Ti West is an American film director, screenwriter, editor and occasional actor, best known for his work in horror films. He directed the horror films The Roost, The House of the Devil, The Innkeepers, The Sacrament, the Western In a Valley of Violence, he has acted in a number of films in those directed by either himself or Joe Swanberg. West was born in Wilmington, Delaware, He was featured in a 2001 fall issue of Teen People magazine. West attended the School of Visual Arts. West's directorial work includes the 2001 short The Wicked, feature films The Roost, Trigger Man, The House of the Devil, The Innkeepers, The Sacrament, he appeared in 2004's The Woman as Old Man Conrad. In 2009, West wrote and directed the web series Dead & Lonely for IFC Films; the first series run ended in October 2009. West disowned the 2009 horror film Cabin Fever 2: Spring Fever, citing massive interference and re-editing as the reasons, he wanted to remove his name from the film and give directing credit to Alan Smithee, but his request was denied.
West was set to direct The Haunting in Georgia, the sequel to The Haunting in Connecticut, but left the project in March 2010. In 2012, he worked with Adam Wingard, Simon Barrett, David Bruckner, Joe Swanberg, Glenn McQuaid and the Radio Silence Productions hosts Matt Bettinelli-Olpin and Chad Villella on the anthology horror film V/H/S, he directed the segment "Second Honeymoon". In June 2015, it was reported, he directed the penultimate episode of the first season, titled "The Dance". He has directed an episode of Jason Blum and Eli Roth's WE tv horror series South of Hell, titled "Take Life Now". West wrote, directed and edited the Western film In a Valley of Violence, starring Ethan Hawke, Taissa Farmiga, John Travolta, it premiered at South by Southwest in March 2016. Ti West on IMDb
A crucifix is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross. The representation of Jesus himself on the cross is referred to in English as the corpus; the crucifix is a principal symbol for many groups of Christians, one of the most common forms of the Crucifixion in the arts. It is important in the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, but is used in the Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, as well as by the Lutheran and Anglican Churches; the symbol is less common in churches of other Protestant denominations, which prefer to use a cross without the figure of Jesus. The crucifix emphasizes Jesus' sacrifice — his death by crucifixion, which Christians believe brought about the redemption of mankind. Most crucifixes portray Jesus on a Latin cross, rather than any other shape, such as a Tau cross or a Coptic cross. Western crucifixes have a three-dimensional corpus, but in Eastern Orthodoxy Jesus' body is painted on the cross, or in low relief. Speaking, to be a crucifix, the cross must be three-dimensional, but this distinction is not always observed.
An entire painting of the Crucifixion of Jesus including a landscape background and other figures is not a crucifix either. Large crucifixes high across the central axis of a church are known by the Old English term rood. By the late Middle Ages these were a near-universal feature of Western churches, but are now rare. Modern Roman Catholic churches have a crucifix above the altar on the wall; the standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright post or stipes and a single crosspiece to which the sufferer's arms were nailed. There may be a short projecting nameplate, showing the letters INRI; the Russian Orthodox crucifix has an additional third crossbar, to which the feet are nailed, and, angled upward toward the penitent thief Saint Dismas and downward toward the impenitent thief Gestas. The corpus of Eastern crucifixes is a two-dimensional or low relief icon that shows Jesus as dead, his face peaceful and somber, they are three-dimensional figures as in the Western tradition, although these may be found where Western influences are strong, but are more icons painted on a piece of wood shaped to include the double-barred cross and the edge of Christ's hips and halo, no background.
More sculptural small crucifixes in metal relief are used in Orthodoxy, including as pectoral crosses and blessing crosses. Western crucifixes may show Christ dead or alive, the presence of the spear wound in his ribs traditionally indicating that he is dead. In either case his face often shows his suffering. In Orthodoxy he has been shown as dead since around the end of the period of Byzantine Iconoclasm. Eastern crucifixes have Jesus' two feet nailed side by side, rather than crossed one above the other, as Western crucifixes have shown them since around the 13th century; the crown of thorns is generally absent in Eastern crucifixes, since the emphasis is not on Christ's suffering, but on his triumph over sin and death. The "S"-shaped position of Jesus' body on the cross is a Byzantine innovation of the late 10th century, though found in the German Gero Cross of the same date. More from Byzantine influence, it spread elsewhere in the West to Italy, by the Romanesque period, though it was more usual in painting than sculpted crucifixes.
It's in Italy that the emphasis was put on Jesus' suffering and realistic details, during a process of general humanization of Christ favored by the Franciscan order. During the 13th century the suffering Italian model triumphed over the traditional Byzantine one anywhere in Europe due to the works of artists such as Giunta Pisano and Cimabue. Since the Renaissance the "S"-shape is much less pronounced. Eastern Christian blessing crosses will have the Crucifixion depicted on one side, the Resurrection on the other, illustrating the understanding of Orthodox theology that the Crucifixion and Resurrection are two intimately related aspects of the same act of salvation. Another, depiction shows a triumphant Christ, clothed in robes, rather than stripped as for His execution, with arms raised, appearing to rise up from the cross, sometimes accompanied by "rays of light", or an aureole encircling His Body, he may be robed as a prophet, crowned as a king, vested in a stole as Great High Priest. On some crucifixes a skull and crossbones are shown below the corpus, referring to Golgotha, the site at which Jesus was crucified, which the Gospels say means in Hebrew "the place of the skull."
Medieval tradition held that it was the burial-place of Adam and Eve, that the cross of Christ was raised directly over Adam's skull, so many crucifixes manufactured in Catholic countries still show the skull and crossbones below the corpus. Large crucifixes have been built, the largest being the Cross in the Woods in Michigan, with a 31 feet high statue. Prayer in front of a crucifix, seen as a sacramental, is part of devotion for Christians those worshipping in a church privately; the person may sit, stand, or kneel in front of the crucifix, sometimes looking at it in contemplation, or in front of it with head bowed or eyes closed. During the Middle Ages small crucifixes hung on a wall, beca
Montreuil is a commune in the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 6.6 km from the center of Paris. It is the fourth most populous suburb of Paris. Montreuil is located near the Bois de Vincennes park; the name Montreuil was recorded for the first time in a royal edict of 722 as Monasteriolum, meaning "little monastery" in Medieval Latin. The settlement of Montreuil started as a group of houses built around a small monastery. Under the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XVI the "Peach Walls" which provided the royal court with the fruits were located in Montreuil, it was later home to the Lumière brothers and George Méliès whose workshops were located in lower Montreuil. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighboring communes. On that occasion, the commune of Charonne was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris and Bagnolet. Montreuil received a small part of the territory of Charonne. Today Montreuil is divided into several districts: Le bas Montreuil (which joins together the old workshops, the marché aux puces, The Mairie, La Noue, Le Bel Air, La Boissière.
Decorations in the state school "Voltaire" by Maurice Boitel. Montreuil's inhabitants exaggeratedly nickname the town the "second Malian town after Bamako", or sometimes "Mali-sous-Bois" or "Bamako-sur-Seine" if the Seine doesn't cross the town. Montreuil has indeed a important Malian population: more than 2,000 inhabitants according to the INSEE in 1999, between 6,000 and 10,000 people according to the mairie, which estimates that Montreuil has the largest Malian community in France. 10 % of the population has Malian origins. The mayor of Montreuil is the member of Parti communiste français Patrice Bessac, elected on the second round of 2014 municipal elections, defeating the former ex-Communist mayor Jean-Pierre Brard in a four sides second round; the city is divided into two cantons: canton of Montreuil-1 and canton of Montreuil-2. Video game company Ubisoft has its corporate head office in Montreuil; the Air France Paris office is in Montreuil. The commune's educational services are operated out of the Opale B Administrative Building.
Montreuil has eight collèges, three lycées, two lycées techniques, the IUT of the University of Paris 8. Senior high schools/sixth form colleges: Lycée Eugénie-Cotton Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée CondorcetThe Montreuil Library consists of the Robert-Desnos Central Library, the Daniel-Renoult Library, the Colonel-Fabien Library, the Paul-Eluard Library. Robert-Desnos, in a park near the commune's town hall, is the largest library in the commune, it houses a Internet access points. Daniel-Renoult, near Montreau Park, serves the Montreau-Ruffins Théophile Sueur community. Colonel-Fabien, in the Ramenas-Fabien-Léo Lagrange community, is near the Intercommunal Hospital. Paul-Eluard is near the La Grande Porte shopping centre and is within 50 metres of the Robespierre Paris Métro station and Rue de Paris. Pierre de Montreuil, famous 13th century architect, died in 1267 in Paris Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer, sculptor Djamel Abdoun, Algerian footballer who played at the 2010 FIFA World Cup Mehdi Abeid, Algerian footballer Oumar Bakari, footballer Rosette Bir, sculptor Souarata Cisse, basketball player Olivier Dacourt, footballer Emmanuel Flipo, artist Mamadou Samassa, footballer Tignous and activist killed in the Charlie Hebdo shooting Élodie Bouchez, actress Henri Decaë, cinematographer Nicolas Aithadi, Visual Effects, Guardians of the Galaxy Jean Delannoy, director Émile Reynaud, director Frédéric Verger, writer Christophe Guilluy, geographer Helno, singer with Lucrate Milk, Bérurier Noir & Les Négresses Vertes Montreuil is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 9: Robespierre, Croix de Chavaux, Mairie de Montreuil.
Montreuil is twinned with: Bistriţa, Bistrița-Năsăud County, Romania Cottbus, Germany Hornec gang Gaston-Auguste Schweitzer Birthplace of this sculptor Pierre de Montreuil Musée de l'Histoire vivante INSEE Official website
The House of the Devil
The House of the Devil is a 2009 American horror film written and edited by Ti West, starring Jocelin Donahue, Tom Noonan, Mary Woronov. The plot concerns a young college student, hired as a babysitter at an isolated house and is soon caught up in bizarre and dangerous events as she fights for her life; the film combines elements of both the slasher film and haunted house subgenres while using the "satanic panic" of the 1980s as a central plot element. The film pays homage to horror films of the 1970s and 1980s, recreating the style of films of that era using filming techniques and similar technology to what was used then; the film's opening text claims that it is based upon true events, a technique used in some horror films, such as The Amityville Horror and The Texas Chain Saw Massacre. In the 1980s, college student Samantha Hughes inspects a house. Due to Samantha reminding her of her own daughter, landlady forgoes a deposit in favor of one month's rent in advance. Samantha is struggling financially so she takes on a babysitting job for his wife.
Ulman asks to meet her but stands her up apologizing and offering to pay double the original salary. Samantha gets a ride to the remote mansion from her best friend, Megan. At the house, Mr. Ulman pulls her aside and reveals that he does not have any children to be monitored. Samantha balks but agrees when she is offered $400 for the job, a significant increase in her pay. Megan leaves, citing Ulman's lies and peculiar behavior, but she reluctantly promises to pick up Samantha later. Before the Ulmans depart, Samantha speaks with Mrs. Ulman, who tells her they are from "the desert." On the way home, Megan stops in her car to smoke a cigarette. When her lighter will not work, a stranger appears out of nowhere, startling her, lights her cigarette for her; when Megan reveals that she is not the babysitter hired by the Ulmans, she is abruptly shot and murdered by the stranger. After ordering a pizza, Samantha dances around the house while listening to her Walkman, accidentally breaking a vase in the process.
While cleaning up the mess, she discovers a cupboard filled with old family photographs. In one photograph a different family than the Ulmans stands next to the Volvo she and Megan saw upon pulling up to the house. An additionally peculiar detail is; this seems unlikely as the Volvo is a new car and Mr. Ulman stated that although they had a child he was now grown. Three corpses are shown in one of the rooms, with the implication that they are the family in the photograph and the true residents of the house. Samantha, shaken by a number of issues at the house and being startled by the arrival of the pizza she ordered, dials 911, but manages to calm herself down.. Drugs in the pizza cause Samantha to pass out, just as she discovers activity behind a door leading to the third floor; when she comes to, she finds that she has been gagged in the center of a Pentagram. As a lunar eclipse darkens the night sky, Mr. and Mrs. Ulman, along with the stranger, their son Victor, begin a bizarre ritual. Mother is revealed to be a witch-like figure.
As part of the ritual she pours the blood into a goat skull. She uses the blood to draw occult symbols on Samantha's stomach and forehead, forces Samantha to drink her blood from the skull. Samantha manages to escape halfway through the ritual, killing Mrs. Ulman and Victor, but horrific images begin appearing in her mind. Mr. Ulman chases her out through a nearby cemetery. There, he tells her. Samantha threatens him with the gun used to kill Megan, but Ulman passively accepts his fate, claiming to be a messenger and gloating that she's too late. Instead of shooting him, she shoots herself to Ulman's horror; the scene cuts to a broadcast about the strange lunar eclipse the night before, which has confounded scientists due to its abrupt ending, as Samantha is revealed to be in a hospital bed, in bandages. A nurse walks in and pats the unconscious Samantha on the stomach, reassuring her that "You will be just fine. Both of you." Jocelin Donahue as Samantha Hughes Tom Noonan as Mr. Ulman Mary Woronov as Mrs. Ulman Greta Gerwig as Megan A. J. Bowen as Victor Ulman Dee Wallace as Landlady Lena Dunham as 911 Operator The film was shot in Connecticut.
Taking place in the 1980s, the film was made with 16mm film, giving it a retro stylistic look that matched the decade. Some aspects of the culture of the 1980s are seen in the film as signifiers of the decade; the cinematography of the film reflects the methods used by directors of the time. For instance, West has the camera zoom in on characters, a technique, used in horror films of the 1970s and continued to be used into the 1980s. Other stylistic signifiers include opening credits in yellow font accompanied by freeze-frames and the closing credits being played over a still image of the final scene; the United States premiere was at the 2009 Tribeca Film Festival in New York City on April 25. It was made available through video on demand on October 1, 2009; the film was given a limited theatrical release in the United States on October 30, 2009
Medieval architecture is architecture common in the Middle Ages, includes religious and military buildings. Styles include pre-Romanesque and Gothic. While most of the surviving medieval architecture is to be seen in churches and castles, examples of civic and domestic architecture can be found throughout Europe, in manor houses, town halls, almshouses and residential houses; the Latin cross plan, common in medieval ecclesiastical architecture, takes the Roman basilica as its primary model with subsequent developments. It consists of a nave and the altar stands at the east end. Cathedrals influenced or commissioned by Justinian employed the Byzantine style of domes and a Greek cross, with the altar located in the sanctuary on the east side of the church. Surviving examples of medieval secular architecture served for defense. Castles and fortified walls provide the most notable remaining non-religious examples of medieval architecture. Windows gained a cross-shape for more than decorative purposes, they provided a perfect fit for a crossbowman to safely shoot at invaders from inside.
Crenellated walls provided shelters for archers on the roofs to hide behind when not shooting invaders. While much of the surviving medieval architecture is either religious or military, examples of civic and domestic architecture can be found throughout Europe. Examples include manor houses, town halls and bridges, but residential houses. European architecture in the Early Middle Ages may be divided into Early Christian, Romanesque architecture, Russian church architecture, Norse Architecture, Pre-Romanesque, including Merovingian, Carolingian and Asturian. While these terms are problematic, they nonetheless serve adequately as entries into the era. Considerations that enter into histories of each period include Trachtenberg's "historicising" and "modernising" elements, Italian versus northern and Byzantine elements, the religious and political maneuverings between kings and various ecclesiastic officials. Romanesque, prevalent in medieval Europe during the 11th and 12th centuries, was the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent.
The term was not contemporary with the art it describes, but rather, is an invention of modern scholarship based on its similarity to Roman Architecture in forms and materials. Romanesque is characterized by a use of round or pointed arches, barrel vaults, cruciform piers supporting vaults. Romansque buildings are known throughout Europe; the various elements of Gothic architecture emerged in a number of 11th and 12th century building projects in the Île de France area, but were first combined to form what we would now recognise as a distinctively Gothic style at the 12th century abbey church of Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis, near Paris. Verticality is emphasized in Gothic architecture, which features skeletal stone structures with great expanses of glass, pared-down wall surfaces supported by external flying buttresses, pointed arches using the ogive shape, ribbed stone vaults, clustered columns and pointed spires. Windows contain stained glass, showing stories from lives of saints; such advances in design allowed cathedrals to rise taller than and it became something of an inter-regional contest to build a church as high as possible.
Variations included these Brick Gothic History of Arabic and Western European domes List of medieval stone bridges in Germany List of medieval bridges in France Architecture of the Tarnovo Artistic School Braun, Hugh, An Introduction to English Mediaeval Architecture, London: Faber and Faber, 1951. "Building the House of God: Architectural Metaphor and The Mystic Ark," Codex Aquilarensis: Revista de arte medieval Fletcher, Banister. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Cf. Part Two, Chapter 13. Rudolph, Conrad, "Building-Miracles as Artistic Justification in the Early and Mid-Twelfth Century," Radical Art History: Internationale Anthologie, ed. Wolfgang Kersten 398-410 Rudolph,Conrad, "The Architectural Metaphor in Western Medieval Artistic Culture: From the Cornerstone to The Mystic Ark," The Cambridge History of Religious Architecture, ed. Stephen Murray The stave churches in Norway
Star Film Company
The Manufacture de Films pour Cinématographes known as the Star Film Company, was a French film production company run by the illusionist and film director Georges Méliès. On 28 December 1895, Méliès attended the celebrated first public demonstration of the Lumière Brothers' Kinetoscope; the event, held in a room at 14 Boulevard des Capucines in Paris with one hundred chairs and an entry price of ₣1, demonstrated the practicality of film cameras and projectors. According to recollections by Méliès, he approached Antoine Lumière and offered to buy a Lumière projector for his own experimentation. Méliès went on to make repeated offers, all turned down. Méliès next turned to the British film experimenter Robert W. Paul, in February 1896, obtained an Animatographe projector for ₣1,000, along with a collection of short films, some by Paul and some by Edison Studios. Méliès projected these for the first time at his theater of illusions, the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, in April 1896. Meanwhile, having studied the principles on which Paul's projector ran, Méliès designed a makeshift camera.
With the help of a mechanic, Lucien Korsten, he built it in the workshop of the theater, using parts recycled from machines used in his illusions. On 2 September 1896, Méliès, an associate, Lucien Reulos, obtained a patent on their work, christened the Kinétograph, on 2 December Méliès created the Star Film trademark, with the slogan "The Whole World Within Reach." The American branch of the company was managed by Méliès' older brother Gaston Méliès and produced films in New York City, San Antonio and Santa Paula, California. Its most significant film was The Immortal Alamo. Georges Méliès had produced films in France; some distributors began infringing Méliès' work in the United States. Méliès asked his brother Gaston to guard Méliès copyrights. Gaston began distributing his brother's films. By 1903, Gaston began making films himself documentaries; the films were not successful. The company moved to San Antonio looking for warmer winters and leased twenty acres including a two-story house and large barn that became the "Star Film Ranch" movie studio.
Star Film Company was the earliest non-Texas production company. The studio had actors Edith Storey, Francis Ford, William Clifford under contract along with writer Anne Nichols; the studio hired local ranchers and cowboys to give its Westerns genuine character. The films were one reel in length with an average running time of fifteen minutes. Of the seventy films made in San Antonio, only three are known to have survived; the Star Film Company moved to California in April 1911. Gaston planned to relocate to Santa Barbara but chose Santa Paula instead because the scenery was better, or because it was less expensive. In Santa Paula, he built stages across from a resort called Sulphur Mountain Springs, where the troupe rented rooms. Financially, things started going wrong for Gaston, his popular stars, Edith Storey and William Clifford moved to other companies. His California films were not as profitable. In November 1911, Gaston met with Vitagraph Studios in New York and sold fifty percent of his company, including his brothers negatives and distribution rights.
On July 24, 1912 Gaston, his wife and a crew of fourteen left for a Pacific and Asian voyage to make movies in exotic locales. Documentaries and dramas were filmed at various locations such as Tahiti, Bora Bora, New Zealand, Australia, Cambodia and others; the footage was sent to New York for processing, but much of the footage arrived damaged because of the harsh conditions in which the negatives were shot or mishandling in transit. What was released met with an unappreciative audience and bad reviews in the trade press. Gaston settled in Corsica, where he died two years later. Gaston's son Paul sold what was left of the company to General Film Company in 1917, it was believed that "bad blood" developed between the Méliès brothers, but recent research indicates that despite losses in the American branch, Georges received all payments he was entitled to. The Obsession The Prisoner's Story The Will Of Destiny The Ghost of Sulphur Mountain The Kiss of Mary Jane When the Tables Turned The Immortal Alamo Mary's Stratagem In the Hot Lands Salt on the Bird's Tail The Yacht Race A Trip to the Moon The Haunted Castle
Vampire films have been a staple since the era of silent films, so much so that the depiction of vampires in popular culture is based upon their depiction in films throughout the years. The most popular cinematic adaptation of vampire fiction has been from Bram Stoker's Dracula, with over 170 versions to date. Running a distant second are adaptations of "Carmilla" by Sheridan Le Fanu. By 2005, Dracula had been the subject of more films than any other fictional character, save for Sherlock Holmes; as folklore, vampires are defined by their need to feed on their manipulative nature. Although vampires are associated with the horror, vampire films may fall into the drama, science fiction, comedy or fantasy genres, amongst others. Early cinematic vampires in other such films as The Vampire, directed by Robert G. Vignola, were not undead bloodsucking fiends, but'vamps'; such femme fatales were inspired by a poem by Rudyard Kipling called "The Vampire", composed in 1897. This poem was written as kind of commentary on a painting of a female vampire by Philip Burne-Jones exhibited in the same year.
Lyrics from Kipling's poem: A fool there was... describing a seduced man, were used as the title of the film A Fool There Was starring Theda Bara as the'vamp' in question and the poem was used in the publicity for the film. An authentic supernatural vampire features in the landmark Nosferatu starring Max Schreck as the hideous Count Orlok; this was an unlicensed version of Bram Stoker's Dracula, based so on the novel that the estate sued and won, with all copies ordered to be destroyed. It would be painstakingly restored in 1994 by a team of European scholars from the five surviving prints that had escaped destruction; the destruction of the vampire, in the closing sequence of the film, by sunlight rather than the traditional stake through the heart proved influential on films and became an accepted part of vampire lore. The next classic treatment of the vampire legend was an adaptation of the stage play based on Bram Stoker's novel Dracula, Universal's Dracula starring Bela Lugosi as Count Dracula.
Lugosi's performance was so popular that his Hungarian accent and sweeping gestures became characteristics now associated with Dracula. Five years after the release of the film, Universal released Dracula's Daughter, a direct sequel that starts after the end of the first film. A second sequel, Son of Dracula starring Lon Chaney Jr. followed in 1943. Despite his apparent death in the 1931 film, the Count returned to life in three more Universal films of the mid-1940s: House of Frankenstein and House of Dracula —both starring John Carradine—and Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. While Lugosi had played a vampire in two other films during the 1930s and 1940s, it was only in this final film that he played Count Dracula on-screen for the second time. Dracula was reincarnated for a new generation in the Hammer Films series starring Christopher Lee as the Count. In the first of these films Dracula the spectacular death of the title character through being exposed to the sun reinforced this part of vampire lore, first established in Nosferatu, made it axiomatic in succeeding films.
Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of the seven sequels. A more faithful adaptation of Stoker's novel appeared as Dracula, directed by Francis Ford Coppola, though identifying Count Dracula with the notorious medieval Balkan ruler Vlad III the Impaler. A distinct subgenre of vampire films inspired by Le Fanu's "Carmilla", explored the topic of the lesbian vampire. Although implied in Dracula's Daughter, the first lesbian vampire was in Blood and Roses by Roger Vadim. More explicit lesbian content was provided in Hammer's Karnstein Trilogy; the first of these, The Vampire Lovers, starring Ingrid Pitt and Madeline Smith, was a straightforward re-telling of LeFanu's novella, but with more overt violence and sexuality. Films in this subgenre such as Vampyres became more explicit in their depiction of sex and violence. Beginning with Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein the vampire has been the subject of comedy; the Fearless Vampire Killers by Roman Polanski was a notable parody of the genre.
Other comedic treatments, of variable quality, include Vampira featuring David Niven as a lovelorn Dracula, Love at First Bite featuring George Hamilton, My Best Friend Is a Vampire, Innocent Blood, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Dracula: Dead and Loving It, directed by Mel Brooks with Leslie Nielsen, more Taika Waititi and Jemaine Clement's mockumentary take on the subject, What We Do in the Shadows. Another development in some vampire films has been a change from supernatural horror to science fictional explanations of vampirism; the Last Man on Earth, The Omega Man and two other films were all based on Richard Matheson's novel I Am Legend. They explain the condition as having a natural cause. Vampirism is explained as a kind of virus in David Cronenberg's Rabid and Red-Blooded American Girl directed by David Blyth, as well as in the Blade trilogy to a limited extent. Race has been another theme, as exemplified by the blaxploitation picture Blacula and its sequel Scream Blacula Scream. Though always a representation of passion and desire, since the time of Béla Lugosi's Dracula the vampire, male or female, has been portrayed as an alluring sex symbol.
Christopher Lee, Delphi