Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Though he did not speak English fluently until his twenties, he was a master prose stylist who brought a non-English sensibility into English literature. Conrad wrote stories and novels, many with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of what he saw as an impassive, inscrutable universe. Conrad is considered an early modernist, his narrative style and anti-heroic characters have influenced numerous authors, many films have been adapted from, or inspired by, his works. Numerous writers and critics have commented that Conrad's fictional works, written in the first two decades of the 20th century, seem to have anticipated world events. Writing near the peak of the British Empire, Conrad drew, among other things, on his native Poland's national experiences and on his own experiences in the French and British merchant navies, to create short stories and novels that reflect aspects of a European-dominated world—including imperialism and colonialism—and that profoundly explore the human psyche.
Conrad was born on 3 December 1857 in Berdychiv, in Stolen Lands, Ukraine part of the Russian Empire. He was the only child of Apollo Korzeniowski—a writer, political activist, would-be revolutionary—and his wife Ewa Bobrowska, he was christened Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski after his maternal grandfather Józef, his paternal grandfather Teodor, the heroes of two poems by Adam Mickiewicz and Konrad Wallenrod, was known to his family as "Konrad", rather than "Józef". Though the vast majority of the surrounding area's inhabitants were Ukrainians, the great majority of Berdychiv's residents were Jewish all the countryside was owned by the Polish szlachta, to which Conrad's family belonged as bearers of the Nałęcz coat-of-arms. Polish literature patriotic literature, was held in high esteem by the area's Polish population; the Korzeniowski family had played a significant role in Polish attempts to regain independence. Conrad's paternal grandfather Teodor had served under Prince Józef Poniatowski during Napoleon's Russian campaign and had formed his own cavalry squadron during the November 1830 Uprising.
Conrad's fiercely patriotic father Apollo belonged to the "Red" political faction, whose goal was to re-establish the pre-partition boundaries of Poland, but which advocated land reform and the abolition of serfdom. Conrad's subsequent refusal to follow in Apollo's footsteps, his choice of exile over resistance, were a source of lifelong guilt for Conrad; because of the father's attempts at farming and his political activism, the family moved repeatedly. In May 1861 they moved to Warsaw; this led to his imprisonment in Pavilion X of the Warsaw Citadel. Conrad would write: "n the courtyard of this Citadel—characteristically for our nation—my childhood memories begin." On 9 May 1862 Apollo and his family were exiled to Vologda, 500 kilometres north of Moscow and known for its bad climate. In January 1863 Apollo's sentence was commuted, the family was sent to Chernihiv in northeast Ukraine, where conditions were much better. However, on 18 April 1865 Ewa died of tuberculosis. Apollo did his best to home-school Conrad.
The boy's early reading introduced him to the two elements that dominated his life: in Victor Hugo's Toilers of the Sea he encountered the sphere of activity to which he would devote his youth. Most of all, though, he read Polish Romantic poetry. Half a century he explained that "The Polishness in my works comes from Mickiewicz and Słowacki. My father read Pan Tadeusz aloud to me and made me read it aloud.... I used to prefer Konrad Wallenrod Grażyna. I preferred Słowacki. You know why Słowacki?... ". In December 1867, Apollo took his son to the Austrian-held part of Poland, which for two years had been enjoying considerable internal freedom and a degree of self-government. After sojourns in Lwów and several smaller localities, on 20 February 1869 they moved to Kraków in Austrian Poland. A few months on 23 May 1869, Apollo Korzeniowski died, leaving Conrad orphaned at the age of eleven. Like Conrad's mother, Apollo had been gravely ill with tuberculosis; the young Conrad was placed in the care of Tadeusz Bobrowski.
Conrad's poor health and his unsatisfactory schoolwork caused his uncle constant problems and no end of financial outlay. Conrad was not a good student. Since the boy's illness was of nervous origin, the physicians supposed that fresh air and physical work would harden him. Since he showed little inclination to study, it was essential. In fact, in the autumn of 1871, thirteen-year-old Conrad announced his intention to become a sailor, he recalled that as a child he had read Leopold McClintock's book about his 1857–59 expeditions in the Fox, in search of Sir John Franklin's lost ships Erebus and Terror. He recalled having read books by the American James Fenimore Cooper an
Heart of Darkness
Heart of Darkness is a novella by Polish-British novelist Joseph Conrad about a narrated voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State in the so-called heart of Africa. Charles Marlow, the narrator, tells his story to friends aboard a boat anchored on the River Thames; this setting provides the frame for Marlow's story of his obsession with the ivory trader Kurtz, which enables Conrad to create a parallel between what Conrad calls "the greatest town on earth", Africa as places of darkness. Central to Conrad's work is the idea that there is little difference between so-called civilised people and those described as savages. Issued as a three-part serial story in Blackwood's Magazine to celebrate the thousandth edition of the magazine, Heart of Darkness has been re-published and translated into many languages, it provided the inspiration for Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 film Apocalypse Now. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Heart of Darkness 67th on their list of the 100 best novels in English of the twentieth century.
In 1890, at the age of 32, Conrad was appointed by a Belgian trading company to serve on one of its steamers. While sailing up the Congo River from one station to another, the captain became ill and Conrad assumed command, he guided the ship up the tributary Lualaba River to the trading company's innermost station, Kindu, in Eastern Kongo. When Conrad began to write the novella, eight years after returning from Africa, he drew inspiration from his travel journals, he described Heart of Darkness as "a wild story" of a journalist who becomes manager of a station in the interior and makes himself worshipped by a tribe of savages. Thus described, the subject is not; the tale was first published as a three-part serial, in February and April 1899, in Blackwood's Magazine. In 1902, Heart of Darkness was included in the book Youth: a Narrative, Two Other Stories; the volume consisted of Youth: a Narrative, Heart of Darkness and The End of the Tether in that order. In 1917, for future editions of the book, Conrad wrote an "Author's Note" where he, after denying any "unity of artistic purpose" underlying the collection, discusses each of the three stories and makes light commentary on the character Marlow—the narrator of the tales within the first two stories.
He mentions how Youth marks the first appearance of Marlow. On 31 May 1902, in a letter to William Blackwood, Conrad remarked, I call your own kind self to witness... the last pages of Heart of Darkness where the interview of the man and the girl locks in—as it were—the whole 30000 words of narrative description into one suggestive view of a whole phase of life and makes of that story something quite on another plane than an anecdote of a man who went mad in the Centre of Africa. There have been many proposed sources for the character of Kurtz. Georges-Antoine Klein, an agent who became ill and died aboard Conrad's steamer, is proposed by scholars and literary critics as a basis for Kurtz; the principal figures involved in the disastrous "rear column" of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition have been identified as sources, including column leader Edmund Musgrave Barttelot, slave trader Tippu Tip and the expedition leader, Welsh explorer Henry Morton Stanley. Conrad's biographer Norman Sherry judged that Arthur Hodister, a Belgian solitary but successful trader, who spoke three Congolese languages and was venerated by the Congolese villagers among whom he worked to the point of deification, served as the main model, while scholars have refuted this hypothesis.
Adam Hochschild, in King Leopold's Ghost, believes that the Belgian soldier Léon Rom influenced the character. Peter Firchow mentions the possibility that Kurtz is a composite, modelled on various figures present in the Congo Free State at the time as well as on Conrad's imagining of what they might have had in common. Aboard the Nellie, anchored in the River Thames near Gravesend, Charles Marlow tells his fellow sailors about the events that led to his appointment as captain of a river steamboat for an ivory trading company; as a child, Marlow had been fascinated by "the blank spaces" on maps by the biggest, which by the time he had grown up was no longer blank but turned into "a place of darkness". Yet there remained a big river, "resembling an immense snake uncoiled, with its head in the sea, its body at rest curving afar over a vast country and its tail lost in the depths of the land"; the image of this river on the map fascinated Marlow "as a snake would a bird". Feeling as though "instead of going to the centre of a continent I were about to set off for the centre of the earth", Marlow takes passage on a French steamer bound for the African coast and into the interior.
After more than thirty days the ship anchors off the seat of government near the mouth of the big river. Marlow, with still some two hundred miles to go, takes passage on a little sea-going steamer captained by a Swede, he departs some thirty miles up the river. Work on the railway is going on. Marlow enters a narrow ravine to stroll in the shade under the trees, finds himself in "the gloomy circle of some Inferno": the place is full of diseased Africans who worked on the railroad and now await their deaths, their sickened bodies as thin as air. Marlow witnesses the scene "horror-struck". Marlow has to wait for ten days in the company's Outer Station, where he sleep
George Dewey Cukor was an American film director. He concentrated on comedies and literary adaptations, his career flourished at RKO when David O. Selznick, the studio's Head of Production, assigned Cukor to direct several of RKO's major films, including What Price Hollywood?, A Bill of Divorcement, Our Betters, Little Women. When Selznick moved to MGM in 1933, Cukor followed and directed Dinner at Eight and David Copperfield for Selznick and Romeo and Juliet and Camille for Irving Thalberg, he was replaced as the director of Gone with the Wind, but he went on to direct The Philadelphia Story, Adam's Rib, Born Yesterday, A Star Is Born, Bhowani Junction, My Fair Lady. He continued to work into the 1980s. Cukor was born on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City, the younger child and only son of Hungarian-Jewish immigrants Viktor, an assistant district attorney, Helén Ilona Gross, his parents selected his middle name in honor of Spanish–American War hero George Dewey. The family was not religious, when he started attending temple as a boy, Cukor learned Hebrew phonetically, with no real understanding of the meaning of the words or what they represented.
As a result, he was ambivalent about his faith and dismissive of old world traditions from childhood, as an adult he embraced Anglophilia to remove himself further from his roots. As a child, Cukor appeared in several amateur plays and took dance lessons, at the age of seven he performed in a recital with David O. Selznick, who in years became a mentor and friend; as a teenager, Cukor was taken to the New York Hippodrome by his uncle. Infatuated with theatre, he cut classes at DeWitt Clinton High School to attend afternoon matinees. During his senior year, he worked as a supernumerary with the Metropolitan Opera, earning 50¢ per appearance, $1 if he was required to perform in blackface. Following his graduation in 1917, Cukor was expected to follow in his father's footsteps and pursue a career in law, he halfheartedly enrolled in the City College of New York, where he entered the Students Army Training Corps in October 1918. His military experience was limited, he left school shortly afterwards.
Cukor obtained a job as an assistant stage manager and bit player with a touring production of The Better'Ole, a popular British musical based on Old Bill, a cartoon character created by Bruce Bairnsfather. In 1920, he became the stage manager for the Knickerbocker Players, a troupe that shuttled between Syracuse and Rochester, New York, the following year he was hired as general manager of the newly formed Lyceum Players, an upstate summer stock company. In 1925 he formed the C. F. and Z. Production Company with Walter Folmer and John Zwicki, which gave him his first opportunity to direct. Following their first season, he made his Broadway directorial debut with Antonia by Hungarian playwright Melchior Lengyel returned to Rochester, where C. F. and Z. evolved into the Cukor-Kondolf Stock Company, a troupe that included Louis Calhern, Ilka Chase, Phyllis Povah, Frank Morgan, Reginald Owen, Elizabeth Patterson and Douglass Montgomery, all of whom worked with Cukor in years in Hollywood. Lasting only one season with the company was Bette Davis.
Cukor recalled, "Her talent was apparent, but she did buck at direction. She had her own ideas, though she only did bits and ingenue roles, she didn't hesitate to express them." For the next several decades, Davis claimed she was fired, although Cukor never understood why she placed so much importance on an incident he considered so minor, he never worked with her again. For the next few years, Cukor alternated between Rochester in the summer months and Broadway in the winter, his direction of a 1926 stage adaptation of The Great Gatsby by Owen Davis brought him to the attention of the New York critics. Writing in the Brooklyn Eagle, drama critic Arthur Pollock called it "an unusual piece of work by a director not nearly so well known as he should be." Cukor directed six more Broadway productions before departing for Hollywood in 1929. When Hollywood began to recruit New York theater talent for sound films, Cukor answered the call. In December 1928, Paramount Pictures signed him to a contract that reimbursed him for his airfare and paid him $600 per week with no screen credit during a six-month apprenticeship.
He arrived in Hollywood in February 1929, his first assignment was to coach the cast of River of Romance to speak with an acceptable Southern accent. In October, the studio lent him to Universal Pictures to conduct the screen tests and work as a dialogue director for All Quiet on the Western Front, released in 1930; that year he co-directed three films at Paramount, his weekly salary was increased to $1500. He made his solo directorial debut with Tarnished Lady starring Tallulah Bankhead. Cukor was assigned to One Hour with You, an operetta with Maurice Chevalier and Jeanette MacDonald, when original director Ernst Lubitsch opted to concentrate on producing the film instead. At first the two men worked well together, but two weeks into filming Lubitsch began arriving on the set on a regular basis, he soon began directing scenes with Cukor's consent. Upon the film's completion, Lubitsch approached Paramount general manager B. P. Schulberg and threatened to leave the studio if Cukor's name wasn't removed from the credits.
When Schulberg asked him to cooperate, Cukor filed suit. He settled for being billed as assistant director and left Para
The Divine Comedy is an Italian long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321. It is considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature and one of the greatest works of world literature; the poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view as it had developed in the Western Church by the 14th century. It helped establish the Tuscan language, in which it is written, as the standardized Italian language, it is divided into three parts: Inferno and Paradiso. The narrative describes Dante's travels through Hell and Paradise or Heaven, while allegorically the poem represents the soul's journey towards God. Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy Thomistic philosophy and the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas; the Divine Comedy has been called "the Summa in verse". In Dante's work, Virgil is presented as human reason and Beatrice is presented as divine knowledge; the work was simply titled Comedìa, Tuscan for "Comedy" adjusted to the modern Italian Commedia.
The adjective Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccio, the first edition to name the poem Divina Comedia in the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce, published in 1555 by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari. The Divine Comedy is composed of 14,233 lines that are divided into three cantiche – Inferno and Paradiso – each consisting of 33 cantos. An initial canto, serving as an introduction to the poem and considered to be part of the first cantica, brings the total number of cantos to 100, it is accepted, that the first two cantos serve as a unitary prologue to the entire epic, that the opening two cantos of each cantica serve as prologues to each of the three cantiche. The number "three" is prominent in the work, represented in part by the number of cantiche and their lengths. Additionally, the verse scheme used, terza rima, is hendecasyllabic, with the lines composing tercets according to the rhyme scheme aba, cdc, ded.... Written in the first person, the poem tells of Dante's journey through the three realms of the dead, lasting from the night before Good Friday to the Wednesday after Easter in the spring of 1300.
The Roman poet Virgil guides him through Purgatory. Beatrice was a Florentine woman whom he had met in childhood and admired from afar in the mode of the then-fashionable courtly love tradition, highlighted in Dante's earlier work La Vita Nuova; the structure of the three realms follows a common numerical pattern of 9 plus 1, for a total of 10: 9 circles of the Inferno, followed by Lucifer contained at its bottom. Within each group of 9, 7 elements correspond to a specific moral scheme, subdivided into three subcategories, while 2 others of greater particularity are added to total nine. For example, the seven deadly sins of the Catholic Church that are cleansed in Purgatory are joined by special realms for the Late repentant and the excommunicated by the church; the core seven sins within Purgatory correspond to a moral scheme of love perverted, subdivided into three groups corresponding to excessive love, deficient love, malicious love. In central Italy's political struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, Dante was part of the Guelphs, who in general favored the Papacy over the Holy Roman Emperor.
Florence's Guelphs split into factions around 1300—the White Guelphs and the Black Guelphs. Dante was among the White Guelphs who were exiled in 1302 by the Lord-Mayor Cante de' Gabrielli di Gubbio, after troops under Charles of Valois entered the city, at the request of Pope Boniface VIII, who supported the Black Guelphs; this exile, which lasted the rest of Dante's life, shows its influence in many parts of the Comedy, from prophecies of Dante's exile to Dante's views of politics, to the eternal damnation of some of his opponents. The last word in each of the three cantiche is stelle; the poem begins on the night before Good Friday in the year 1300, "halfway along our life's path". Dante is thirty-five years old, half of the biblical lifespan of 70, lost in a dark wood, assailed by beasts he cannot evade and unable to find the "straight way" – translatable as "right way" – to salvation. Conscious that he is ruining himself and that he is falling into a "low place" where the sun is silent, Dante is at last rescued by Virgil, the two of them begin their journey to the underworld.
Each sin's punishment in Inferno is a symbolic instance of poetic justice. These three types of sin provide the three main divisions of Dante's Hell: Upper Hell, outside the city of Dis, for the four sins o
Guy Fawkes Night
Guy Fawkes Night known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Firework Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November in the United Kingdom. Its history begins with the events of 5 November 1605 O. S. when Guy Fawkes, a member of the Gunpowder Plot, was arrested while guarding explosives the plotters had placed beneath the House of Lords. Celebrating the fact that King James I had survived the attempt on his life, people lit bonfires around London. Within a few decades Gunpowder Treason Day, as it was known, became the predominant English state commemoration, but as it carried strong Protestant religious overtones it became a focus for anti-Catholic sentiment. Puritans delivered sermons regarding the perceived dangers of popery, while during raucous celebrations common folk burnt effigies of popular hate-figures, such as the pope. Towards the end of the 18th century reports appear of children begging for money with effigies of Guy Fawkes and 5 November became known as Guy Fawkes Day.
Towns such as Lewes and Guildford were in the 19th century scenes of violent class-based confrontations, fostering traditions those towns celebrate still, albeit peaceably. In the 1850s changing attitudes resulted in the toning down of much of the day's anti-Catholic rhetoric, the Observance of 5th November Act was repealed in 1859; the violence was dealt with, by the 20th century Guy Fawkes Day had become an enjoyable social commemoration, although lacking much of its original focus. The present-day Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated at large organised events, centred on a bonfire and extravagant firework displays. Settlers exported Guy Fawkes Night to overseas colonies, including some in North America, where it was known as Pope Day; those festivities died out with the onset of the American Revolution. Claims that Guy Fawkes Night was a Protestant replacement for older customs like Samhain are disputed, although another old celebration, has increased in popularity in England, according to some writers, may threaten the continued observance of 5 November.
Guy Fawkes Night originates from the Gunpowder Plot of 1605, a failed conspiracy by a group of provincial English Catholics to assassinate the Protestant King James I of England and replace him with a Catholic head of state. In the immediate aftermath of the 5 November arrest of Guy Fawkes, caught guarding a cache of explosives placed beneath the House of Lords, James's Council allowed the public to celebrate the king's survival with bonfires, so long as they were "without any danger or disorder"; this made 1605 the first year. The following January, days before the surviving conspirators were executed, Parliament passed the Observance of 5th November Act known as the "Thanksgiving Act", it was proposed by a Puritan Member of Parliament, Edward Montagu, who suggested that the king's apparent deliverance by divine intervention deserved some measure of official recognition, kept 5 November free as a day of thanksgiving while in theory making attendance at Church mandatory. A new form of service was added to the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer, for use on that date.
Little is known about the earliest celebrations. In settlements such as Carlisle and Nottingham, corporations provided music and artillery salutes. Canterbury celebrated 5 November 1607 with 106 pounds of gunpowder and 14 pounds of match, three years food and drink was provided for local dignitaries, as well as music, a parade by the local militia. Less is known of how the occasion was first commemorated by the general public, although records indicate that in the Protestant stronghold of Dorchester a sermon was read, the church bells rung, bonfires and fireworks lit. According to historian and author Antonia Fraser, a study of the earliest sermons preached demonstrates an anti-Catholic concentration "mystical in its fervour". Delivering one of five 5 November sermons printed in A Mappe of Rome in 1612, Thomas Taylor spoke of the "generality of his cruelty", "almost without bounds"; such messages were spread in printed works like Francis Herring's Pietas Pontifica, John Rhode's A Brief Summe of the Treason intended against the King & State, which in 1606 sought to educate "the simple and ignorant... that they be not seduced any longer by papists".
By the 1620s the Fifth was honoured in market towns and villages across the country, though it was some years before it was commemorated throughout England. Gunpowder Treason Day, as it was known, became the predominant English state commemoration; some parishes made the day a festive occasion, with public solemn processions. Concerned though about James's pro-Spanish foreign policy, the decline of international Protestantism, Catholicism in general, Protestant clergymen who recognised the day's significance called for more dignified and profound thanksgivings each 5 November. What unity English Protestants had shared in the plot's immediate aftermath began to fade when in 1625 James's son, the future Charles I, married the Catholic Henrietta Maria of France. Puritans reacted to the marriage by issuing a new prayer to warn against rebellion and Catholicism, on 5 November that year, effigies of the pope and the devil were burnt, the earliest such report of this practice and the beginning of centuries of tradition.
During Charles's reign Gunpowder Treason Day became partisan. Between 1629 and 1640 he ruled without Parliament, he seemed to support Armi
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
John Elmer "Jack" Carson was a Canadian-born, American film actor. Though he was used in supporting roles for comic relief, his work in films such as Mildred Pierce and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof displayed his mastery of "straight" dramatic actor roles as well, he worked for RKO and MGM. His trademark character was the wisecracking know-it-all and undone by his own smug cockiness, he was born in Carman, Canada to Elmer and Elsa Carson. He was the younger brother of actor Robert Carson, his father was an executive with an insurance company. In 1914, the family moved to Milwaukee, which he always thought of as his home town, he attended high school at Hartford School, St. John's Military Academy, but it was at Carleton College that he acquired a taste for acting. Carson became a U. S. citizen in California in 1949. Because of his size – 6 ft 2 in and 220 lb – his first stage appearance was as Hercules. In the midst of a performance, he took half the set with him. A college friend, Dave Willock, thought it was so funny he persuaded Carson to team with him in a vaudeville act – Willock and Carson – and a new career was born with "a successful comedy team that played large and small vaudeville theatres everywhere in North America".
This piece of unplanned business would be typical of the sorts of things that tended to happen to Carson in many of his film roles. After the act with Willock broke up, Carson teamed with dancer Betty Alice Lindy for appearances in theaters on the Orpheum Circuit. Radio was another source of employment for the team, starting with a 1938 appearance on the Kraft Music Hall when Bing Crosby hosted the show. In 1942–1943, he was host of The Camel Comedy Caravan, in the next season he starred in The New Jack Carson Show, which debuted on CBS June 2, 1943. Charles Foster wrote about the show in Once Upon a Time in Paradise: Canadians in the Golden Age of Hollywood: "It broke audience records during the four years it was on the air. Hollywood's biggest stars... lined up to do guest spots on the show."In 1947–1948, he starred in The Sealtest Village Store".:299 Suspense episodes starring Jack Carson: June 28, 1959 "Analytical Hour" with John Hoyt and Sam Pierce. From 1950 to 1951, Carson was one of four alternating weekly hosts of the Wednesday evening NBC Television comedy-variety show Four Star Revue.
The second season was his last with the show. Carson had his own variety program, The Jack Carson Show on NBC and was the announcer on the television version of Strike It Rich.:1028 His success in radio led to the start of a lucrative film career. During the 1930s, as vaudeville declined from increased competition from radio and the movies and Carson sought work in Hollywood. Carson landed bit roles at RKO Radio Pictures in films such as Bringing Up Baby, starring Cary Grant and Katharine Hepburn. An early standout role for Carson was as a mock-drunk undercover G-Man opposite Richard Cromwell in Universal Pictures's anti-Nazi action drama entitled Enemy Agent; this led to contract-player status with Warner Brothers shortly thereafter. While there, he was teamed with Dennis Morgan in a number of films to compete with Paramount's popular Bing Crosby - Bob Hope Road to … pictures. Most of his work at Warner Brothers was limited to light comedy work with Morgan, Doris Day. Critics agree that Carson's best work was in Mildred Pierce, where he played the perpetually scheming Wally Fay opposite Joan Crawford in the title role.
In 1945, he played the role of Harold Pierson, the second husband of Louise Randall, played by Rosalind Russell, in Roughly Speaking. Another role which won accolades for him was as publicist Matt Libby in A Star is Born. One of his last film roles was as the older brother "Gooper" in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, his TV appearances, extending into the early 1960s, included The Martha Raye Show, The Guy Mitchell Show, The Polly Bergen Show in 1957. His TV pilot, Kentucky Kid, was under consideration as a potential series for NBC, but was not picked up by the network; the proposed series would have had Carson playing a veterinarian widower who raises horses and has an adopted Chinese child. His brother Robert was a character actor. On February 8, 1960, Carson received two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the television and radio industry; the television star is located at 1560 Vine Street, the radio star is at 6361 Hollywood Boulevard. In 1983, after his death, Jack Carson was inducted into the Wisconsin Performing Artists Hall of Fame along with his film pal, Dennis Morgan, from Wisconsin.
In 1962, while rehearsing the Broadway play Critic's Choice, he collapsed and was subsequently diagnosed with stomach cancer. He died in Encino on January 2, 1963, aged 52. Carson was entombed in Glendale's Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery. Carson married four times: Elizabeth Lindy, Kay St. Germain, Lola Albright, Sandra Jolley, former wife of actor Forrest Tucker and daughter of character actor, I. Stanford Jolley. Carson had a roman