Golden Raspberry Awards
The Golden Raspberry Awards is a parody booby prize award in recognition of the worst in film. Co-founded by UCLA film graduates and film industry veterans John J. B. Wilson and Mo Murphy, the annual Razzie Awards ceremony in Los Angeles precedes the corresponding Academy Awards ceremony by one day; the term raspberry in the name is used in its irreverent sense, as in "blowing a raspberry". The awards themselves are in the form of a "golf ball-sized raspberry" atop a Super 8 mm film reel, all spray painted gold; the first Golden Raspberry Awards ceremony was held on March 31, 1981, at John J. B. Wilson's living-room alcove in Los Angeles, to honor the worst in film of the 1980 film season; the 39th ceremony was held on February 23, 2019. American publicist John J. B. Wilson traditionally held potluck parties at his house in Los Angeles on the night of the Academy Awards. In 1981, after the 53rd Academy Awards had completed for the evening, Wilson invited friends to give random award presentations in his living room.
Wilson decided to formalize the event, after watching a double feature of Can't Stop the Music and Xanadu. He gave them ballots to vote on worst in film. Wilson stood at a podium made of cardboard in a tacky tuxedo, with a foam ball attached to a broomstick as a fake microphone, announced Can't Stop the Music as the first Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture; the impromptu ceremony was a success and the following week a press release about his event released by Wilson was picked up by a few local newspapers, including a mention in the Los Angeles Daily News with the headline: "Take These Envelopes, Please". Three dozen people came to the 1st Golden Raspberry Awards; the 2nd Golden Raspberry Awards had double the attendance as the first, the 3rd awards ceremony in turn, had double this number. By the 4th Golden Raspberry Awards ceremony, CNN and two major wire services covered the event. Wilson realized that by scheduling the Golden Raspberry Awards before the Academy Awards, the ceremony would get more press coverage: "We figured out you couldn't compete with the Oscars on Oscar night, but if you went the night before, when the press from all over the world are here and they are looking for something to do, it could well catch on," he said to BBC News.
The term raspberry is used in its irreverent sense, as in "blowing a raspberry". Wilson commented to the author of Blame It on the Dog: "When I registered the term with the Library of Congress in 1980, they asked me,'Why raspberry? What's the significance of that?' But since razz has pretty much permeated the culture. We couldn't have done it without Hollywood's help." Wilson is referred to as "Ye Olde Head Razzberry". Paying members of the Golden Raspberry Award Foundation vote to determine the recipients. For the 29th Golden Raspberry Awards in 2009, award results were based on votes from 650 journalists, cinema fans and professionals from the film industry. Voters hailed from 45 states in the United States and 19 other countries; the ceremony held one day before the Academy Awards, is modeled after the latter but "deliberately low-end and tacky". Most winners do not attend the ceremony to collect their awards. Notable exceptions include Tom Green, Halle Berry and Sandra Bullock, Michael Ferris, J. D. Shapiro, Paul Verhoeven.
Three people won both the Razzies and Oscars the same weekend: Alan Menken in 1993, Brian Helgeland in 1998, Sandra Bullock in 2010, although all three for different films. Two actors had performances in the same movie scoring Oscar and Razzie nominations, James Coco and Amy Irving. Neil Diamond, winner of the inaugural Worst Actor Razzie for 1980’s The Jazz Singer, was nominated for the Golden Globe in the same role; the Aerosmith song "I Don't Want to Miss a Thing", as part of the original soundtrack to the 1998 film Armageddon, was nominated for both an Academy Award for Best Original Song and a Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Original Song, as was the Trisha Yearwood song "How Do I Live" from the 1997 film Con Air and the Tony Bennett song "Life in a Looking Glass" from the 1986 film That's Life!. In 1981, Stanley Kubrick was nominated both for a Razzie Award as Worst Director at the 1st Golden Raspberry Awards as well as for a Saturn Award for Best Director at the 8th Saturn Awards for the same film: The Shining.
In 2002, Natalie Portman was nominated for Worst Supporting Actress and for the Saturn Award for Best Actress for the same role in Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones. In 2017, Darren Aronofsky was nominated for both the Golden Lion and the Worst Director Razzie for Mother!. Wall Street is the only film to date to win both a Razzie. Michael Douglas won the Academy Award for Best Actor, however Daryl Hannah's performance was not as well received and earned her a Razzie for Worst Supporting Actress. Current Awards Worst Picture: 1980 to present Worst Director: 1980 to present Worst Actor: 1980 to present Worst Actress: 1980 to present Worst Supporting Actor: 1980 to present Worst Supporting Actress: 1980 to present Worst Screenplay: 1980 to present Worst Prequel, Rip-off or Sequel: 1994 to present, except 1996 and 1999 Worst Screen Combo: 2013 to present The Razzie Redeemer Award: 2014 to presentRetired Worst Original Song: 1980 to 1999, 2002 Worst New Star: 1981 to 1998, except 1989 Worst Musical Score: 1981 to 1985 Worst Visual Effects: 1986 to 1987 Worst Screen Couple: 1994 to 2009, 2011 to 2012 Worst Screen Couple/Worst Screen Ensemble: 2010 Worst Screen Ensemble: 2011 to 2012 Special categories have been introduced for specific years.
Such special awards include: Every decade-closing ceremony includes an award
Frances Elena Farmer was an American actress and television host. She appeared in over a dozen feature films over the course of her career, though she garnered notoriety for the various sensationalized accounts of her life her involuntary commitment to a psychiatric hospital and subsequent mental health struggles. A native of Seattle, Farmer began acting in stage productions while a student at the University of Washington. After graduating, she began performing in stock theater before signing a film contract with Paramount Pictures in 1936, she made her film debut in Too Many Parents, followed by a lead role in the musical western, Rhythm on the Range. Unhappy with the opportunities given to her by the studio, Farmer returned to stock theater in 1937 before being cast in the original Broadway production of Clifford Odets's Golden Boy, staged by New York City's Group Theatre, she followed this with two Broadway productions directed by Elia Kazan in 1939, but a battle with depression and binge drinking caused her to drop out of a subsequent Ernest Hemingway stage adaptation.
Farmer returned to Los Angeles, earning supporting roles in the comedy World Premiere and the film noir Among the Living. In 1942, publicity of her erratic behavior began to surface, after several arrests and committals to psychiatric institutions, Farmer was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. At the request of her family her mother, she was relocated to an institution in her home state of Washington, where she remained a patient until 1950. Farmer attempted an acting comeback appearing as a television host in Indianapolis on her own series, Frances Farmer Presents, her final film role was in the 1958 drama The Party Crashers, after which she spent the majority of the 1960s performing in local theater productions staged by Purdue University. In the spring of 1970, she was diagnosed with esophageal cancer, of which she died several months aged 56, she has been the subject of various works, including two feature films and several books, many of which focus on her time spent institutionalized, during which she claimed to have been subject to various systemic abuses.
Her posthumously-released autobiography, Will There Really Be a Morning? Details these claims significantly. A disputed 1978 biography of her life, alleged that Farmer underwent a transorbital lobotomy during her institutionalization, a 1982 biographical film based on her life depicted this event as truth, resulting in renewed interest in her life and career. Frances Elena Farmer was born on September 19, 1913 in Seattle, the daughter of Lillian, a boardinghouse operator and dietician and Ernest Melvin Farmer, a lawyer, her father was from Spring Valley, while her mother was from Oregon, a descendant of pioneers. Farmer had Edith. Prior to the birth of Wesley and Edith and Lillian had given birth to a daughter who died of pneumonia in infancy; when she was four years old, Farmer's parents separated, her mother relocated with the children from their home in North Seattle to Los Angeles, where her sister Zella was living. In early 1925, the family moved north to Chico, where Lillian pursued a career performing nutrition research.
Shortly after arriving in Chico, Lillian concluded that caring for the children was interfering with her ability to work. The children's Aunt Zella drove them to Albany, where they boarded a train back to Seattle to live with their father. Farmer's inconsistent home life had a notable effect on her, upon returning to Seattle, she recalled: "In certain ways, that train trip represented the end of my dependent childhood. I began to understand that there were certain things one could expect from adults, others that one could not expect... being shunted from one household to another was a new adjustment, a fresh confusion, I groped for ways to compensate for the disorder." The following year, her mother returned to Seattle after her home in Chico burned down in a house fire. In Seattle, the family shared a household, though Lillian and Ernest remained separated despite his attempts to reconcile their marriage. In the fall of 1929, when Farmer was sixteen and Ernest divorced, Lillian relocated to a cottage in Bremerton, while the children remained with their father.
In 1931, while a senior at West Seattle High School, Farmer entered and won $100 from The Scholastic Art & Writing Awards, a writing contest sponsored by Scholastic Magazine, with her controversial essay "God Dies." It was a precocious attempt to reconcile her wish for, in her words, a "superfather" God, with her observations of a chaotic and godless world. In her autobiography, she wrote that the essay was influenced by her reading of Friedrich Nietzsche: "He expressed the same doubts, only he said it in German:'Gott ist tot.' God is dead. This I could understand. I was not to assume that there was no God, but I could find no evidence in my life that He existed or that He had shown any particular interest in me. I was not an atheist, but I was an agnostic, by the time I was sixteen I was well indoctrinated into this theory."After graduating high school, Farmer enrolled at the University of Washington majoring in journalism. She worked various odd jobs to pay her tuition, including as an usherette in a cinema, a waitress, a tutor, a laborer in a soap factory.
For a time, she worked as a singing waitress at Mount Rainier National Park. During her sophomore year, Farmer became involved with the unive
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
James Garner was an American actor and voice artist. He starred in several television series over more than five decades, including such popular roles as Bret Maverick in the 1950s western series Maverick and Jim Rockford in The Rockford Files, played leading roles in more than 50 theatrical films, including The Great Escape with Steve McQueen, Paddy Chayefsky's The Americanization of Emily, Grand Prix, Blake Edwards' Victor/Victoria, Murphy's Romance, for which he received an Academy Award nomination, Space Cowboys with Clint Eastwood, The Notebook. James Garner was born James Scott Bumgarner on April 7, 1928, in Norman, the youngest of three sons of Weldon Warren Bumgarner and Mildred Scott, his older brothers were Jack Garner and Charles Bumgarner, a school administrator who died in 1984. His family was Methodist, his mother died. After their mother's death and his brothers were sent to live with relatives. Garner was reunited with his family in 1934. Garner's father remarried several times.
Garner came to hate one of his stepmothers, who beat all three boys. He said that his stepmother punished him by forcing him to wear a dress in public; when he was 14 years old, he fought with her, knocking her down and choking her to keep her from killing him in retaliation. She left the family and never returned, his brother Jack commented, "She was a damn no-good woman". Garner's last stepmother was Grace, whom he said he loved and called "Mama Grace", felt that she was more of a mother to him than anyone else had been. After the war, Garner joined his father in Los Angeles and enrolled at Hollywood High School, where he was voted the most popular student. A high school gym teacher recommended him for a job modeling Jantzen bathing suits, it paid well, but in his first interview for the Archives of American Television, he said he hated modeling. He played football and basketball at Norman High School, competed on the track and golf teams. However, he dropped out in his senior year. In a 1976 Good Housekeeping magazine interview, he admitted, "I was a terrible student and I never graduated from high school, but I got my diploma in the Army."
Shortly after his father's marriage to Wilma broke up, his father moved to Los Angeles, leaving Garner and his brothers in Norman. After working at several jobs he disliked, Garner joined the United States Merchant Marine at age 16 near the end of World War II, he liked the work and his shipmates. Garner enlisted in the California Army National Guard, he went to Korea for 14 months, as a rifleman in the 5th Regimental Combat Team during the Korean War part of the 24th Infantry Division. He was wounded twice, first in the face and hand by shrapnel from a mortar round, the second time in the buttocks from friendly fire from U. S. fighter jets as he dived head first into a foxhole. Garner received the Purple Heart in Korea for the first wound, he qualified for a second Purple Heart, but he did not receive it until 1983, 32 years after the event. In 1954, Paul Gregory, a friend whom Garner had met while attending Hollywood High School, persuaded Garner to take a nonspeaking role in the Broadway production of The Caine Mutiny Court-Martial, where he was able to study Henry Fonda night after night.
During the week of Garner's death, TCM broadcast most of his movies, introduced by Robert Osborne, who said that Fonda's gentle, sincere persona rubbed off on Garner to Garner's benefit. Garner subsequently moved to television commercials and to television roles. In 1955, Garner was considered for the lead role in the Western series Cheyenne, but that role went to Clint Walker because the casting director could not reach Garner in time. Garner wound up playing an Army officer in the "Cheyenne" pilot, his first film appearances were in The Girl He Left Behind and Toward the Unknown in 1956. In 1957, he had a supporting role in the TV anthology series episode on Conflict entitled "Man from 1997," portraying Maureen's brother "Red"; the series' producer Roy Huggins noted in his Archive of American Television interview that he subsequently cast Garner as the lead in Maverick due to his comedic facial expressions while playing scenes in "Man from 1997" that were not written to be comical. He changed his last name from Bumgarner to Garner after the studio had credited him as "James Garner" without permission.
He legally changed it upon the birth of his first child, when he decided she had too many names. Garner was advised by financial adviser Irving Leonard, who advised Clint Eastwood in the late 1950s and 1960s. After several feature film roles, including Sayonara with Marlon Brando, Garner got his big break playing the role of professional gambler Bret Maverick in the Western series Maverick from 1957-1960. Only Garner and series creator Roy Huggins thought Maverick could compete with The Ed Sullivan Show and The Steve Allen Show; the show immediately made Garner a household name. Garner was the lone star of Maverick for the first seven episodes, but production demands forced the studio, Warner Brothers, to create a Maverick brother, Bart
William Clark Gable was an American film actor and military officer, at his height during the 1930s and 1940s and referred to as "The King of Hollywood". He began his career as an extra in Hollywood silent films between 1924 and 1926, progressed to supporting roles with a few films for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1930, he landed his first leading role in 1931 and was a leading man in more than 60 motion pictures over the following three decades. Gable was best known for Gone With The Wind, as Rhett Butler opposite co-star Vivien Leigh as Scarlett O'Hara, he won the Academy Award for Best Actor for Frank Capra's It Happened One Night, was nominated for his role in Mutiny on the Bounty. He found success commercially and critically with Red Dust, Manhattan Melodrama, San Francisco, Test Pilot, Boom Town, The Hucksters and The Misfits, his final screen appearance. Gable appeared opposite some of the most popular actresses of the time. Joan Crawford was his favorite actress to work with, he partnered with her in eight films.
Myrna Loy worked with him seven times, he was paired with Jean Harlow in six productions. He starred with Lana Turner in four features, with Norma Shearer and Ava Gardner in three each; the Misfits united him with Marilyn Monroe in her last completed screen appearance. Gable is considered one of the most consistent box-office performers in history, appearing on Quigley Publishing's annual Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll 16 times, he was named the seventh-greatest male star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute. William Clark Gable was born in Cadiz, Ohio to William Henry "Will" Gable, an oil-well driller, his wife Adeline, his father was his mother a Roman Catholic. Gable was named William after his father, but he was always called Clark or sometimes Billy, he was listed as a female on his birth certificate. He is of Pennsylvania Dutch and German ancestry. Gable was six months old, when he was baptized at a Roman Catholic church in Ohio, his mother died when he was ten months old from a brain tumor, although the official cause of death was given as an epileptic fit.
His father refused to raise him Catholic. The dispute was resolved when his father agreed to allow him to spend time with his maternal uncle Charles Hershelman and his wife on their farm in Vernon Township, Pennsylvania. In April 1903, Gable's father married Jennie Dunlap, whose family came from the small neighboring town of Hopedale, Ohio; the marriage produced no children. Gable was a shy child with a loud voice, his stepmother raised him to be well-groomed. He took up brass instruments and was the only boy in the men's town band when he was 13, he was mechanically inclined and loved to repair cars with his father, who insisted that he do "manly" things such as hunting and hard physical work. Gable loved language, he would recite Shakespeare among trusted company the sonnets, his father agreed to buy a 72-volume set of The World's Greatest Literature to improve his son's education, but he claimed that he never saw him use it. His father had financial difficulties in 1917 and decided to try his hand at farming, the family moved to Ravenna, Ohio near Akron.
His father insisted that he work the farm, but Gable soon left to work in Akron for the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company. At 17, Gable was inspired to be an actor after seeing the play The Bird of Paradise, but he was not able to make a real start until he turned 21 and inherited some money, his stepmother had died, his father moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma to go back to the oil business. Gable toured as well as working the oil fields and as a horse manager, he found work with several second-class theater companies, thus making his way across the Midwest to Seaside, Oregon working as a logger, to Portland, where he worked as a necktie salesman in the Meier & Frank department store. In Portland, he met Laura Hope Crews, a stage and film actress who encouraged him to return to the stage with another theater company. Twenty years Crews played Aunt Pittypat alongside Gable's Rhett Butler in Gone With the Wind. Gable's acting coach Josephine Dillon was a theater manager in Portland, she paid to have his teeth repaired and his hair styled, guided him in building up his chronically undernourished body, taught him better body control and posture.
She spent considerable time training his high-pitched voice, which he managed to lower, to gain better resonance and tone. As his speech habits improved, his facial expressions became more convincing. After a long period of training, Dillon considered him ready to attempt a film career. Gable and Dillon went to Hollywood in 1924 with her financing, she became his manager and his wife though she was 17 years his senior, he changed his stage name from W. C. Gable to Clark Gable and found work as an extra in silent films such as Erich von Stroheim's The Merry Widow, The Plastic Age starring Clara Bow, Forbidden Paradise starring Pola Negri, a series of two-reel comedies called The Pacemakers, he appeared as an extra in Fox's The Johnstown Flood. A 17 year-old Carole Lombard appeared as an extra in that film, as well, although they were not in the same scene, he appeared as a bit player in a series of shorts. However, he was not offered any major film roles, he became lifelong friends with Lionel Barrymore, who initiall
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
Louis B. Mayer
Louis Burt Mayer was an American film producer and co-founder of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios in 1924. Under Mayer's management, MGM became the film industry's most prestigious movie studio, accumulating the largest concentration of leading writers and stars in Hollywood. Mayer grew up poor in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, he quit school at 12 to support his family and moved to Boston and purchased a small vaudeville theater in Haverhill, Massachusetts called the "Garlic Box" as it catered to poorer Italian immigrants. He renovated and expanded several other theaters in the Boston area catering to higher end audiences. After expanding and moving to Los Angeles, he teamed with film producer Irving Thalberg, they developed hundreds of high quality story-based films, noted for their wholesome and lush entertainment. Mayer handled the business of running the studio, such as setting budgets and approving new productions, while Thalberg, still in his twenties, supervised all MGM productions. During his long reign at MGM, Mayer acquired many enemies as well as admirers.
Some stars did not appreciate his attempts to control their private lives, while others saw him as a solicitous father figure. He believed in wholesome entertainment and went to great lengths to discover new actors and develop them into major stars. Mayer was forced to resign as MGM's vice president in 1951, when the studio's parent company, Loew's, Inc. wanted to improve declining profits. Mayer was a staunch conservative, at one time the chairman of California's Republican party. In 1927 he was one of the founders of famous for its annual Academy Awards. Mayer was born Lazar Meir to a Jewish family in Mir, Minsk Governorate, Russian Empire. According to his personal details in the U. S. immigration documents, the date was 4 July 1885. In addition he gave his birth year as 1882 in his marriage certificate while the April 1910 census states his age as 26, his parents were Jacob Meir and Sarah Meltzer, he had two sisters—Yetta, born in c. 1878, Ida, born in c. 1883. Mayer first moved with his family to Long Island, where they lived from 1887 to 1892 and where his two brothers were born—Rubin, in April 1888, Jeremiah, in April 1891.
They moved to Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada where Mayer attended school. His father started J. Mayer & Son. An immigrant unskilled in any trade, he struggled to earn a living. Young Louis quit school at age twelve to help support his family, he roamed the streets with a cart that said "Junk Dealer", collected any scrap metal he came across. When the owner of a tin business, John Wilson, saw him with his cart, he began giving him copper trimmings which were of no use, Mayer considered Wilson to be his first partner and his best friend. Wilson remembered. Whenever Mayer visited Saint John in years, he placed flowers on Wilson's grave, just as he did on his mother's. "It was a crappy childhood", said Mayer's nephew Gerald. His family was poor, Mayer's father spoke little English and had no valuable skills, it thereby became young Mayer's drive which supported the family. With his family speaking Yiddish at home, his goal of self-education when he quit school was made more difficult. In his spare time, he hung around the York theater, sometimes paying to watch the live vaudeville shows.
He became enamored with the entertainment business. In 1904 the 20-year-old Mayer left Saint John for Boston, where he continued for a time in the scrap metal business, got married, took a variety of odd jobs to support his new family when his junk business lagged. Mayer renovated the Gem Theater, a rundown, 600 seat burlesque house in Haverhill, which he reopened on November 28, 1907 as the Orpheum, his first movie theater. To overcome an unfavorable reputation that the building had, Mayer opened with a religious film at his new Orpheum, From the Manger to the Cross, in 1912. Within a few years, he owned all five of Haverhill's theaters, with Nathan H. Gordon, created the Gordon-Mayer partnership that controlled the largest theater chain in New England. During his years in Haverhill, Mayer lived on 16 Middlesex St. in the city's Bradford section, closer to city center on Temple Street and at 2 1/2 Merrimac St. Mayer lived in a house he built at 27 Hamilton Ave. In 1914, the partners organized their own film distribution agency in Boston.
Mayer paid D. W. Griffith $25,000 for the exclusive rights to show The Birth of a Nation in New England. Although Mayer made the bid on a film that one of his scouts had seen, but he had not, his decision netted him over $100,000. Mayer partnered with Richard A. Rowland in 1916 to create Metro Pictures Corporation, a talent booking agency, in New York City. Two years Mayer moved to Los Angeles and formed his own production company, Louis B. Mayer Pictures Corporation; the first production was 1918's Virtuous Wives. A partnership was set up with B. P. Schulberg to make the Mayer-Schulberg Studio. Mayer's big breakthrough, was in April 1924 when Marcus Loew, owner of the Loew's chain, merged Metro Pictures, Samuel Goldwyn's Goldwyn Pictures Corporation, Mayer Pictures into Metro-Goldwyn. Loew had bought Metro and Goldwyn some months before, but could not find anyone to oversee his new holdings on the West Coast. Mayer, with his proven success as a producer, was an obvious choice, he was named head of studio operations and a Loew's vice president, based in Los Angeles, reporting to Loew's longt