Yugoslavia was a country in Southeastern and Central Europe for most of the 20th century. It came into existence after World War I in 1918 under the name of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by the merger of the provisional State of Slovenes and Serbs with the Kingdom of Serbia, constituted the first union of the South Slavic people as a sovereign state, following centuries in which the region had been part of the Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary. Peter I of Serbia was its first sovereign; the kingdom gained international recognition on 13 July 1922 at the Conference of Ambassadors in Paris. The official name of the state was changed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929. Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis powers on 6 April 1941. In 1943, a Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was proclaimed by the Partisan resistance. In 1944 King Peter II living in exile, recognised it as the legitimate government; the monarchy was subsequently abolished in November 1945. Yugoslavia was renamed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946, when a communist government was established.
It acquired the territories of Istria and Zadar from Italy. Partisan leader Josip Broz Tito ruled the country as president until his death in 1980. In 1963, the country was renamed again, as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia; the six constituent republics that made up the SFRY were the SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia, SR Slovenia. Serbia contained two Socialist Autonomous Provinces and Kosovo, which after 1974 were equal to the other members of the federation. After an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars. From 1993 to 2017, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia tried political and military leaders from the former Yugoslavia for war crimes and other crimes. After the breakup, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed a reduced federation, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which aspired to the status of sole legal successor to the SFRY, but those claims were opposed by the other former republics.
Serbia and Montenegro accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. In 2003 the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed to State Union of Montenegro; the union peacefully broke up when Serbia and Montenegro became independent states in 2006, while Kosovo proclaimed its independence from Serbia in 2008. The concept of Yugoslavia, as a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the Illyrian Movement of the 19th century; the name was created by the combination of the Slavic words "jug" and "slaveni". Yugoslavia was the result of the Corfu Declaration, as a project of the Serbian Parliament in exile and the Serbian royal Karađorđević dynasty, who became the Yugoslav royal dynasty; the country was formed in 1918 after World War I as the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes by union of the State of Slovenes and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbia. It was referred to at the time as the "Versailles state"; the government renamed the country leading to the first official use of Yugoslavia in 1929.
On 20 June 1928, Serb deputy Puniša Račić shot at five members of the opposition Croatian Peasant Party in the National Assembly resulting in the death of two deputies on the spot and that of leader Stjepan Radić a few weeks later. On 6 January 1929 King Alexander I suspended the constitution, banned national political parties, assumed executive power and renamed the country Yugoslavia, he hoped to mitigate nationalist passions. He imposed a new constitution and relinquished his dictatorship in 1931. However, Alexander's policies encountered opposition from other European powers stemming from developments in Italy and Germany, where Fascists and Nazis rose to power, the Soviet Union, where Joseph Stalin became absolute ruler. None of these three regimes favored the policy pursued by Alexander I. In fact and Germany wanted to revise the international treaties signed after World War I, the Soviets were determined to regain their positions in Europe and pursue a more active international policy.
Alexander attempted to create a centralised Yugoslavia. He decided to abolish Yugoslavia's historic regions, new internal boundaries were drawn for provinces or banovinas; the banovinas were named after rivers. Many politicians were kept under police surveillance; the effect of Alexander's dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from the idea of unity. During his reign the flags of Yugoslav nations were banned. Communist ideas were banned also; the king was assassinated in Marseille during an official visit to France in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, an experienced marksman from Ivan Mihailov's Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization with the cooperation of the Ustaše, a Croatian fascist revolutionary organisation. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-year-old son Peter II and a regency council headed by his cousin, Prince Paul; the international political scene in the late 1930s was marked by growing intolerance between the principal figures, by the aggressive attitude of the totalitarian regimes and by the certainty that the order set up after World War I was losing its strongholds and its sponsors were
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of 122 m above sea level; the estimated population of the city in 2018 is 810,003. The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is about 1.2 million a quarter of the total population of Croatia. Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day; the oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had Janko Kamauf. Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county, is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme and Sesvete districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain, making the city's geographical image rather diverse.
The city extends over 30 kilometres east-west and around 20 kilometres north-south. The transport connections, concentration of industry and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, all government ministries. All of the largest Croatian companies and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road and air networks of Croatia, it is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are the service sector; the etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, was used for the city in the 17th century; the name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.
The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag. For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian; the same form is reflected in a number such as Csepreg. The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word * grębъ which means uplift. An Old Croatian reconstructed name *Zagrębъ is manifested through the German name of the city Agram; the name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period. In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis. In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water. In another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well, using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando!.
The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centres: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, the larger, western Gradec, inhabited by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour. During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital; the history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A. D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus, returning from his campaign against Croatia, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of Zagreb Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill.
Today the latter is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242; as a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Long Beach, California
Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California. As of 2010, its population was 462,257, it is the 7th most populous in California. Long Beach is the second-largest city in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the third largest in Southern California behind Los Angeles and San Diego. Long Beach is a charter city; the Port of Long Beach is the second busiest container port in the United States and is among the world's largest shipping ports. The city maintains a progressively declining oil industry with minor wells located both directly beneath the city as well as offshore. Manufacturing sectors include those in aircraft, automotive parts, electronic equipment, audiovisual equipment, precision metals and home furnishings. Long Beach lies in the southeastern corner of borders Orange County. Downtown Long Beach is 22 miles south of downtown Los Angeles, though the two cities share an official border for several miles.
Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach. By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group was the Tongva people, they had at least three major settlements within the present-day city. Tevaaxa'anga was an inland settlement near the Los Angeles River, while Ahwaanga and Povuu'nga were coastal villages. Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases. In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto; the Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory. The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal. A portion of western Long Beach was part of the Rancho San Pedro, its boundaries were in dispute for years, due to flooding changing the Los Angeles River boundary, between the ranchos of Juan Jose Dominguez and Manuel Nieto.
In 1843 Jonathan Temple bought Rancho Los Cerritos, having arrived in California in 1827 from New England. He built what is now known as the "Los Cerritos Ranch House", a still-standing adobe, a National Historic Landmark. Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County. Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War. On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony. In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for $20,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby. Two years previous Flint, Bixby & Co had purchased along with Northern California associate James Irvine, three ranchos which would become the city that bears Irvine's name. To manage Rancho Los Cerritos, the company selected Lewellyn's brother Jotham Bixby, the "Father of Long Beach".
Three years Bixby bought into the property and would form the Bixby Land Company. In the 1870s as many as 30,000 sheep were kept at the ranch and sheared twice yearly to provide wool for trade. In 1880, Bixby sold 4,000 acres of the Rancho Los Cerritos to William E. Willmore, who subdivided it in hopes of creating a farm community, Willmore City, he failed and was bought out by a Los Angeles syndicate that called itself the "Long Beach Land and Water Company." They changed the name of the community at that time. The City of Long Beach was incorporated in 1897. Another Bixby cousin, John W. Bixby, was influential in the city. After first working for his cousins at Los Cerritos, J. W. Bixby leased land at Rancho Los Alamitos, he put together a group: banker I. W. Hellman and Jotham Bixby, him, to purchase the rancho. In addition to bringing innovative farming methods to the Alamitos, J. W. Bixby began the development of the oceanfront property near the city's picturesque bluffs. Under the name Alamitos Land Company, J.
W. Bixby laid out the parks of his new city; this area would include Belmont Shore and Naples. J. W. Bixby died in 1888 of apparent appendicitis; the Rancho Los Alamitos property was split up, with Hellman getting the southern third and Lewellyn, the northern third, J. W. Bixby's widow and heirs keeping the central third; the Alamitos townsite was kept as a separate entity, but at first, it was run by Lewellyn and Jotham Bixby, although I. W, Hellman had a significant veto power, an influence made stronger as the J. W. Bixby heirs began to side with Hellman more; when Jotham Bixby died in 1916, the remaining 3,500 acres of Rancho Los Cerritos was subdivided into the neighborhoods of Bixby Knolls, California Heights, North Long Beach and part of the city of Signal Hill. The town grew as a seaside resort with light agricultural uses; the Pike was the most famous beachside amusement zone on the West Coast from 1902 until 1969. The oil industry, Navy shipyard and facilities and port became the mainstays of the city.
In the 1950s it was referred to as "Iowa
Punk-O-Rama was the title given to a series of ten compilation albums published by Epitaph Records between 1994 and 2005. The first volume was released in 1994, the second in 1996, the rest annually from 1998 to 2005; the albums included artists from Epitaph's roster as well as from its subsidiary label ANTI- and its partnership labels Hellcat Records and Burning Heart Records. In total the series included. Rancid and Pennywise are the only bands to appear on all 10 volumes. Scott Radinsky appears on 1 with Ten Foot Pole and 9 with Pulley; as its title implied, the series featured punk rock and various punk subgenres such as garage punk, hardcore punk, pop punk, post-hardcore, ska punk, skate punk, street punk. However, as the series went on and the labels' rosters diversified, the music of the Punk-O-Rama compilations grew to include additional styles of music such as alternative hip hop, alternative rock, digital hardcore, experimental music, garage rock, indie rock, metalcore and screamo. Artwork for the series was inconsistent over the first four installments, with cover art and layout provided by varying artists and designers.
C. Martin provided artwork and layout for both the fifth and sixth volumes, though they had differing styles and themes. Nick Pritchard of Metrosea.com provided artwork and layout for the final four volumes of the series, which adopted a similar look and style. Epitaph organized several Punk-O-Rama tours featuring bands that had contributed to the compilations, such as Agnostic Front, The Distillers, Millencolin, Straight Faced, the Voodoo Glow Skulls; these would be accompanied by special Punk-O-Rama tour sampler CDs that differed from the main. Series of compilation albums. In 2003 the label published the DVD Punk-O-Rama: The Videos, Volume 1, including 22 music videos and "The Epitaph Story", a short film relating the history of the label. Though a second volume was never published, the subsequent ninth and tenth albums in the compilation series included DVDs of music videos as well. In 2006 Epitaph announced the retirement of the Punk-O-Rama brand in favor of a new series titled Unsound, the less genre-specific title being more conducive to the label's expanding roster of musical styles.
However, only one compilation was published under the Unsound banner before that series was discontinued. Punk-O-Rama is a compilation album released by Epitaph Records on November 18, 1994. Featuring twelve bands from the label's roster, the album was the first installment in the Punk-O-Rama series which continued until 2005. Punk-O-Rama Vol. 2 is the second compilation album in the Punk-O-Rama series. This was the first entry to be released at a low price, so that it was more appealing for someone to buy to check out Epitaph's artists. All of the songs were released with the exception of DFL's "Thought Control". Me First and the Gimme Gimmes' cover of Billy Joel's "Only the Good Die Young" made its CD debut here, as it was only available on Billy, a vinyl single released by the band. Vans Warped Tour'97 Presents Punk-O-Rama 2.1A tour edition of this volume was released in conjunction with the 1997 Vans Warped Tour. The artwork and track listing are modified; the track listing is as follows: Punk-O-Rama III is the third compilation album in the Punk-O-Rama series.
This entry features two unreleased tracks, "We Threw Gasoline on the Fire and Now We Have Stumps for Arms and No Eyebrows" by NOFX and "Wake Up" by Pennywise. NOFX's track was released on their rarities compilation 45 or 46 Songs That Weren't Good Enough to Go on Our Other Records; the European version has Undeclinable Ambuscade's track "7 Years" and takes off "Lozin' Must" by Millencolin. Europe version"We Threw Gasoline on the Fire and Now All We Have Stumps for Arms and No Eyebrows" – NOFX "Everybodies Girl" – Dwarves "World's on Heroin" – All "Say Anything" – Bouncing Souls "Delinquent Song" – Voodoo Glow Skulls "Everready" – H2O "Greed Motivates" – Straight Faced "Telepath Boy" – ZEKE "Never Connected" – Union 13 "Gotta Go" – Agnostic Front "Defiled" – New Bomb Turks "Haulass Hyena" – The Cramps "Rats in the Hallway" – Rancid "Steel-Toed Sneakers" – Humpers "Bad Seed" – Wayne Kramer "Rotten Egg" – Gas Huffer "Poison Steak" – Red Aunts "No Equalizer" – Down By Law "Alright" – Osker "A.
D. D." – Ten Foot Pole "7 Years" - Undeclinable "You" – Bad Religion "Nailed To The Floor" – I Against I "3 Times 75" – Looking Up "Time's Up" – Burning Heads "If" – Pulley "Wake Up" – Pennywise Punk-O-Rama 4 is the fourth compilation album in the Punk-O-Rama series. This is the only entry to have a sub-title. All of the tracks were released except the first track, "Fight It" by Pennywise; this was the first entry to include bands from the Swedish Burning Heart Records label, which has its material distributed by Epitaph Records in North America. It includes a song from the Tom Waits album Mule Variations, released on Epitaph's indie rock label ANTI-. Europe version"Fight It" – Pennywise – 2:15 "Second Best" – Pulley – 1:49 "Faster Than the World" – H2O – 2:17 "1998" – Rancid – 2:46 "Watch Me Play" – Heideroosjes – 2:26 "Hopeless Romantic" – The Bouncing Souls – 2:07 "The Getaway" – Ten Foot Pole – 3:41 "Think the World" – ALL – 1:21 "Snap Decision" – New Bomb Turks – 2:23 "Generator" – Bad Religion – 3:19 "I Will Deny" – Dwarves – 1:39 "Let's Do This" – Straight Faced – 1:23 "It's My Life" – Agnostic Front – 2:29 "Panic" – Beatsteaks – 2:40 "Theme From Eeviac" – Man Or Astro-Man?
– 2:32 "They Always Come Back" – Voodoo Glow Skulls – 3:23 "Twisted" – Zeke – 1:56 "Don't Panic" – Gas Huffer – 1:46 "Big in Japan" – Tom Waits – 4:04 "Someone to Love?" – Gentleman Jack Grisham – 2:52 "A Life's Story" – Union 13
National and University Library in Zagreb
National and University Library in Zagreb is the national library of Croatia and central library of the University of Zagreb. The Library was established in 1607, its primary mission is the preservation of Croatian national written heritage. It holds around 3 million items. Since 1995 the NSK has been located in a purpose-built cubical building in central Zagreb. Services provided include reference services. Exhibitions are mounted, parts of the Library’s premises may be leased; the Library houses 3 million volumes, on 12,900m of shelving in open-access reading rooms and an additional 110,000m of mobile shelving in closed stacks. The net floor area is 36,478m2, the gross floor area 44,432m2. Acquisitions under legal deposit total 18,194 monographic publications and 3,625 serial publications. There are 4,865 foreign books; the holdings in the special collections number 11,430 items. There are 7,281 items of non-book materials, 986 items of electronic materials. In 2011 there were 19,360 registered users and 357,291 visitors to the Library, of whom 22,445 used late hours study services.
In the same year there were 718,850 online visitors. For users, there are 1,100 seats, with an additional 64 seats in the Reading Rooms and 150 seats in the evening hours study room; the Special Collections are provided with 8 audio booths, 7 individual and 2 group work study rooms, there are 10 reading-and-study compartments. There is a 100-seat conference room; some of the principal tasks of the Library are: 1. The assembling and organizing of the Croatian national collection of library materials and the coordination of the acquisition of international scientific works at both the national and the University level, 2; the preservation and restoration of library materials in the context of the international Preservation and Conservation programme, 3. The promotion of Croatian printed and electronic publications, 4; the integration of the Library’s bibliographic activities and information services into international programmes, 5. The organization of the Library as the centre of the library system of the Republic of Croatia and the University of Zagreb, 6.
Scientific research in the field of library and information sciences, 7. Publishing and various promotional activities and the organization of exhibitions. Digitized Heritage Historic Croatian Newspapers Old Croatian Journals Croatian Web Archive Digital Academic Repository The Manuscripts and Old Books CollectionThe Collection assembles, preserves and makes available the items from the richest Croatian collection of national manuscripts and old books, as well as the manuscripts and numerous rare and old books belonging to other cultures; the Manuscripts and Old Books Collection contains a vast legacy of manuscripts – correspondence including nearly 100,000 letters and 3,670 call numbers for individual manuscripts. The Collection includes the photographic collection containing 865 items. In total the Collection contains 9,236 items; the Print CollectionValuable drawings and prints have constituted a significant part of the holdings of the National and University Library in Zagreb since the foundation of the Library four hundred years ago, while the Print Collection, as a separate organizational unit of the Library, was established in 1919.
Apart from being the oldest Croatian collection of this type, the Print Collection of the National and University Library in Zagreb is the largest print collection in Croatia. In addition to the works by many great names of the Croatian visual arts, the holdings of the Collection include works by numerous leading world artists; the collection includes works by the 16th-century artist Andrija Medulić, architectural drawings by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach from the 18th century, many more modern Croatian artists. The Map CollectionThe Collection assembles, preserves and makes available all types of maps and atlases. Special attention is given to older and more valuable cartographic items, national cartographic materials and the control of legal deposit procedures; the members of the Collection supply users with information in the field of cartography and provide professional assistance for researchers and students in the preparation and writing of their papers, articles or theses. The Collection comprises nearly 42,000 maps 1,500 atlases, 600 books in the accompanying reference library.
The Music CollectionThe Collection assembles, processes and makes available sheet music, the rich legacy of Croatian composers as well as a large stock of sound recordings. All materials in the collection are available to the users of the National and University Library in Zagreb and they include nearly 17,000 printed music scores, 3,000 manuscript scores, 23,600 gramophone records, 5,700 cassettes, 7,447 CDs. Reference Collection LIS Collection Doctoral and Master’s Theses Collection Homeland War Book Collection Official Publications Collection In 1607 the Jesuit order established itself in Zagreb. In addition to founding a grammar school, the Jesuits founded a Jesuit College with an accompanying library. By 1645 the library was housed in a special hall, it had a librarian and rules were established regarding the preservation and lending of books. In 1669 the Jesuit College acq
Caroline Records is a record label. Caroline has or had a number of subsidiary labels including Astralwerks, Caroline Blue Plate, Rocks the World and Passenger; the original Caroline record label started as a subsidiary of Richard Branson's Virgin Records from 1973 to 1976. It specialized in inexpensive LPs by progressive rock and jazz artists that lacked commercial appeal. Caroline records mentioned a connection with Virgin, some UK and European Virgin albums that were distributed internationally named Caroline as their American distributor; some Caroline records bore the label name Caroline Blue Plate. The first release was Outside the Dream Syndicate by Tony Conrad and Faust in 1973; the logo was a photographic-style variation of Virgin's "Twins" logo designed by Roger Dean. In 1983, the Caroline name was reused by Virgin in the US as the importer Caroline Distribution. Caroline Distribution founded the current Caroline Records in 1986. Caroline Records was merged into Virgin Records after Virgin was acquired by Thorn EMI.
Caroline Distribution became part of EMI Music Distribution. Primo Scree was an imprint of Caroline Records created by Ned Hayden of the Action Swingers, a sales rep at Caroline, its releases included the Action Swingers' single "Fear of a Fucked Up Planet", as well as Gumball's debut album Special Kiss and Monster Magnet's debut album Spine of God. Audio Active & Laraaji – The Way Out Is the Way In Kevin Ayers, June Campbell Cramer & Brian Eno – Lady June's Linguistic Leprosy Bad Brains – Quickness Ben Folds Five – Ben Folds Five Harold Budd Reuben Garcia Daniel Lentz – Music for 3 Pianos Cabaret Voltaire – The Drain Train Cabaret Voltaire – Drinking Gasoline Cherry Poppin' Daddies – Kids on the Street Cluster – Grosses Wasser Cluster – One Hour Lol Coxhill – Fleas in Custard Dumblonde – Dumblonde Egg – The Civil Surface Brian Eno – Before and After Science Eno Moebius Roedelius – After the Heat Brian Eno & Jah Wobble – Spinner Excel – Split Image Excel – The Joke's on You Excel – Seeking Refuge Fred Frith – Guitar Solos Various artists – Guitar Solos 2 Gilgamesh – Gilgamesh Gong – Camembert Electrique Gong – Angel's Egg Gong – You Goo Goo Dolls – Goo Goo Dolls Heatmiser – Mic City Sons Henry Cow – Concerts Hole – Pretty on the Inside Bat For Lashes–Two Suns Bat For Lashes – Fur and gold Idaho – Year After Year Idaho– This Way Out Idaho – Three Sheets to the Wind Jabula – Thunder into our hearts Killing Joke – Killing Joke Korn – The Paradigm Shift KT Tunstall - Kin Jayce Lewis/Protafield - Nemesis Mercyful Fate – Melissa The Misfits – Static Age Monster Magnet – Tab Oh Wonder – Oh Wonder Andy Partridge/Harold Budd – Through the Hill Primus – Frizzle Fry Smashing Pumpkins – Gish Southern Culture on the Skids – For Lovers Only Steven Wilson – To the Bone Suicidal Tendencies – Join the Army Suicideboys – I Want to Die in New Orleans Swans – Children of God Tangerine Dream – Livemiles Tangerine Dream – Pergamon Uncle Slam – Say Uncle Underdog – The Vanishing Point Various artists – Greasy Truckers Live at Dingwalls Dance Hall Van Morrison - Keep Me Singing Walt Mink – Bareback Ride Walt Mink – Miss Happiness Warzone – Don't Forget the Struggle, Don't Forget the Streets White Zombie – Gods on Voodoo Moon White Zombie – Soul-Crusher White Zombie – Make Them Die Slowly White Zombie – God of Thunder Youth Of Today – We're Not In This Alone Artist Shop Caroline Records Caroline Distribution Official website Discogs Caroline Records Discogs Gyroscope EMI Group Website links