Gordon David Strachan is a Scottish football manager and former player, the manager of the Scotland national team. Strachan played for Dundee, Manchester United, Leeds United and Coventry City, as well as the Scotland national team, he has managed Coventry City, Southampton and Middlesbrough. In club football, he played 635 league games, scoring a total of 138 goals, playing 21 of 25 career seasons in either the English or Scottish top-flight. In international football Strachan earned 50 caps, scoring five goals and playing in two FIFA World Cup final tournaments, Spain 82 and Mexico 86. Strachan retired from playing in 1997 at age 40, setting a Premier League record for an outfield player. A right-sided midfielder, Strachan made his senior debut in 1974 with Dundee before moving on within Scotland, to spend seven seasons at Aberdeen, he first played for the Scotland national team in 1980. While at Aberdeen Strachan won multiple domestic league and cup honours in the early 1980s, as well as the 1982–83 European Cup Winners' Cup and 1983 European Super Cup.
Moving to England, Strachan won the 1985 FA Cup Final in five seasons with Manchester United, before spending the next seven seasons as club captain at Leeds, winning the 1989–90 Second Division and 1991–92 First Division league titles. He played his last game for Scotland in 1992 while still at Leeds, moved to Coventry in 1995 for a final three seasons, as a player-coach. Strachan became full-time manager of Coventry when the incumbent Ron Atkinson was appointed as director of football. After five years in the role, he was sacked in 2001 when Coventry were relegated from the top-flight for the first time in 34 years. However, he returned to the Premier League with Southampton and guided the "Saints" to the 2003 FA Cup Final, where they lost 1–0 to Arsenal. Strachan resigned from Southampton in 2004 and took a 16-month break from management before returning to Scotland to become manager of Celtic in the Scottish Premier League. With Celtic, he achieved three successive league titles and other domestic cup wins, before resigning in May 2009 after failing to win a fourth title.
Five months he became manager of Middlesbrough in the English Championship, but left the club after an unsuccessful 12 months in the job. Strachan was named as FWA Footballer of the Year for the 1990–91 season while at Leeds, he was named Manager of the Year in Scotland several times by writers and players while at Celtic. In 2007, Strachan was inducted into the Scottish Football Hall of Fame, he is the father of Craig Strachan and Gavin Strachan footballers. Born and raised in Muirhouse, Strachan supported Hibernian as a boy, his father, worked as a scaffolder, his mother, worked at a whisky distillery. At age 15, he damaged his vision playing football on the school playground when a pen in his pocket became lodged in his right eye, he was offered a contract by Hibernian manager Eddie Turnbull, but his father decided against the offer after stating the club did not pay sufficient expenses for footwear. Strachan began his career with Dundee, having decided to sign with the Scottish club at age 14.
In joining the club, he rejected an approach from Manchester United, reasoning he had a better chance to establish himself in the first team at Dens Park. His natural talent was apparent and he earned a reputation as an outstanding player in the second team, twice winning the Scottish Reserve Player of the Year Award, he made his mark as an 18-year-old when he outplayed Alan Ball in a friendly with Arsenal in August 1975. Strachan became a regular player in the 1975–76 season, the inaugural season of the Scottish Premier Division, featuring in 17 of the club's 36 league matches; however David White's "Dee" were relegated on the last day of the season after rivals Dundee United edged ahead on goal average with an unlikely draw with champions Rangers. New boss Tommy Gemmell handed 19-year-old Strachan the captaincy for the 1976–77 First Division campaign, he remains the youngest player to have captained Dundee. However, the club failed to shine in the lower divisions, Strachan lost his first team place early in the 1977–78 season following a drinking session with Jimmy Johnstone.
Strachan decided to leave Dundee. His last match for Dundee was on 26 October 1977 in a 6–0 defeat in the League Cup to Queen of the South at Palmerston Park, which Strachan described in his autobiography as "embarrassing". Strachan was signed by Aberdeen manager Billy McNeill in November 1977 for a fee of £50,000 plus Jim Shirra. Poor form and niggling injuries made 1977–78 a poor season for Strachan, though the "Dons" went on to finish second in the Scottish Premier Division, he was not picked for the 1978 Scottish Cup Final defeat to Rangers. McNeill left the Pittodrie Stadium for Celtic in summer 1978, Alex Ferguson was appointed as the new manager. Strachan played at Hampden Park in the 1979 League Cup defeat to Rangers, set up Duncan Davidson for the game's opening goal. Though the 1978–79 campaign was a disappointment, Aberdeen went on to win the league title in 1979–80 after closing a ten-point deficit over Celtic with a late run that included two victories at Celtic Park, they again reached the League Cup Fi
Anything (The Cranberries demo)
Anything is the first demo EP by the Irish band The Cranberry Saw Us known as The Cranberries. It was self-released in cassette format; this is the only release to feature the original singer Niall Quinn. By their next release, Water Circle, Niall Quinn had been replaced by Dolores O'Riordan as lead vocalist and primary songwriter. Guitarist Noel Hogan designed the cover art, he made an error in the band's name, spelling it "The Cranbery Saw Us" on both the cover and the liner notes. The liner notes show the original sale price was £2.00 and overwritten with £2.50. There are no surnames mentioned in the liner notes. "Throw Me Down a Big Stairs" – 2:31 "How's It Going to Bleed" – 3:54 "Storm in a Teacup" – 3:41 "Good Morning God" – 2:52 The Cranberry Saw Us Niall Quinn – vocals, guitar Noel Hogan – guitar, vocals Mike Hogan – bass Fergal Lawler – drums Additional personnel Jim – keyboards Andy – harmonica Morgan – accordion Claire – violin
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
A Life Less Ordinary (song)
"A Life Less Ordinary" was a non-album single released by the band Ash on 13 October 1997. It was the title track of the film of the same name, A Life Less Ordinary, starring Cameron Diaz and Ewan McGregor, appeared on the film's soundtrack; the single was released in three formats: 7" and cassette. The limited edition 7" was printed on blue vinyl; the song peaked at number ten on the UK Singles Chart. The band were requested for by the director of the film, Danny Boyle; this was the first song to feature their new guitarist Charlotte Hatherley. The song had the working title of "Film Song" and Wheeler has said of the lyrics:'This is a song about my muse. Robert Graves wrote a book called'White Goddess' about the goddess of poetry, a concept that goes back to the ancient Greeks. Maybe this makes me sound mad, but I have this thing about music coming from a higher place. So, I was writing a song about the goddess. It's a weird love song, it says how I'd sell my soul for something to believe in, something more significant than everyday life.'.
The song became their third top 10 single in the UK charts, peaking at number 10, is popular with the band and the fans. On, in 2002, it was included in the Intergalactic Sonic 7″s greatest hits collection; the song is always in the band's live set-lists, appears on the Tokyo Blitz DVD. The song was remixed in a heavier fashion for the Japanese and US versions of Nu-Clear Sounds, it has the first verse repeated in place of the second. The first B-side, "What Deaner was Talking About" is a cover of the song by Ween from the album Chocolate and Cheese; this track features on Ash's live album Live at the Wireless. The B-side "Where is Our Love Going?" is more of an example of the music Ash used to make in their Trailer where they were heading for in Nu-Clear Sounds. It's a fast-paced number, which appeared on the Cosmic Debris B-sides collection; the track, "Halloween" appears on Cosmic Debris, but is a much slower paced story, telling a tale of loneliness on Halloween night until reuniting with his friends at the end of the song.
The track was called "Happy Halloween". The famous directors Hammer & Tongs directed the video for the single, which consists of the band playing on a race-track inside a heart-shaped area marked with crash barriers. Four cars crash into the band; the cars race forward with the band still playing the song on the bonnets of the cars. Towards the end, the cars crash into each other throwing one over the top. However, the cars land and they race off into the distance and out of view. Of course, this being the soundtrack to the film of the same name, footage from the film is cut to. Rick was taken ill with bronchitis during the filming of this video, which explains why after the first few shots of him at the start, he has his hood up for the rest of the video; this was in fact a crew member filling in for him. CD 1 "A Life Less Ordinary" "What Deaner was Talking About" "Where is our Love Going?" "Halloween" Promo CD INFECT 50CDP "A Life Less Ordinary" Radio Edit 3:59 "A Life Less Ordinary" Album Version 4:397" "A Life Less Ordinary" "Where is our Love Going?"
"What Deaner was Talking About" http://walking-barefoot.com Ash - A Life Less Ordinary (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Kitchen sink realism
Kitchen sink realism is a British cultural movement that developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s in theatre, novels and television plays, whose protagonists could be described as "angry young men" who were disillusioned with modern society. It used a style of social realism, which depicted the domestic situations of working class Britons, living in cramped rented accommodation and spending their off-hours drinking in grimy pubs, to explore controversial social and political issues ranging from abortion to homelessness; the harsh, realistic style contrasted with the escapism of the previous generation's so-called "well-made plays". The films and novels employing this style are set in poorer industrial areas in the North of England, use the accents and slang heard in those regions; the film It Always Rains on Sunday is a precursor of the genre, the John Osborne play Look Back in Anger is thought of as the first of the genre. The gritty love-triangle of Look Back in Anger, for example, takes place in a cramped, one-room flat in the English Midlands.
Shelagh Delaney's 1958 play A Taste of Honey, is about a teenage schoolgirl who has an affair with a black sailor, gets pregnant, moves in with a gay male acquaintance. The conventions of the genre have continued into the 2000s, finding expression in such television shows as Coronation Street and EastEnders. In art, "Kitchen Sink School" was a term used by critic David Sylvester to describe painters who depicted social realist–type scenes of domestic life; the cultural movement was rooted in the ideals of social realism, an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities. Many artists who subscribed to social realism were painters with socialist political views. While the movement has some commonalities with Socialist Realism, another style of realism, the "official art" advocated by the governments of the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries, the two had several differences. While social realism is a broader type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern, Socialist realism is characterized by the glorified depiction of socialist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat, in a realistic manner.
Unlike Socialist realism, social realism is not an official art produced by, or under the supervision of the government. The leading characters are often'anti-heroes' rather than part of a class to be admired, as in Socialist realism. Protagonists in social realism are dissatisfied with their working class lives and the world, rather than being idealised workers who are part of a Socialist utopia in the process of creation; as such, social realism allows more space for the subjectivity of the author to be displayed. Social realism developed as a reaction against Romanticism, which promoted lofty concepts such as the "ineffable" beauty and truth of art and music, turned them into spiritual ideals; as such, social realism focused on the "ugly realities of contemporary life and sympathized with working class people the poor.". In the United Kingdom, the term "kitchen sink" derived from an expressionist painting by John Bratby, which contained an image of a kitchen sink. Bratby did bathroom-themed paintings, including three paintings of toilets.
Bratby's paintings of people depicted the faces of his subjects as desperate and unsightly. Kitchen sink realism artists painted everyday objects, such as trash cans and beer bottles; the critic David Sylvester wrote an article in 1954 about trends in recent English art, calling his article "The Kitchen Sink" in reference to Bratby's picture. Sylvester argued that there was a new interest among young painters in domestic scenes, with stress on the banality of life. Other artists associated with the kitchen sink style include Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch and Jack Smith. Before the 1950s, the United Kingdom's working class were depicted stereotypically in Noël Coward's drawing room comedies and British films. Kitchen sink realism was seen as being in opposition to the "well-made play", the kind which theatre critic Kenneth Tynan once denounced as being set in "Loamshire", of dramatists like Terence Rattigan. "Well-made plays" were a dramatic genre from nineteenth-century theatre which found its early 20th-century codification in Britain in the form of William Archer's Play-Making: A Manual of Craftmanship, in the United States with George Pierce Baker's Dramatic Technique.
Kitchen sink works were created with the intention of changing all that. Their political views were labeled as radical, sometimes anarchic. John Osborne's play Look Back In Anger depicted young men in a way, similar to the then-contemporary "Angry Young Men" movement of film and theatre directors; the "angry young men" were a group of working and middle class British playwrights and novelists who became prominent in the 1950s. Following the success of the Osborne play, the label "angry young men" was applied by British media to describe young writers who were characterised by a disillusionment with traditional British society; the hero of Look Back In Anger is a graduate. It dealt with social alienation, the claustrophobia and frustrations of a provincial life on low incomes; the impact of this work inspired Arnold Wesker and Shelagh Delaney, among numerous others, to write plays of their own. The English Stage Company at the Royal Court Theatre, headed by George Devine
Dolores Mary Eileen O'Riordan was an Irish musician and songwriter. She was the vocalist for rock band The Cranberries from 1990 until they disbanded in 2003 reuniting with her band in 2009, which she led until her death in 2018, her death caused the Cranberries to disband again. O'Riordan's first solo album, Are You Listening?, was released in May 2007 and was followed up by No Baggage in 2009. O'Riordan was known for her lilting mezzo-soprano voice, her emphasised use of keening, her strong Limerick accent, she appeared as a judge on RTÉ's The Voice of Ireland during the 2013–14 season. In April 2014, O'Riordan joined and began recording new material with the trio D. A. R. K. Dolores O'Riordan was born 6 September 1971 in Ballybricken, County Limerick, the youngest of nine children, two of whom died in infancy, her six siblings include Terence, Donal, PJ, Angela. Her father, Terence Patrick "Terry" O'Riordan, was a farm labourer, left unable to work due to brain damage caused by a motorbike accident in 1968.
Her mother, was a school caterer. O'Riordan was raised in a devout Roman Catholic family, was named by her mother in reference to the Lady of the Seven Dolours. O'Riordan attended Laurel Hill Coláiste FCJ school in Limerick, she admitted in an interview in 1995 that she had neglected her lessons in favour of writing music and song, although at school she became head girl. O'Riordan left school without any qualifications. Following her father's death in 2011, O'Riordan described how, from the age of eight, she was sexually abused for four years by an unnamed person whom she trusted. In 1989, brothers Mike and Noel Hogan formed The Cranberry Saw Us with drummer Fergal Lawler and singer Niall Quinn, in Limerick, Ireland. Less than a year Quinn left the band; the remaining band members placed an advertisement for a female singer. O'Riordan responded to the advertisement and auditioned by writing lyrics and melodies to some existing demos; when she returned with a rough version of "Linger", she was hired, they recorded Nothing Left At All, a three-track EP released on tape by local record label Xeric Records, which sold 300 copies.
The group changed their name to "The Cranberries". The owner of Xeric Studios, Pearse Gilmore, became their manager and provided the group with studio time to complete another demo tape, which he produced, it featured early versions of "Linger" and "Dreams", which were sent to record companies throughout the UK. This demo earned the attention of both the UK press and record industry and sparked a bidding war between major British record labels; the group signed with Island Records. As part of The Cranberries she released along with them five albums: Everybody Else Is Doing It, So Why Can't We?, No Need to Argue, To the Faithful Departed, Bury the Hatchet, Wake Up and Smell the Coffee, a greatest-hits compilation, Stars: The Best of 1992–2002. O'Riordan has been recognised as a style icon, sporting a pixie cut or buzzed hair in the 1990s and performing barefoot, saying "it just feels comfortable and honest to pull your toes along the ground." On 18 July 1994, O'Riordan married Don Burton, the former tour manager of Duran Duran, at Holy Cross Abbey in Co.
Tipperary. The couple had three children (Taylor and Dakota. In 1998, the couple bought a 61-hectare stud farm, called Riversfield Stud, located in Kilmallock, County Limerick, selling it in 2004, they moved to Howth, County Dublin, spent summers in a log cabin in Buckhorn, Canada. In September 1995, she performed Ave Maria along with Luciano Pavarotti. In 2003, the band decided to take a temporary time-out to experiment on solo projects. In 2004, she appeared with the Italian artist Zucchero on the album Zu & Co. with the song "Pure Love". The album featured other artists such as Sting, Sheryl Crow, Luciano Pavarotti, Miles Davis, John Lee Hooker, Macy Gray, Eric Clapton; the same year she worked with composer Angelo Badalamenti of Twin Peaks fame on the Evilenko soundtrack, providing vocals on several tracks, including "Angels Go to Heaven", the movie's theme song. In 2005, she appeared on the Jam & Spoon's album Tripomatic Fairytales 3003 as a guest vocalist on the track "Mirror Lover", she made a cameo appearance in the Adam Sandler comedy Click, released on 23 June 2006, as a wedding singer performing an alternate version of The Cranberries' "Linger", set to strings.
Her first single, "Ordinary Day", was produced by BRIT Awards winner, whose previous credits included The Verve, Primal Scream, U2, Paul McCartney. O'Riordan made an appearance live on The Late Late Show on 20 April 2007. Are You Listening? was released in Ireland on 4 May 2007, in Europe on 7 May, in North America on 15 May. "Ordinary Day" was its first single, released in late April. The video for "Ordinary Day" was shot in Prague. In August "When We Were Young" was released as the second single from the album. In 2006, O'Riordan was listed among the 10 richest women in Ireland. On 19 November 2007, she cancelled the remainder of her European Tour due to illness. In December she performed in a few small American clubs, including Des Moines, a well-received free show in Charlottesville, Virginia, her second album, No Baggage, featuring 11 tracks, was released in August 2009. In 2008, O'Riordan won an EBBA Award; every year the European Border Breakers Awards recognize the success of ten emerging artists or groups who reached audiences outside their own countries with their fir
Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was used interchangeably with alternative rock; as grunge and punk revival bands in the US and Britpop bands in the UK broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term. Sometimes used interchangeably with "guitar pop rock", in the mid-1980s, the term "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels; some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. During the 1990s, grunge bands broke into the mainstream, the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning.
The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. By the end of the 1990s, indie rock developed several subgenres and related styles, including lo-fi, noise pop, slowcore, post-rock, math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the music industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success. In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped-down, back-to-basics version of guitar rock emerged into the mainstream; the commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives and The Vines. Emo broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the decade, the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill"; the term indie rock, which comes from "independent," describes the small and low-budget labels on which it is released and the do-it-yourself attitude of the bands and artists involved. Although distribution deals are struck with major corporate companies, these labels and the bands they host have attempted to retain their autonomy, leaving them free to explore sounds and subjects of limited appeal to large, mainstream audiences.
The influences and styles of the artists have been diverse, including punk, post-punk and country. The terms "alternative rock" and "indie rock" were used interchangeably in the 1980s, but after many alternative bands followed Nirvana into the mainstream in the early 1990s, "indie rock" began to be used to describe those bands, working in a variety of styles, that did not pursue or achieve commercial success. Aesthetically speaking, indie rock is characterized as having a careful balance of pop accessibility with noise, experimentation with pop music formulae, sensitive lyrics masked by ironic posturing, a concern with "authenticity," and the depiction of a simple guy or girl. Allmusic identifies indie rock as including a number of "varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes". Linked by an ethos more than a musical approach, the indie rock movement encompassed a wide range of styles, from hard-edged, grunge-influenced bands, through do-it-yourself experimental bands like Pavement, to punk-folk singers such as Ani DiFranco.
In fact, there is an everlasting list of subgenres of indie rock. Many countries have developed an extensive local indie scene, flourishing with bands with enough popularity to survive inside the respective country, but unknown elsewhere. However, there are still indie bands that start off locally, but attract an international audience. Indie rock is noted for having a high proportion of female artists compared with preceding rock genres, a tendency exemplified by the development of the feminist-informed Riot Grrrl music of acts like Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, 7 Year Bitch, Team Dresch and Huggy Bear. However, Cortney Harding pointed out that this sense of equality is not reflected in the number of women running indie labels; the BBC documentary Music for Misfits: The Story of Indie pinpoints the birth of indie as the 1977 self-publication of the Spiral Scratch EP by Manchester band Buzzcocks. Although Buzzcocks are classified as a punk band, it has been argued by the BBC and others that the publication of Spiral Scratch independently of a major label led to the coining of the name "indie".
"Indie pop" and "indie" were synonymous. In the mid-1980s, "indie" began to be used to describe the music produced on post-punk labels rather than the labels themselves; the indie rock scene in the US was prefigured by the college rock that dominated college radio playlists, which included key bands like R. E. M. from the US and The Smiths from the UK. These two bands rejected the dominant synthpop of the early 1980s, helped inspire guitar-based jangle pop. In the United States, the term was associated with the abrasive, distortion-heavy sounds of the Pixies, Hüsker Dü, Meat Puppets, Dinosaur Jr. and The Replacements. In the United Kingdom the C86 cassette, a 1986 NME compilation featuring Primal Scream, The Pastels, The Wedding Present and other bands, was a document of the UK indie scene at the start of 1986, it gave its name to the indie pop scene that followed, a major influence on the development of the British indie scene as a whole. Major precursors of indie pop included Postcard bands Josef K and Orange Juice, significant labels included Creation and Glass.
The Jesus and Mary Chain's sound combined the Velvet