UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri
The Backstreet Boys are an American vocal group, formed in Orlando, Florida in 1993. The group consists of AJ McLean, Howie Dorough, Nick Carter, Kevin Richardson, Brian Littrell; the group rose to fame with Backstreet Boys. In the following year they released their second international album Backstreet's Back along with their self-titled U. S. debut album. They rose to superstardom with their third studio album Millennium and its follow-up album, Black & Blue. After a two-year hiatus, they released a comeback album Never Gone. After the conclusion of the Never Gone Tour in 2006, Richardson left the group to pursue other interests; the group released two albums as a quartet: Unbreakable and This Is Us. In 2012, the group announced. In the following year they celebrated their 20th anniversary and released their first independent album, In a World Like This; the group released their first documentary movie, titled Backstreet Boys: Show'Em What You're Made Of in January 2015. The Backstreet Boys have sold over 100 million records worldwide, making them the best-selling boy band of all time, one of the world's best-selling music artists.
They are the first group since Led Zeppelin to have their first ten albums reach the top 10 on the Billboard 200, the only boy band to do so. The Backstreet Boys are one of the few boy bands to have continued success long after their peak, their 2019 album DNA debuted at number one. In doing so they have achieved numerous milestones, including the second longest gap between number one albums on the Billboard 200 chart, at over 19 years, only surpassed by Sir Paul McCartney's 36 year gap, being the first boy band to top the U. S. charts in three different decades. The group received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on April 22, 2013. Howie Dorough and AJ McLean were natives of Orlando, who met each other and discovered Nick Carter through auditions; the three, decided to form a trio. Cousins Kevin Richardson and Brian Littrell, both from Lexington, sang in local church choirs and festivals when they were children. Richardson moved to Orlando in 1990, where he worked at Walt Disney World and concentrated on music at night.
He met Dorough, McLean through a co-worker, the four decided to form a group. In 1992 Lou Pearlman placed an ad in the Orlando Sentinel to compose a vocal group. McLean, the first to audition for Pearlman in his living room, became the group's first member. In January 1993, Pearlman held an open casting call and hundreds of young performers auditioned at his blimp hangar in Kissimmee. Carter and Richardson were selected after meeting Pearlman's expectations. Littrell flew from Kentucky to Orlando to formally join the group on April 20, 1993, a day after receiving a phone call from Richardson about it. Thus, April 20 became their anniversary date. Pearlman decided to call them Backstreet Boys, after Orlando's Backstreet Market, an outdoor flea market near International Drive, a teen hangout; the Backstreet Boys had their first performance at SeaWorld Orlando on May 8, 1993. The group continued to perform in various venues during summer 1993, from shopping malls, restaurants, to a high-profile charity gala in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.
With a change in management in the fall, they began to tour schools across the U. S. building a fan base while trying to get a record deal. Mercury Records nearly signed them in 1993, but the deal fell through at the last minute because longtime Mercury recording artist John Mellencamp threatened to leave the label if they got into the boy band business. However, in February 1994, Jeff Fenster and David Renzer saw the group performing at a high school in Cleveland, signed them to their first record deal. In June 1995, the group flew to Sweden to record some songs with Max Martin and Denniz PoP, including "We've Got It Goin' On", which ended up being their first single. "We've Got It Goin' On" was sent to radio in August 1995 and released as a physical single on September 5, 1995. In North America, Mix 96 in Montreal broke the group after the programmers heard it on the radio in Europe; the song was a minor success in the U. S. peaking at only No. 69 by December 1995, but it entered the top 5 in Germany, Austria and the Netherlands.
European success sent them there on a summer tour and shifted their promotion being done in Europe. The group finished recording their first album Backstreet Boys in April 1996, it was released internationally on May 6, 1996, excluding U. S. and Canada. Their popularity grew in Europe. "I'll Never Break Your Heart" reached a Gold status in Germany for selling 250,000 copies and they were voted the No. 1 international group there in 1996. They earned their first platinum record in Germany in 1996 for selling 500,000 copies of their debut album and shortly thereafter they began touring Asia and Canada, they became one of the most successful debut artists in the world, collecting awards such as Durchstarter in Germany's Viva Comet Awards in 1996."Anywhere for You" was released as the last single from their international debut album on February 17, 1997. "Quit Playing Games" released in Europe as their fourth single in October 1996, was released in the U. S
The One (Backstreet Boys song)
"The One" is a song by American boy band Backstreet Boys. It was released on May 16, 2000, as the fourth and final single from their third studio album Millennium. In a 2001 interview on The View, the group stated they never intended "The One" as their fourth single; the group held a poll on TRL allowing fans to choose the next single from their album, after Nick Carter himself called in and voted for "The One", his large fan-base followed. The rest of the group had preferred the song "Don't Want You Back", leading in votes up to that point. A sneak preview of this song was released on the Selections from A Night Out with the Backstreet Boys CD on November 17, 1998 and had a different sound to it. Baby One More Time two months later; this song was used as the opening song in the shōnen anime Hanada Shōnen-shi. "The One" – 3:46 "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" – 3:40 "Larger than Life" – 3:50 "The One" – 3:46 "The One" – 3:46 "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" – 3:57 The music video was directed by Chris Hafner and Kevin Richardson in April 2000.
The video opened with a dedication to the Boys' fans, crew and dancers. The video itself opens with a time-lapse shot of the Bankers Life Fieldhouse, home of the Indiana Pacers, being converted from a basketball court to the band's stage for the Into the Millennium Tour, reversed at the end of the video; the remainder of the video is made up of clips of performance footage from the tour, less notably, a number of panned still images and off-stage clips from behind the scenes, or from other promotional appearances done for Millennium. The footage is not related to "The One", though there are a few clips of the band synced to the lyrics. A soundtrack of screaming fans was added to the album version of the song to give a live feeling to the song. Concert footage was from the entire tour as well as a concert in the Bryce Jordan Center, the basketball arena for Penn State University There appears in the video at segment of the Backstreet Boys playing basketball in Michigan State jerseys; this is because concert footage was taken from when the band played the Jack Breslin Center.
Most of the video is in widescreen format, though the within letterboxed black area are pulses of color based on the brightness of the shots. The choruses feature two different clips side-by-side, further letterboxing the video. During the breakdown before the final choruses, the normal letterboxed image is split horizontally into four segments and different clips flash between them with camera flash effects on the borderlines. "The One" – 3:46 "The One" – 3:46 "The One" – 3:35 "The One" – 6:29 "The One" – 10:07
Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely
"Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" is a song by American boy band, Backstreet Boys, taken from their third studio album, Millennium. It was written by Max Martin and Herbie Crichlow, with production by Martin and Kristian Lundin, "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" is a pop and R&B ballad, with Latin pop influences, about missing someone that you love and asking the meaning of living a lonely life. Jive Records selected the track to be released as the third single from the album, on November 26, 1999, it received favorable reviews from music critics, who commended the lush orchestration, its melody and the group's vocal performance. The song was one of 3 tracks to be previewed at the end of Britney Spears' debut album... Baby One More Time, it has experienced success on the charts, reaching the top 10 in most countries it charted peaking at number three on the UK Singles Chart and number six on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. The music video for the track was released on 1999's New Year's Eve and was directed by Stuart Gosling.
It follows each of the band members in a separate dramatic history, with the band uniting for the video's end. The song earned a Grammy award nomination during the 43rd Grammy Awards for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals. "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" was written by Max Martin and Herbie Crichlow, while Martin produced it. On the November 27, 1999 issue of Billboard Magazine, it was reported that Jive Records selected "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" as Millennium's third single; the song received a CD Single on December 3, 1999. "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" is a pop and R&B ballad, with Latin pop influences. Lyrically, the song deals with heartbreak. "Show me the meaning of being lonely/Is this the feeling I need to walk with/Tell me why I can't be there where you are/There's something missing in my heart," they sing in the chorus. The song received acclaim from most music critics. Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic picked the song as a standout track on the album.
While reviewing their compilation, The Hits: Chapter One, Erlewine wrote that "the rest of the singles that fill out the compilation aren't quite as good as "I Want It That Way", "As Long as You Love Me", "Quit Playing Games", "Everybody" and "Larger than Life"." Arion Berger of Rolling Stone commented that the song "digs its melodic claws into your skull on the first listen—it's the swooniest blending of the five vocalists' timbres to date, mighty pretty besides."Chuck Taylor of Billboard named it a "keepsake ballad that will have the quintet's loyal legions panting over their loss and loneliness." Taylor called it "a beautifully produced anthem," and praised its melody, writing that, "it will lock itself into the pop culture consciousness." Taylor finished his review, writing that the single is "the best ballad of the season and a sure-fine way to return the Boys to full glory." "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" was a success on the charts, reaching the top-ten in most countries it charted.
In the United States, the song debuted at number 74 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart while on the issue of March 18, 2000, the song peaked at number six, remaining at the peak position for two further weeks. In other Billboard component charts, the song succeeded, topping the Top 40 Mainstream chart and reaching number two on the Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks. In Canada, the song topped the RPM Top Singles chart for two weeks. In the United Kingdom, "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" peaked at number three, becoming their last single to reach the top-three and seventeenth top-ten single; the song became a success in countries like the Netherlands, New Zealand and Switzerland, reaching number two. It reached the top-ten in Austria, Finland, Ireland and Norway, it only performed moderately in Australia, where it reached number 19, becoming their lowest charting-single since "Quit Playing Games". "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" was nominated for a Grammy award on the 43rd ceremony for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals, but lost it to Steely Dan's "Cousin Dupree".
Emily Exton of VH1 placed the song at number seven on their "20 Backstreet Boys Songs" list, writing that the song is "a more mature sound that showcased Kevin’s vocals instead of his dark and mysterious looks. Here the Boys tackle grief well, without pouring on too much schmaltz or over-complicating things." Danielle Sweeney of The Celebrity Cafe placed it at number seven on her "Top 10 Backstreet Boys Songs", writing that, "it's their most emotional song, containing the lyrics,'how can it be you’re asking me to feel the things you never show?'. Deep, guys." The music video for "Show Me the Meaning of Being Lonely" was directed by Stuart Gosling in Los Angeles. It follows each of the band members separately in a sad story, until they unite during the instrumental break and final choruses; the video, somewhat darker in tone than any of the band's previous releases, touches on several of the band's real-life issues. Littrell had undergone open heart surgery the previous year for a defect; the video used actual footage of his deceased father.
The girl Dorough sees represents his sister, who died a year earlier of the disease Lupus. Additionally, the bus McLean rides is marked for "Denniz St.", is driven by an actor who resembles Denniz PoP. An alternate version of the video was dedicated in his honor; the video begins at a hospital, in whic
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Blender was an American music magazine that billed itself as "the ultimate guide to music and more". It was known for sometimes steamy pictorials of celebrities, it compiled lists of albums and songs, including both "best of" and "worst of" lists. In each issue, there was a review of an artist's entire discography, with each album being analyzed in turn. Blender was published by Dennis Publishing; the magazine began in 1994 as the first digital CD-ROM magazine by Jason Pearson, David Cherry, Regina Joseph, acquired by Felix Dennis/Dennis Publishing, UK it published 15 digital CD issues, launched on the web in 1997. It started publishing a print edition again in 1999 in its most recent form. Blender CD-ROM showcased the earliest digital editorial formats, as well as the first forms of digital advertising; the first digital advertisers included Calvin Klein, Apple Computer and Nike. In June 2006, the Chicago Tribune named it one of the top ten English-language magazines, describing it as "the cool kid at the school of rock magazines".
Owner Alpha Media Group closed Blender magazine March 26, 2009, going to an online-only format in a move that eliminated 30 jobs and reduced the company's portfolio of titles to Maxim alone. Blender's final print issue was the April 2009 issue. Subscribers to the magazine were sent issues of Maxim magazine to make up for the unsent Blender issues; the Indian edition of Blender was the title's first venture outside the United States. It commenced publication with its May 2008 issue; the magazine was targeted at educated male city dwellers aged between 18 and 34. The magazine was launched through Dennis Media Transasia India, a joint venture between Dennis Publishing and Media Transasia, which publishes the Asian versions of Blender and Maxim; the joint venture was based in New Delhi with offices in Bangalore, Chennai and Mumbai
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st