late 2010. The service shut down for the original Xbox on April 15,2010, as Microsoft developed the original Xbox console, online gaming was designated as one of the key pillars for the greater Xbox strategy. Downloadable content was available, though limited in size due to the narrowband connection, however, hoped that the Xbox would succeed where the Dreamcast had failed.
Steve Ballmer and Bill Gates both had a vision of making premium download content and add-ons that would attract new customers. Critics scoffed at it, citing poor broadband adoption at the turn of the century, when the Xbox launched on November 15,2001, the as-yet unnamed online service was destined for a Summer 2002 deployment. Xbox Live was finally given a name at E32002 when the service was unveiled in its entirety, sound-dampened booths and broadband-connected Xbox consoles—featuring an early version of Unreal Championship—demonstrated the service on the show floor. The Epic title was one of the titles for the service. Microsoft announced that 50 Xbox Live titles would be available by the end of 2003, leading up to the launch, Microsoft enlisted several waves of beta testers to improve the service and receive feature feedback. The first wave of beta testers were given Revolt. and NFL Fever to beta test, once beta testing concluded, Microsoft sent these beta testers a translucent orange memory card, a headset carrying case, and a beta tester tshirt with the slogan I have great hands.
Microsofts 5000th patent was Live-related and gave Xbox 360 users access to other gamers compete against each other over Xbox Live. The packaging for playable Xbox Live titles on the original Xbox console featured the trademark gold bar underneath the Xbox header, tom Clancys Splinter Cell and Brute Force sported a Live bubble design, as they only featured downloadable content. It was changed later, wherein all Xbox Live titles included the universal gold Live bar, by the time of the Xbox 360, all titles were required to provide at least a limited form of Xbox Live awareness. In July 2004, Xbox Live had reached 1 million online users, in July 2005, Xbox Live had reached 2 million online users. Increased demand from Xbox 360 purchasers was given as the reason for the downtime, on January 18,2008, Microsoft announced Undertow would be offered free to both Gold and Free members for the week starting January 23 through January 27 as compensation. On February 5,2010, Marc Whitten announced that Xbox Live had reached 23 million members, in August 2010, Microsoft announced an increase to the cost of Xbox Live Gold in several countries by 20%, for the first time since its inception
Battle of Cold Harbor
The Battle of Cold Harbor was fought from May 31 to June 12,1864, with the most significant fighting occurring on June 3. It was one of the battles of Union Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grants Overland Campaign during the American Civil War. Thousands of Union soldiers were killed or wounded in a frontal assault against the fortified positions of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lees army. Both Grant and Lee, whose armies had suffered casualties in the Overland Campaign. On the evening of June 1, the Union VI Corps, on June 2, the remainder of both armies arrived and the Confederates built an elaborate series of fortifications 7 miles long. At dawn on June 3, three Union corps attacked the Confederate works on the end of the line and were easily repulsed with heavy casualties. Attempts to assault the northern end of the line and to resume the assaults on the southern were unsuccessful, Grant said of the battle in his memoirs, I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. No advantage whatever was gained to compensate for the loss we sustained.
The armies confronted each other on these lines until the night of June 12 and it was an impressive defensive victory for Lee, but it was his last in the war. In the final stage, he alternated between digging into the trenches at Petersburg and fleeing westward across Virginia, Grants Overland Campaign was one of a series of simultaneous offensives the newly appointed general in chief launched against the Confederacy. Grants campaign objective was not the Confederate capital of Richmond, President Abraham Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would certainly fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also, although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition. Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had greater resources to replace lost soldiers, on May 5, after Grants army crossed the Rapidan River and entered the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, it was attacked by Lees Army of Northern Virginia.
Although Lee was outnumbered, about 60,000 to 100,000, his men fought fiercely, after two days of fighting and almost 29,000 casualties, the results were inconclusive and neither army was able to obtain an advantage. Lee had stopped Grant, but had not turned him back, elements of Lees army beat the Union army to the critical crossroads of Spotsylvania Court House and began entrenching, a tactic that became increasingly essential for the outnumbered defenders. Near Spotsylvania Court House, fighting occurred on and off from May 8 through May 21, on May 8, Union Maj. Gens. On May 10, Grant ordered attacks across the Confederate line of earthworks, although the Union troops failed again at Laurel Hill, an innovative assault attempt by Col. Emory Upton against the Mule Shoe showed promise. Grant used Uptons assault technique on a larger scale on May 12 when he ordered the 15,000 men of Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancocks corps to assault the Mule Shoe
History (U.S. TV network)
The channel originally broadcast documentary programs and historical fiction series. More recently, it has mostly broadcast various reality series such as Pawn Stars, Ax Men. As of February 2015, approximately 96,149,000 American households receive History, International localized versions of History are available, in various forms, in India, Europe, Middle East and Latin America. The first European version was launched in Scandinavia in 1997 by Viasat which now operates their own channel, History was launched on January 1,1995 as The History Channel, its original format focused entirely on historical series and specials. On February 16,2008, a new logo was launched on the U. S. network as part of a rebranding effort, while the trademark H was kept, the triangle shape on the left acts as a play button for animation and flyouts during commercials and shows. On March 20,2008, as part of that same rebranding effort, The History Channel dropped The, on June 1,2015, the History logo was slightly updated, completely removing the triangle shape on the left.
Programming on History has covered a range of historical periods and topics. Programming includes mainstream reality television-style shows involving truck drivers, alligator hunters, pawn stores and collectible pickers, car restorers, occasionally some programs compare contemporary culture and technology with that of the past. On March 3,2013, History channel premiered its first original series, during the 1990s, History was jokingly referred to as The Hitler Channel for its extensive coverage of World War II. Much of its programming has been shifted to its sister network Military History. The network has criticized for having a bias towards US history. The network was criticized by Stanley Kutner for airing the series The Men Who Killed Kennedy in 2003. Kutner was one of three historians commissioned to review the documentary, which the channel disavowed and never aired again, programs such as Modern Marvels have been praised for their presentation of detailed information in an entertaining format.
Some of the series, including Ice Road Truckers, Ax Men. Senator Chuck Grassley is a critic of the channel and its lack of historical or educational programming, showing disdain for Ax Men. In his book 2012, Its Not the End of the World, Peter Lemesurier describes the channels Nostradamus series, in which he was invited to participate, as largely fiction, the History Channel was singled out for ridicule by Smithsonian magazine. The article took issue with the show Ancient Aliens for postulating the idea that caused the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs. The online magazine Cracked lampooned the channel for its definition of history
Battle of Antietam
After pursuing the Confederate general Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan of the Union Army launched attacks against Lees army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hookers corps mounted an assault on Lees left flank. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Millers Cornfield, and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church, Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. In the afternoon, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnsides corps entered the action, capturing a bridge over Antietam Creek. At a crucial moment, Confederate Maj. Gen. A. P. Hills division arrived from Harpers Ferry and launched a counterattack, driving back Burnside. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, during the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout September 18, despite having superiority of numbers, McClellans attacks failed to achieve force concentration, which allowed Lee to counter by shifting forces and moving interior lines to meet each challenge.
Therefore, despite ample reserve forces that could have been deployed to exploit localized successes, McClellan had halted Lees invasion of Maryland, but Lee was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. McClellans refusal to pursue Lees army led to his removal from command by President Abraham Lincoln in November, although the battle was tactically inconclusive, the Confederate troops had withdrawn first from the battlefield, making it, in military terms, a Union victory. Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia—about 55,000 men—entered the state of Maryland on September 3,1862, emboldened by success, the Confederate leadership intended to take the war into enemy territory. Lees invasion of Maryland was intended to run simultaneously with an invasion of Kentucky by the armies of Braxton Bragg and it was necessary for logistical reasons, as northern Virginias farms had been stripped bare of food. They sang the tune Maryland, My Maryland, as they marched, but by the fall of 1862 pro-Union sentiment was winning out, especially in the western parts of the state.
Civilians generally hid inside their houses as Lees army passed through their towns, or watched in cold silence, while the Army of the Potomac was cheered and encouraged. While McClellans 87, 000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, the order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically, thus making each subject to isolation and defeat if McClellan could move quickly enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and reposition his forces, McClellans Army of the Potomac, bolstered by units absorbed from John Popes Army of Virginia, included six infantry corps. The I Corps, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of the divisions of, the II Corps, under Maj. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, consisted of the divisions of, Maj. Gen. Israel B. The V Corps, under Maj. Gen. Fitz John Porter, consisted of the divisions of, the VI Corps, under Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin, consisted of the divisions of, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Slocum, Maj.
Gen. William F. Baldy Smith
The PlayStation 2 is a home video game console that was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to the PlayStation, and is the installment in the PlayStation lineup of consoles. It was released on March 4,2000 in Japan, October 26,2000 in North America, November 24,2000 in Europe and it competed with Segas Dreamcast, Microsofts Xbox, and Nintendos GameCube in the sixth generation of video game consoles. Announced in 1999, the PlayStation 2 was the first PlayStation console to offer backwards compatibility for its predecessors DualShock controller, the PlayStation 2 is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 155 million units, with 150 million confirmed by Sony in 2011. More than 3,874 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, Sony manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as Slimline models in 2004 and well on, and in 2006, announced and launched its successor, the PlayStation 3. Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 console the following month on February 20,2013, Sony announced the PlayStation 2 on March 1,1999.
The Dreamcast itself launched very successfully in North America that year, soon after the Dreamcasts North American launch, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 2 at the Tokyo Game Show on September 20,1999. Sony showed fully playable demos of upcoming PlayStation 2 games including Gran Turismo 2000 and Tekken Tag Tournament – which showed the consoles graphic abilities, the PS2 was launched in March 2000 in Japan, October in North America and November in Europe. Sales of the console and accessories pulled in $250 million on the first day, directly after its release, it was difficult to find PS2 units on retailer shelves due to manufacturing delays. Another option was purchasing the console online through websites such as eBay. This allowed the PS2 to tap the large install base established by the PlayStation – another major selling point over the competition, Sony added new development kits for game developers and more PS2 units for consumers. The PS2s built-in functionality expanded its audience beyond the gamer and this made the console a low cost entry into the home theater market.
The PS2 remained as the only active sixth generation console for over 6 months, before it would face competition from rivals, Nintendos GameCube and Microsofts Xbox. While the PlayStation 2 theoretically had the weakest specification of the three, it had a start due to its installed base plus strong developer commitment. Sony countered the Xbox by temporarily securing PlayStation 2 exclusives for highly anticipated games such as the Grand Theft Auto series and Metal Gear Solid 2, Sons of Liberty. Sony cut the price of the console in May 2002 from US$299 to $199 in North America, making it the price as the GameCube. It planned to cut the price in Japan around that time and it cut the price twice in Japan in 2003. In 2006, Sony cut the cost of the console in anticipation of the release of the PlayStation 3, unlike Sega with its Dreamcast, originally placed little emphasis on online gaming during its first few years, although that changed upon the launch of the online-capable Xbox