Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device. Woolf was born into an affluent household in South Kensington, the seventh child in a blended family of eight, her mother, Julia Prinsep Jackson, celebrated as a Pre-Raphaelite artist's model, had three children from her first marriage, while Woolf's father, Leslie Stephen, a notable man of letters, had one previous daughter. The Stephens produced another four children, including the modernist painter Vanessa Bell. While the boys in the family received college educations, the girls were home-schooled in English classics and Victorian literature. An important influence in Virginia Woolf's early life was the summer home the family used in St Ives, where she first saw the Godrevy Lighthouse, to become iconic in her novel To the Lighthouse. Woolf's childhood came to an abrupt end in 1895 with the death of her mother and her first mental breakdown, followed two years by the death of her stepsister and surrogate mother, Stella Duckworth.
From 1897 to 1901, she attended the Ladies' Department of King's College London, where she studied classics and history and came into contact with early reformers of women's higher education and the women's rights movement. Other important influences were her Cambridge-educated brothers and unfettered access to her father's vast library. Encouraged by her father, Woolf began writing professionally in 1900, her father's death in 1905 caused another mental breakdown for Woolf. Following his death, the Stephen family moved from Kensington to the more bohemian Bloomsbury, where they adopted a free-spirited lifestyle, it was in Bloomsbury where, in conjunction with the brothers' intellectual friends, the Stephens formed the artistic and literary Bloomsbury Group. Following her 1912 marriage to Leonard Woolf, the couple founded the Hogarth Press in 1917, which published much of her work; the couple rented a home in Sussex and moved there permanently in 1940. Throughout her life, Woolf was troubled by bouts of mental illness.
She was institutionalized attempted suicide at least twice. Her illness is considered to have been bipolar disorder, for which there was no effective intervention during her lifetime. At age 59, Woolf committed suicide in 1941 by putting rocks in her coat pockets and drowning herself in the River Ouse. During the interwar period, Woolf was an important part of London's artistic society. In 1915 she published her first novel, The Voyage Out, through her half-brother's publishing house, Gerald Duckworth and Company, her best-known works include the novels Mrs Dalloway, To the Orlando. She is known for her essays, including A Room of One's Own, in which she wrote the much-quoted dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." Woolf became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism and her works have since garnered much attention and widespread commentary for "inspiring feminism." Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages.
A large body of literature is dedicated to her life and work, she has been the subject of plays and films. Woolf is commemorated today by statues, societies dedicated to her work and a building at the University of London. Virginia Woolf was born Adeline Virginia Stephen on 25 January 1882 at 22 Hyde Park Gate in South Kensington, London to Julia and Leslie Stephen, historian, essayist and mountaineer. Julia Jackson was born in 1846 in Calcutta, British India to Dr. John Jackson and Maria "Mia" Theodosia Pattle, from two Anglo-Indian families. John Jackson FRCS was the third son of George Jackson and Mary Howard of Bengal, a physician who spent 25 years with the Bengal Medical Service and East India Company and a professor at the fledgling Calcutta Medical College. While John Jackson was an invisible presence, the Pattle family were famous beauties, moved in the upper circles of Bengali society; the seven Pattle sisters married into important families. Julia Margaret Cameron was a celebrated photographer, while Virginia married Earl Somers, their daughter, Julia Jackson's cousin, was Lady Henry Somerset, the temperance leader.
Julia moved to England with her mother at the age of two and spent much of her early life with another of her mother's sister, Sarah Monckton Pattle. Sarah and her husband Henry Thoby Prinsep, conducted an artistic and literary salon at Little Holland House where she came into contact with a number of Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, for whom she modelled. Julia was the youngest of three sisters and Adeline Virginia Stephen was named after her mother's eldest sister Adeline Maria Jackson and her mother's aunt Virginia Pattle; because of the tragedy of her aunt Adeline's death the previous year, the family never used Virginia's first name. The Jacksons were a well educated and artistic proconsular middle-class family. In 1867, Julia Jackson married Herbert Duckworth, a barrister, but within three years was left a widow with three infant children, she was devastated and entered a prolonged period of mourning, abandoning her faith and turning to nursing and philanthropy. Julia and Herbert Duckworth had three children.
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
John C. Reilly
John Christopher Reilly is an American actor, singer, voice actor and producer who made his film debut in Brian De Palma's war film Casualties of War. Reilly gained exposure through his supporting roles in Days of Thunder, What's Eating Gilbert Grape, The River Wild, he starred in Paul Thomas Anderson's films, Hard Eight, Boogie Nights and Magnolia. For his performance in Chicago, Reilly was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and the corresponding Golden Globe Award, he worked with director Martin Scorsese on both Gangs of The Aviator. In 2007, he starred in the comedy Walk Hard: The Dewey Cox Story, garnering him a Grammy Award nomination and a second Golden Globe Award nomination for the song performed in the film, "Walk Hard". Reilly starred with Will Ferrell and Sacha Baron Cohen in the Adam McKay-directed comedies Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby and Step Brothers, he voiced the title character in the commercially successful animated film Wreck-It Ralph and appeared in the superhero film Guardians of the Galaxy, as well as Kong: Skull Island.
Since 2010, Reilly has been starring in the television series Check It Out! with Dr. Steve Brule, playing the titular character that originated on Tim and Eric Awesome Show, Great Job!. In 2018 he starred as the comedian Oliver Hardy in Ollie; the role won him the Boston Society of Film Critics Award for Best Actor. Reilly performs with his band John Reilly and Friends and worked as a stage actor in True West, for which he was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actor in a Play. Reilly was born in Chicago, the fifth of six children, his father was of Irish and Scottish descent, his mother was of Lithuanian ancestry. His father ran an industrial linen supply company. Reilly has described himself as being mischievous during his childhood, highlighting an event when he was 12 in which he and his friends stole 500 boxes of Sugar Corn Pops from a freight train. Reilly grew-up in the Chicago Lawn neighborhood. Reilly attended Brother Rice High School, he is an alumnus of The Theatre School at DePaul University in Chicago.
Reilly made his film debut in the Brian De Palma war film Casualties of War as PFC Herbert Hatcher in 1989. Although his role was written as a small one, De Palma liked Reilly's performance so much that the role was expanded, he played Buck, Tom Cruise's character's NASCAR car chief in Tony Scott's Days of Thunder in June 1990. That September, he played an Irish hoodlum named Stevie McGuire in the crime film State of Grace, which starred Sean Penn. In 1992's Hoffa, Reilly played Jimmy Hoffa's associate. Reilly appeared in a supporting role in What's Eating Gilbert Grape, playing one of the titular character's friends, his next role was in The River Wild, in which Reilly appeared alongside Kevin Bacon as a pair of criminals who terrorise a family during a rafting trip. In 1995, Reilly appeared in the psychological thriller Dolores Claiborne as a police constable and in the drama Georgia as a drug-addict drummer in the band Jennifer Jason Leigh's character joins. Reilly collaborated with filmmaker Paul Thomas Anderson in his directorial debut Hard Eight, playing a man in need of $6,000 to pay for the burial of his mother, taken under the wing of experienced gambler Sydney.
Reilly further collaborated with Anderson, playing pornographic actor Reed Rothchild in Boogie Nights. Terrence Malick's ensemble war film, The Thin Red Line featured Reilly in a supporting role, written as a larger one, but much of his scenes were deleted along with many other cast members. In 1999, Reilly starred in the independent film The Settlement alongside William Fichtner, which Variety writer Robert Koehler dismissed as a "write-off" despite praising his performance; that same year, Reilly was cast in the romantic comedy Never Been Kissed, playing the role of Drew Barrymore's newspaper managing editor. In Sam Raimi's sports drama For Love of the Game, released the same year, Reilly played fictional baseball catcher Gus Sinski; the box office hit The Perfect Storm was his only release of 2000 and featured Reilly as a veteran crew member on the Andrea Gail fishing vessel, caught in the 1991 Perfect Storm. In the Jennifer Jason Leigh and Alan Cumming directed comedy The Anniversary Party, he played director Mac Forsyth.
His first release of 2002 was Miguel Arteta's comedy-drama The Good Girl, in which Reilly played Jennifer Aniston's character's stoner husband, treated unfaithfully by his wife with a younger man, played by Jake Gyllenhaal. In the year, Reilly appeared in three of the year's Academy Award for Best Picture nominees – Chicago, Gangs of New York and The Hours. In Chicago, he played Amos Hart, Roxanne's trusting husband and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, as well as the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor. Zellweger remarked that "John is so the best thing about the movies he's in" and critic Roger Ebert praised the "pathetic sincere naivete" that Reilly brought to the role. Martin Scorsese's Gangs of New York featured Reilly as corrupt 19th-century constable "Happy Jack" Mulraney, while Stephen Daldry's drama The Hours saw him play the husband to Ju
Claire Catherine Danes is an American actress. She is the recipient of three Emmy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards. In 2012, Time named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world, she was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2015. Danes gained early recognition as Angela Chase in the acclaimed 1994 teen drama series My So-Called Life; the role won her a Golden Globe Award for Best Actress and a Primetime Emmy nomination for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series. She made her film debut the same year in Little Women, her other films include Home for the Holidays, Romeo + Juliet, The Rainmaker, Les Misérables, Brokedown Palace, the 1999 English dub of Princess Mononoke, Igby Goes Down, The Hours, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, Stardust, Brigsby Bear, A Kid Like Jake. From 1998 to 2000, Danes attended Yale University before dropping out to return to acting, she appeared in an Off-Broadway production of The Vagina Monologues in 2000, made her Broadway debut playing Eliza Doolittle in the 2007 revival of Pygmalion.
In 2010, she portrayed Temple Grandin in the acclaimed HBO TV film Temple Grandin, which won her a second Golden Globe and her first Primetime Emmy Award for the Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie. Since 2011, she has starred as Carrie Mathison in the Showtime drama series Homeland, for which she has won two Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series, two Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama, the Television Critics Association Award for Individual Achievement in Drama. Danes was born in the Manhattan borough of New York City, the daughter of a sculptor and printmaking artist, Carla Danes, a photographer, Christopher Danes, she has an older brother, a lawyer. Danes' parents met. Danes' mother was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1945 and has a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in painting and education from the Rhode Island School of Design, an Associate of Applied Science in textile design from Fashion Institute of Technology, a master's degree in early childhood education from Hunter College, a Master of Fine Arts from Otis College of Art and Design.
During Danes' childhood her mother ran a small toddler day-care center called Danes Tribe out of the family's SoHo loft to supplement her work as a painter and textile designer, served as Danes' manager. Danes' father was born in Austin, Texas, in 1944 and, after studying biology and civil engineering at Brown University, received a Bachelor of Fine Arts in photography from Rhode Island School of Design, where he studied with Harry Callahan. During Danes' childhood her father worked as a general contractor for 20 years, working on residential buildings in a company he ran called Overall Construction in New York, he worked as a photographer and computer consultant. He is the son of Gibson Andrew Danes, a former dean of the Yale School of Art and Architecture from 1958 to 1968. Danes is named after her paternal grandmother, Claire Danes, who died in 1953; the family lived in an artist's loft on Crosby Street. Danes attended P. S. 3 and PS 11 for elementary school and Professional Performing Arts School for junior high school.
Danes attended the New York City Lab School for Collaborative Studies in New York City. She attended The Dalton School for one year of high school before moving with her parents to Santa Monica, California for the role in My So-Called Life. Danes said. Danes graduated from the Lycée Français de Los Angeles in 1997. In 1998, Danes began studies at Yale University. Director Oliver Stone wrote a letter of recommendation. After studying for two years as a psychology major, she dropped out to focus on her film career. Danes started studying dance. Danes took dance classes from Ellen Robbins at Dance Theater Workshop and acting classes at HB Studiothe Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute at the age of 10, she appeared in video productions in New York City. Although she continued to dance, Danes said that her focus shifted to acting by the time she was nine years old, her audition with Miloš Forman when she was 11 led to roles in several student films. She signed with agent Karen Friedman at the Writers & Artists talent agency at age 12.
At age 13, Danes got her first big job working on the Dudley Moore TV sitcom pilot called Dudley, shot at Silvercup Studios in Astoria, Queens. Danes played a teenage murderer in a guest starring role on Law & Order in the season three episode "Skin Deep", she appeared in an episode of HBO's Lifestories: Families in Crisis entitled "The Coming out of Heidi Leiter". In March 1993, a pilot episode was shot, it would be another year and a half before broadcast. She starred as the 15-year-old Angela Chase in the television drama series My So-Called Life, starring in the show and providing voiceovers for 17 of the series' 19 episodes, including the pilot episode. For her role, she received an Emmy nomination. Despite being canceled after only 19 episodes, My So-Called Life has developed a large cult following. In 1995, she starred in the Soul Asylum music video for "Just Like Anyone". In 2010, Danes starred in the HBO production of Temple Grandin, a biopic about the eponymous woman with autism, she won the 2010 Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie, the 2011 Golden Globe Award for Best Actress
Stephen David Daldry, CBE is an English director and producer of film and television. He has won three Olivier Awards for his work in the West End and two Tony Awards for his work on Broadway, he has directed several feature films that have been nominated for Best Director and/or Best Picture at the Academy Awards. These films are The Hours, The Reader and Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close. From 2016 to 2019, he produced and directed Netflix television series The Crown, for which he received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations and one win for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series and Outstanding Drama Series. Daldry joined an elite group of directors by receiving nominations for direction in theatre and film. Daldry was born in Dorset, the son of bank manager Patrick Daldry and singer Cherry Daldry; the family moved to Taunton, where his father died of cancer when Daldry was aged 14. Daldry joined a youth theatre group in Taunton. and performed as Sandy Tyrell in Hay Fever for the local amateur society, Taunton Thespians.
At age 18, he won a Royal Air Force scholarship to University of Sheffield to study English, where he became chairman of the Sheffield University Theatre Group. After graduation, he spent a year travelling through Italy, he trained as an actor at East 15 Acting School, through the University of Essex, on the post-graduate course 1982-83. Returning to Sheffield, he became an apprentice at the Crucible Theatre from 1985–88. Daldry began his career at the Sheffield Crucible with Artistic Director Clare Venables, he headed productions at the Manchester Library Theatre, Liverpool Playhouse, Stratford East, Oxford Stage and the Edinburgh Fringe Festival. He was Artistic Director of the Royal Court Theatre from 1992–98, where he headed the £26 million development scheme, he was Artistic Director of London's Gate Theatre and the Metro Theatre Company. He is on the Board of the Young and Old Vic Theatres and remains an Associate Director of the Royal Court Theatre, he was the Cameron Mackintosh Visiting Professor of Contemporary Theatre for 2002 at St Catherine's College, Oxford.
Daldry made his feature film directorial debut with Billy Elliot. His next film was The Hours, it won Best Actress at the Academy Awards for Nicole Kidman, he directed a stage musical adaptation of Billy Elliot, in 2009 his work on it earned him a Tony Award for Best Director of a Musical. He has made a film version of The Reader, based on the book of the same name and starring Kate Winslet, David Kross and Ralph Fiennes; the film won Best Actress at the Academy Awards for Kate Winslet. He has received Academy Award nominations for directing three of his five films. Daldry was planning to direct a film adaptation of Michael Chabon's Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay in 2005. In the ensuing three years, the project was cancelled and reinitiated several times, in late 2006 was cast with Natalie Portman and Tobey Maguire. According to Chabon, production stalled due to "studio-politics kinds of reasons that I'm not privy to," and as of April 2007 remains inactive.
Daldry's fourth film was Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close, an adaptation of the book of the same name written by Jonathan Safran Foer, starring Tom Hanks, Sandra Bullock, Max von Sydow and introduced newcomer Thomas Horn. The screenplay was written by Eric Roth; the film received a nomination for Best Picture at the 84th Academy Awards and a nomination for von Sydow for Best Supporting Actor. Although Daldry has been married since 2001 to performance artist and magazine editor Lucy Sexton, with whom he has a daughter, he describes himself as a gay man because people prefer it, he was in a relationship with set designer Ian MacNeil for 13 years. They met at an outdoor production of Alice in Wonderland in Lancaster in 1988, after settling in Camberwell, began collaborating on theatrical productions; the Ragged Trousered Philanthropists, Liverpool Playhouse, England Theatre Royale, England, 1988 An Inspector Calls, York Theatre Royal, 1988 Judgement Day, Old Red Lion Theatre, London, 1989 Figaro Gets Divorced, Gate Theatre, London, 1990 Cutting Room, Royal Court Theatre Upstairs, London, 1990 Our Man in Marzibah and Rousseau's Tale, Gate Theatre, 1991 Damned for Despair, Gate Theatre, 1991 Jerker, Gate Theatre, 1991 Pioneers in Ingolstadt, Gate Theatre, 1991 Purgatory in Ingolstadt, Gate Theatre, 1991 Manon Lescaut, Dublin Grand Opera, 1992 An Inspector Calls, National Theatre Company, Lyttelton Theatre, London, 1992 Royale Theatre, New York City, 1994–1995, *later Garrick Theatre, London, 1995 Playhouse Theatre, London, 2016–17 Search and Destroy, Royal Court Theatre Upstairs, 1993 Machinal, National Theatre Company, Lyttelton Theatre, 1993 The Europeans, 1993 The Kitchen, Royal Court Theatre, 1994 The Editing Process, Royal Court Theatre, 1994 Rat in the Skull, Duke of York's Theatre, London, 1995 The Libertine, Royal Court Theatre, 1995 The Man of Mode, Royal Court Theatre, 1995 Body Talk, Royal Court Theatre, 1996 This Is a Chair, in London International Festival of Theatre, London, 1997 Via Dolorosa, Royal Court Theatre, 1998 Booth Theatre, New York City, 1999 Far Away, Royal Court Theatre, 2000 New York Theatre Workshop, New York City, 2002–2003 A Number, Jerwood Theatre Downstairs, Royal Court Theatre, 2002 New York Theatre Workshop, 2002–2003 The Jungle, Young Vic, 2017-2018 St. Ann's Warehouse, 2018 Awards1993: Laurence Olivier Award for Best Director o
Richmond is a suburban town in south-west London, 8.2 miles west-southwest of Charing Cross. It is on a meander of the River Thames, with a large number of parks and open spaces, including Richmond Park, many protected conservation areas, which include much of Richmond Hill. A specific Act of Parliament protects the scenic view of the River Thames from Richmond. Richmond was founded following Henry VII's building of Richmond Palace in the 16th century, from which the town derives its name. During this era the town and palace were associated with Elizabeth I, who spent her last days here. During the 18th century Richmond Bridge was completed and many Georgian terraces were built around Richmond Green and on Richmond Hill; these remain well preserved and many have listed building architectural or heritage status. The opening of the railway station in 1846 was a significant event in the absorption of the town into a expanding London. Richmond was part of the ancient parish of Kingston upon Thames in the county of Surrey.
In 1890 the town became a municipal borough, extended to include Kew, Ham and part of Mortlake. The municipal borough was abolished in 1965 when, as a result of local government reorganisation, Richmond was transferred from Surrey to Greater London. Richmond is now part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, has a population of 21,469, it has a significant retail centre with a developed day and evening economy. The name Richmond upon Thames is used, incorrectly, to refer to the town of Richmond: in fact, the suffix should properly be used only in reference to the London Borough; until 1501, Richmond was known as Shene. Shene was not listed in Domesday Book, although it is depicted on the associated maps as Sceon, its Saxon spelling. Henry VII had a palace built there and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace in recognition of his earldom and his ancestral home at Richmond Castle in Yorkshire; the town that developed nearby took the same name as the palace. Henry I lived in the King's house in "Sheanes".
In 1299 Edward I, the "Hammer of the Scots", took his whole court to the manor house at Sheen, a little east of the bridge and on the riverside, it thus became a royal residence. Edward II, following his defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, founded a monastery for Carmelites at Sheen; when the boy-king Edward III came to the throne in 1327 he gave the manor to his mother Isabella. Edward spent over £ 2,000 on improvements, but in the middle of the work Edward himself died at the manor, in 1377. Richard II was the first English king to make Sheen his main residence, which he did in 1383. Twelve years Richard was so distraught at the death of his wife Anne of Bohemia at the age of 28 that, according to Holinshed, the 16th-century English chronicler, he "caused it to be thrown down and defaced, it was rebuilt between 1414 and 1422, but destroyed by fire in 1497. Following that fire Henry VII built a new residence at Sheen and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace. There are unconfirmed beliefs.
When Elizabeth I became queen she spent much of her time at Richmond, as she enjoyed hunting stags in the "Newe Parke of Richmonde". She died at the palace on 24 March 1603; the palace was no longer in residential use after 1649, but in 1688 James II ordered its partial reconstruction: this time as a royal nursery. The bulk of the palace had decayed by 1779; this has five bedrooms and was made available on a 65-year lease by the Crown Estate Commissioners in 1986. Beyond the grounds of the old palace, Richmond remained agricultural land until the 18th century. White Lodge, in the middle of what is now Richmond Park, was built as a hunting lodge for George II and during this period the number of large houses in their own grounds – such as Asgill House and Pembroke Lodge – increased significantly; these were followed by the building of further important houses including Downe House, Wick House and The Wick on Richmond Hill, as this area became an fashionable place to live. Richmond Bridge was completed in 1777 to replace a ferry crossing that connected Richmond town centre on the east bank with its neighbouring district of East Twickenham.
Today, together with the well-preserved Georgian terraces that surround Richmond Green and line Richmond Hill to its crest, now has listed building status. As Richmond continued to prosper and expand during the 19th century, much luxurious housing was built on the streets that line Richmond Hill, as well as shops in the town centre to serve the increasing population. In July 1892 the Corporation formed a joint-stock company, the Richmond Electric Light and Power Company, this wired the town for electricity by around 1896. Like many other large towns in Britain, Richmond lost many young people in the First and Second World Wars. In the Second World War, 96 people were killed in air raids, which resulted in the demolition of 297 houses; the Richmond War Memorial, which now commemorates both wars, was installed in the 1920s at the end of Whittaker Avenue, between t
Toni Collett, credited professionally as Toni Collette, is an Australian actress and musician, known for her acting work on stage and film, as well as a secondary career as the lead singer of the band Toni Collette & the Finish. She has received six AACTA Awards, one Primetime Emmy Award, one Golden Globe Award and one Screen Actors Guild Award, has been nominated twice for a British Academy Film Award and both once for an Academy Award and a Tony Award. Collette's acting career began in the early 1990s with comedic roles in films such as Spotswood and Muriel's Wedding. For the latter, she earned a Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress. In 1999, she achieved international recognition as a result of her Oscar-nominated portrayal of Lynn Sear in The Sixth Sense, a year made her Tony Award-nominated Broadway debut with the lead role in the musical The Wild Party. In the 2000s, she received acclaim for her roles in independent features such as About a Boy, for which she was nominated for a BAFTA, Little Miss Sunshine, which earned her an SAG Award as well as her second Golden Globe and BAFTA nominations.
Her other films include: Emma, Velvet Goldmine, Changing Lanes, The Hours, In Her Shoes, The Night Listener, Fright Night, Hitchcock, Lucky Them, Enough Said, Miss You Already, Imperium, XXX: Return of Xander Cage, Hereditary. From 2009 to 2011, she played the lead roles on the television series United States of Tara, for which she won Primetime Emmy and Golden Globe awards for Best Actress. Collette returned to Broadway in 2014 in The Realistic Joneses, for which she earned a Drama Desk Special Award. Toni Collett was born in Blacktown, a suburb in Sydney, the daughter of Judith, a customer-service representative, Bob Collett, a truck driver, she added an "e" at the end to be her stage name. In a 2015 episode of Who Do You Think You Are? she discovered that her biological paternal grandfather was an American Chief Petty Officer in the U. S. Navy stationed in Australia during World War II. From an early age, Collette showed a talent for acting, she faked appendicitis when she was eleven, was so convincing that doctors removed her appendix, although tests showed nothing wrong with it.
She attended Blacktown Girls' High School until the age of 16, attended both the Australian Theatre for Young People and National Institute of Dramatic Art. Her first acting role was onstage in the musical Godspell in Sydney in her early teens. Collette made her television debut in 1990, in a guest appearance on the Seven Network drama series A Country Practice. In 1992, she made her feature film debut as part of the ensemble comedy-drama Spotswood, which starred Anthony Hopkins and which featured Russell Crowe. Collette soon rocketed to international notice with her performance in the title role for Muriel's Wedding in 1994, a role for which she gained 18 kg in seven weeks, she won the Australian award for Best Actress as Muriel, her first of five Australian Film Institute awards. In 1996, she was part of the ensemble cast of the comedy, Così, had a leading role in Emma as the naïve Harriet Smith. In 1998, she appeared based on a Sydney stage play of the same name. In Her Shoes and Fun Moms Dinner She has received broad acclaim on Broadway, starring as Queenie in Michael John LaChiusa's musical work, The Wild Party.
For this role, Collette was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical. Collette turned down the title role in Bridget Jones's Diary because she was committed to perform on Broadway at the time. In 2000, she was nominated for an Academy Award for her role as the mother of a troubled boy in the 1999 U. S. film The Sixth Sense, which starred Bruce Willis and Haley Joel Osment. In 2000, she was the voice of Meg Bluegum Bunyip's mother in The Magic Pudding based on the iconic children's book by Norman Lindsay. In 2003, Collette played the lead role in Japanese Story as an Australian geologist traversing an arc of emotions in the course of an intense relationship with a visiting Japanese businessman, her powerful performance led to numerous reviewers welcoming her back to playing lead roles, the first time since Muriel's Wedding and scored her performance as riveting. Collette won the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress for her performance. In 2004, Collette starred with Nia Vardalos and David Duchovny in the musical comedy Connie and Carla, released by Universal Studios.
Collette's only film in 2005 was In Her Shoes, a comedy-drama about the relationship between two different sisters and their estranged grandmother, co-starring Cameron Diaz and Shirley MacLaine. Based on the 2002 novel of the same name by Jennifer Weiner, the production received positive reviews from critics, became a moderate independent success, earning a total of US$82.2 million worldwide. Collette was subsequently nominated for a Satellite Award for Best Actress for her performance of a successful-but-lonely lawyer with low self-esteem, which Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle noted the focus of the film: "As usual, Collette's face is a fine-tuned transmitter of her emotions, moment by moment, she becomes the locus of audience feeling."In 2006, Collette starred in Little Miss Sunshine, a comedy-drama-road movie about a family's trip to a children's beauty pageant. The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival in January 2006, its distribution rights were bought by Fox Searchlight Pictures for one of the biggest dea