A box office or ticket office is a place where tickets are sold to the public for admission to an event. Patrons may perform the transaction at a countertop, through a hole in a wall or window, or at a wicket. By extension, the term is used in the context of the film industry, as a synonym for the amount of business a particular production, such as a film or theatre show, receives. Box office business can be measured in the terms of the number of tickets sold or the amount of money raised by ticket sales; the projection and analysis of these earnings is important for the creative industries and a source of interest for fans. This is predominant in the Hollywood movie industry; the term is attested since 1786 from sales of boxes. The sense of "total sales" is attested from 1904. A folk etymology is that this derives from Elizabethan theatre, where theatre admission was collected in a box attached to a long stick, passed around the audience. However, first attestation is about 200 years making this unlikely.
There are numerous websites that monitor box-office receipts, such as BoxOffice, Box Office India, Box Office Mojo, ShowBIZ Data and The Numbers which provide detailed information for many movies but have less and incomplete data for older movies due to the history of how box office reporting evolved in the U. S. and the availability of this information prior to the introduction of the internet. Although other publications have published box office data over the years, the longevity and regular reporting of Variety makes it a significant source for older box office reporting for the US market and US films. During the 1920s, Variety reported box office grosses for films by theatre for certain U. S. cities. In 1946, they started to publish a weekly National Box Office survey on page 3 indicating the performance of the week's hits and flops based on the box office results of 25 key U. S. cities. During the 1930s, Variety published charts of the top performing films of the year and has maintained this tradition annually since.
In 1946, they published a list of All-Time Top Grossers with a list of films that had achieved or gave promise of earning $4,000,000 or more in domestic rentals. They would publish an updated all-time list annually for over 50 years in their anniversary edition each January; the anniversary edition would normally contain the list of the top performing films of the year. Some publications such as BoxOffice magazine published box office performance expressed as a percentage compared to regular films Some of the early annual reports from Variety used this format. From the 1930s, BoxOffice magazine published a Barometer issue in January giving the performance of movies for the year expressed as percentages; the first issue of The Motion Picture Almanac in 1929 used this format to rank money makers. In the late 1960s, Variety used an IBM 360 computer to collate the grosses from their weekly reports of 22 to 24 U. S. cities from January 1, 1968. The data came from up to 800 theatres which represented around 5% of the U.
S. cinema population at the time but around one-third of the total U. S. box office grosses. In 1969, they started to publish the computerized box office compilation of the top 50 grossing films of the week based on this data. "The Love Bug" was the number one in the first chart published for the week ending April 16, 1969. The chart was discontinued in 1990. In 1976, Marcy Polier, an employee of the Mann theater chain, set up Centralized Grosses to collate U. S. daily box office data on a centralized basis rather than each theater chain collating their own numbers from other theater chains. The company became National Gross Service Entertainment Data, Inc.. Except for disclosures by the studios on successful films, total domestic box office gross information for films was not available until National Gross Service started to collate this data around 1981; the collation of grosses led to wider reporting of domestic box office grosses for films. Arthur D. Murphy at Variety was one of the first to organize and chart that information and report it in a meaningful form.
During the 1980s, Daily Variety started to publish a weekly chart of the domestic box office grosses of films as compared to the Top 50 chart in Variety, based on a sample of key markets. The focus of a film's performance became its box office gross rather than the rentals that Variety continued to report annually. Prior to the tracking of these grosses, domestic or worldwide box office grosses is not available for many earlier films so the only domestic or worldwide data available is still the rental figures. In 1984, EDI started to report Canadian grosses as well and by 1985 was reporting data for 15,000 screens. In 1987, EDI set up a database of box office information which included data on certain films back to 1970. By 1991, all U. S. studios had agreed to share their complete data reports with EDI. In 1990, EDI opened an office in the UK, moved into Germany in 1993 and Spain in 1995 reporting box office data for those markets. EDI were acquired by ACNielsen Corporation in 1997 for $26 million and became Nielsen EDI.
In December 2009, with its acquisition of Nielsen EDI for $15 million, measurement company Rentrak became the sole provider of worldwide box office ticket sales revenue and attendance information, used by many of the websites noted above. For a list of films which are major box-office hits, see List of highest-grossing films. Films that are considered to have been unsuccessful at the box office are called box office bombs or box off
The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February 1998 and lasted until 11 June 1999. It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which controlled Kosovo before the war, the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army, with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation from 24 March 1999, ground support from the Albanian army; the KLA was formed in 1991 and initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks targeting Serbian law enforcement in Kosovo. In June 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting Kosovo police stations. In 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from Albania, following a rebellion in which weapons were looted from the country's police and army posts. In early 1998, KLA attacks targeting Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo resulted in an increased presence of Serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting KLA sympathisers and political opponents.
After attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, NATO intervened, justifying the campaign in Kosovo as a "humanitarian war". This precipitated a mass expulsion of Kosovar Albanians as the Yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombardment of Yugoslavia. By 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of three thousand victims of all ethnicities, in 2001 a United Nations administered Supreme Court, based in Kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes and severe maltreatments", but that Yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the Albanian population; the war ended with the Kumanovo Treaty, with Yugoslav and Serb forces agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo to make way for an international presence. The Kosovo Liberation Army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the UÇPMB in the Preševo Valley and others joining the National Liberation Army and Albanian National Army during the armed ethnic conflict in Macedonia, while others went on to form the Kosovo Police.
After the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict. The Yugoslav and Serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million to 1.45 million Kosovo Albanians. After the war, around 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo and many of the remaining civilians were victims of abuse. Serbia became home to the highest number of IDPs in Europe; the NATO bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the UN Security Council and because it caused at least 488 Yugoslav civilian deaths, including substantial numbers of Kosovar refugees. The modern Albanian-Serbian conflict has its roots in the expulsion of the Albanians in 1877-1878 from areas that became incorporated into the Principality of Serbia. Tensions between the Serbian and Albanian communities in Kosovo simmered throughout the 20th century and erupted into major violence during the First Balkan War, World War I, World War II.
After 1945 the socialist government under Josip Broz Tito systematically repressed all manifestations of nationalism throughout Yugoslavia, seeking to ensure that no republic or nationality gained dominance over the others. In particular, Tito diluted the power of Serbia—the largest and most populous republic—by establishing autonomous governments in the Serbian province of Vojvodina in the north and Kosovo and Metohija in the south. Kosovo's borders did not match the areas of ethnic Albanian settlement in Yugoslavia. Kosovo's formal autonomy, established under the 1945 Yugoslav constitution meant little in practice; the secret police cracked down hard on nationalists. In 1956 a number of Albanians went on trial in Kosovo on charges of subversion; the threat of separatism was in fact minimal, as the few underground groups aiming for union with Albania had little political significance. Their long-term impact became substantial, though, as some—particularly the Revolutionary Movement for Albanian Unity, founded by Adem Demaçi—would form the political core of the Kosovo Liberation Army.
Demaci himself was imprisoned in 1964 along with many of his followers. Yugoslavia underwent a period of economic and political crisis in 1969, as a massive government program of economic reform widened the gap between the rich north and poor south of the country. Student demonstrations and riots in Belgrade in June 1968 spread to Kosovo in November, but Yugoslav security forces quelled them. Tito conceded some of the students' demands—in particular, representative powers for Albanians in both the Serbian and Yugoslav state bodies and better recognition of the Albanian language; the University of Pristina was established as an independent institution in 1970, ending a long period when the institution had been run as an outpost of Belgrade University. The lack of Albanian-language educational materials in Yugoslavia hampered Albanian education in Kosovo, so an agreement was struck with Albania itself to supply textbooks. In 1969 the Serbian Orthodox Church ordered its clergy to compile data on the ongoing problems of Serbs in Kosovo, seeking to pressure the government in Belgrade to do more to protect the interests of Serbs there.
In 1974 Kosovo's political status improved further when a new Yugoslav constitutio
Benicio del Toro
Benicio Monserrate Rafael del Toro Sánchez is a Puerto Rican Italian actor. He won an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award for his portrayal of the jaded but morally upright police officer Javier Rodriguez in the film Traffic. Del Toro's performance as ex-con turned religious fanatic in despair, Jack Jordan, in Alejandro González Iñárritu's 21 Grams earned him a second Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor, as well as a second Screen Actors Guild Awards nomination and a BAFTA Awards nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role, he is known for his scene-stealing breakout role as the eccentric, unintelligible crook Fred Fenster in The Usual Suspects, which won him his first Independent Spirit Award. His noteworthy body of work includes portrayals of the Collector in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, infamous drug lord Pablo Escobar in Escobar: Paradise Lost, Lawrence Talbot in the 2010 remake of The Wolfman, codebreaker DJ in Star Wars: The Last Jedi.
Del Toro was born on February 19, 1967, in San Germán, Puerto Rico, to Gustavo Adolfo del Toro Bermúdez and Fausta Genoveva Sánchez Rivera, who were both lawyers. Many of del Toro's relatives are involved in Puerto Rico's legal system, he has an older brother, the Executive Vice President and Chief Medical Officer at the Wyckoff Heights Medical Center in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn, New York. He had a Basque maternal great-grandmother. Del Toro is related to Puerto Rican basketball player Carlos Arroyo, Spanish latin pop and eurodance singer Rebeca Pous Del Toro, whose maternal grandfather was Puerto Rican, Puerto Rican singer Eliseo del Toro. Del Toro's great-grandfather was Rafael Rivera Esbrí, one of the heroes of the El Polvorin fire in Ponce, whom would later become mayor of that city, he spent most of his infancy in a barrio within San Juan. Del Toro, whose childhood nicknames were "Skinny Benny" and "Beno", was raised a Roman Catholic and attended Academia del Perpetuo Socorro, a Roman Catholic school in Miramar, Puerto Rico.
When del Toro was nine years old, his mother died of hepatitis. At age 15, he moved with his father and brother to Mercersburg, where he was enrolled at the Mercersburg Academy, he attended high school there. After graduation, del Toro followed the advice of his father and pursued a business degree at the University of California, San Diego. Success in an elective drama course encouraged him to drop out of college and study with noted acting teachers Stella Adler and Arthur Mendoza, in Los Angeles, as well as at the Circle in the Square Theatre School in New York City. Del Toro surfaced in small television roles during the late 1980s, playing thugs and drug dealers on programs such as Miami Vice and the NBC miniseries Drug Wars: The Camarena Story, he appeared in Madonna's 1987 music video "La Isla Bonita" as a background character sitting on a car. Work in films followed, beginning with his debut in Big Top Pee-wee and as Dario in the James Bond movie Licence to Kill, in which the 21-year-old del Toro held the distinction of being the youngest actor to play a Bond henchman.
Del Toro continued to appear in movies including The Indian Runner, China Moon, Christopher Columbus: The Discovery, Money for Nothing and Swimming with Sharks. His career gained momentum in 1995 with his breakout performance in The Usual Suspects, where he played the mumbling, wisecracking Fred Fenster; the role won him an Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male and established him as a character actor. This led to stronger roles in independent and major studio films, including playing Gaspare in Abel Ferrara's The Funeral and winning a second consecutive Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male for his work as Benny Dalmau in Basquiat, directed by his friend, artist Julian Schnabel. Del Toro shared the screen with Robert De Niro in the big-budget thriller The Fan, in which he played Juan Primo, a charismatic Puerto Rican baseball star, he subsequently starred opposite Alicia Silverstone in Excess Baggage. For Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, the 1998 film adaptation of Hunter S. Thompson's famous book, he gained more than 40 lbs. to play Dr. Gonzo, Thompson's lawyer and drug-fiend cohort.
The surrealistic film, directed by Terry Gilliam, has earned a cult following over the years. Del Toro's performances in four films in 2000 gained him a mainstream audience. First, the crime yarn The Way of the Gun reunited him with The Usual Suspects screenwriter Christopher McQuarrie. A few months he stood out among a first-rate ensemble cast in Steven Soderbergh's Traffic, a complex dissection of the North American drug wars; as Javier Rodriguez — a Mexican border policeman struggling to remain honest amid the corruption and deception of illegal drug
Roger Joseph Ebert was an American film critic, journalist and author. He was a film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013. In 1975, Ebert became the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. Ebert and Chicago Tribune critic Gene Siskel helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously named At the Movies programs; the two verbally traded humorous barbs while discussing films. They created and trademarked the phrase "Two Thumbs Up", used when both hosts gave the same film a positive review. After Siskel died in 1999, Ebert continued hosting the show with various co-hosts and starting in 2000, with Richard Roeper. Neil Steinberg of the Chicago Sun-Times said Ebert "was without question the nation's most prominent and influential film critic", Tom Van Riper of Forbes described him as "the most powerful pundit in America", Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called him "the best-known film critic in America".
Ebert lived with cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands beginning in 2002. In 2006, he required treatment necessitating the removal of his lower jaw, leaving him disfigured and costing him the ability to speak or eat normally, his ability to write remained unimpaired and he continued to publish both online and in print until his death on April 4, 2013. Roger Joseph Ebert was born in Urbana, the only child of Annabel, a bookkeeper, Walter Harry Ebert, an electrician, he was raised Roman Catholic, attending St. Mary's elementary school and serving as an altar boy in Urbana, his paternal grandparents were German his maternal ancestry was Irish and Dutch. Ebert's interest in journalism began when he was a student at Urbana High School, where he was a sports writer for The News-Gazette in Champaign, Illinois. In his senior year, he was class president and editor-in-chief of his high school newspaper, The Echo. In 1958, he won the Illinois High School Association state speech championship in "radio speaking", an event that simulates radio newscasts.
Regarding his early influences in film criticism, Ebert wrote in the 1998 parody collection Mad About the Movies: Ebert began taking classes at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign as an early-entrance student, completing his high school courses while taking his first university class. After graduating from Urbana High School in 1960, Ebert attended and received his undergraduate degree in 1964. While at the University of Illinois, Ebert worked as a reporter for The Daily Illini and served as its editor during his senior year while continuing to work as a reporter for the News-Gazette of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois; as an undergraduate, he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta fraternity and president of the U. S. Student Press Association. One of the first movie reviews he wrote was a review of La Dolce Vita, published in The Daily Illini in October 1961. Ebert spent a semester as a master's student in the department of English there before attending the University of Cape Town on a Rotary fellowship for a year.
He returned from Cape Town to his graduate studies at Illinois for two more semesters and after being accepted as a PhD candidate at the University of Chicago, he prepared to move to Chicago. He needed a job to support himself while he worked on his doctorate and so applied to the Chicago Daily News, hoping that, as he had sold freelance pieces to the Daily News, including an article on the death of writer Brendan Behan, he would be hired by editor Herman Kogan. Instead Kogan referred Ebert to the city editor at the Chicago Sun-Times, Jim Hoge, who hired Ebert as a reporter and feature writer at the Sun-Times in 1966, he attended doctoral classes at the University of Chicago while working as a general reporter at the Sun-Times for a year. After movie critic Eleanor Keane left the Sun-Times in April 1967, editor Robert Zonka gave the job to Ebert; the load of graduate school and being a film critic proved too much, so Ebert left the University of Chicago to focus his energies on film criticism.
Ebert began his career as a film critic in 1967. That same year, he met film critic Pauline Kael for the first time at the New York Film Festival. After he sent her some of his columns, she told him they were "the best film criticism being done in American newspapers today"; that same year, Ebert's first book, a history of the University of Illinois titled Illini Century: One Hundred Years of Campus Life, was published by the University's press. In 1969, his review of Night of the Living Dead was published in Reader's Digest. Ebert co-wrote the screenplay for the 1970 Russ Meyer film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls and sometimes joked about being responsible for the film, poorly received on its release yet has become a cult classic. Ebert and Meyer made Beneath the Valley of the Ultra-Vixens, Up!, other films, were involved in the ill-fated Sex Pistols movie Who Killed Bambi? Starting in 1968, Ebert worked for the University of Chicago as an adjunct lecturer, teaching a night class on film at the Graham School of Continuing Liberal and Professional Studies.
In 1975, Ebert received the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. As of 2007, his reviews were syndicated to more than 200 newspapers in the United States and abroad. Ebert publish
Brian Tyler is an American composer, multi-instrumentalist, conductor, arranger, DJ and producer. Tyler scored Eagle Eye, The Expendables trilogy, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron with Danny Elfman, Now You See Me, Crazy Rich Asians, among others, he re-arranged the current fanfare of the Universal Pictures logo, the updated Marvel Studios logo, which debuted with Thor: The Dark World, as well as the NFL Theme for ESPN, five installments of The Fast and the Furious franchise. In 2018 Tyler composed the main theme music for Formula One, he is the composer of the Paramount Network's television series Yellowstone. In 2011 he composed the score for Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3. For his work as a film composer, he has won the IFMCA Awards 2014 Composer of the Year, his composition for the film Last Call earned him the first of three Emmy nominations, a gold record, was inducted into the music branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. As of November 2017, his films have grossed $12 billion worldwide which puts him in to the top 10 highest-grossing film composers of all time in the category of worldwide box office.
Tyler has scored 3 of the top 10 films of all time in global box office. Tyler was raised in Orange County, California, his grandfather was Academy Award-winning art director Walter H. Tyler. One of his first major influences was his pianist grandmother, he holds a bachelor's degree from the University of California, Los Angeles and a Master's from Harvard University. Growing up, he taught himself to play at least 30 different types of musical instruments, including drums, guitar, cello, world percussion, synthesizer and bouzouki. Tyler is an atheist. Tyler began scoring features shortly after graduating from Harvard. Robert Kraft, impressed by Tyler's music, encouraged him to pursue a career in film scoring, he began his career by composing the film score for the independent film Bartender, directed by Gabe Torres. The following year, he and Red Elvises composed the film score for Six-String Samurai. Tyler's breakthrough came after composing for Frailty, his work on Last Call earned him an induction into the music branch of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
William Friedkin, after being impressed by his work on Frailty, called Tyler in to begin composing for The Hunted, which went on to earn Tyler a World Soundtrack Award in 2002 for Best New Film Composer of the Year. Starting in 2003, he began working on big-budget films, including Timeline, The Greatest Game Ever Played, Constantine, his score for The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift hit No. 1 on the iTunes soundtrack sales charts, while his soundtrack for Children of Dune reached No. 4 on the Amazon.com album charts.. His cues for Children of Dune were used in multiple other theatrical film trailers, including Master and Commander, Cinderella Man, The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, Star Trek; the track "Summon the Worms" was used as a leader for the Dutch show Peking Express, in the first leaked promotional reel for The Golden Compass. In 2007, he was hired to compose for Partition, where he had to integrate Indian and Middle Eastern music with orchestral writing.
He conducted the orchestral portion of the score with the Hollywood Studio Symphony in Los Angeles. On September 5, 2011, Tyler announced that he was in talks for scoring the 2011 remake of Highlander, as well as pilot episodes for the animated series Transformers: Prime, he went on to score four episodes of the series. In 2012, Tyler scored a new version of the fanfare of the Universal Pictures logo composed by Jerry Goldsmith, coinciding with the celebration of the studio's 100th anniversary; the new score added elements such as a choir, a bigger emphasis on the movement of the music underneath and a drum cadence at the end. In addition to working as a composer, Tyler wrote and produced the song "Shell Shocked" with Kill the Noise, Wiz Khalifa, Ty Dolla Sign, Juicy J and Moxie, released in the summer of 2014 under his artist name Madsonik; the track went on to peak at No. 2 on the iTunes hip-hop singles charts and has sold over 500,000 copies. On October 12, 2016, he was hired to write and compose the musical score for the 2017 action-adventure film XXX: Return of Xander Cage.
He has contributed to the soundtrack by his stage name Madsonik in a collaboration with Tom Morello and Kill The Noise entitled "Divebomb". On March 2, 2018, he announced on Twitter that he had been hired by Formula One to write a brand new theme, released on March 23. In August 2018, a 27-track soundtrack composed by Tyler for the cable TV series Yellowstone was issued on August 17, 2018 in CD format and for mp3 download on Amazon. Official website Brian Tyler on IMDb
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has defined special operations as "military activities conducted by specially designated, organized and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics and modes of employment". Special forces emerged in the early 20th century, with a significant growth in the field during the Second World War, when "every major army involved in the fighting" created formations devoted to special operations behind enemy lines. Depending on the country, special forces may perform functions including airborne operations, counter-insurgency, counter-terrorism, foreign internal defense, covert ops, direct action, hostage rescue, high-value targets/manhunting, intelligence operations, mobility operations, unconventional warfare. In Russian-speaking countries special forces of any country are called spetsnaz, an acronym for "special purpose". In the United States the term special forces refers to the US Army's Special Forces, while the term special operations forces is used more broadly for these types of unit.
Special forces capabilities include the following: Special reconnaissance and surveillance in hostile environments Foreign internal defense:Training and development of other states' military and security forces Offensive action Support to counter-insurgency through population engagement and support Counter-terrorism operations Sabotage and demolition Hostage rescueOther capabilities can include bodyguarding. Special forces have played an important role throughout the history of warfare, whenever the aim was to achieve disruption by "hit and run" and sabotage, rather than more traditional conventional combat. Other significant roles lay in reconnaissance, providing essential intelligence from near or among the enemy and in combating irregular forces, their infrastructure and activities. Chinese strategist Jiang Ziya, in his Six Secret Teachings, described recruiting talented and motivated men into specialized elite units with functions such as commanding heights and making rapid long-distance advances.
Hamilcar Barca in Sicily had specialized troops trained to launch several offensives per day. In the late Roman or early Byzantine period, Roman fleets used small, camouflaged ships crewed by selected men for scouting and commando missions. Muslim forces had naval special operations units, including one that used camouflaged ships to gather intelligence and launch raids and another of soldiers who could pass for Crusaders who would use ruses to board enemy ships and capture and destroy them. In Japan, ninjas were used for reconnaissance, espionage and as assassins, bodyguards or fortress guards, or otherwise fought alongside conventional soldiers. During the Napoleonic wars and sapper units were formed that held specialised roles in reconnaissance and skirmishing and were not committed to the formal battle lines; the British Indian Army deployed two special forces during their border wars: the Corps of Guides formed in 1846 and the Gurkha Scouts. During the Second Boer War the British Army felt the need for more specialised units became most apparent.
Scouting units such as the Lovat Scouts, a Scottish Highland regiment made up of exceptional woodsmen outfitted in ghillie suits and well practised in the arts of marksmanship, field craft, military tactics filled this role. This unit was formed in 1900 by Lord Lovat and early on reported to an American, Major Frederick Russell Burnham, the Chief of Scouts under Lord Roberts. After the war, Lovat's Scouts went on to formally become the British Army's first sniper unit. Additionally, the Bushveldt Carbineers, formed in 1901, can be seen as an early unconventional warfare unit; the German Stormtroopers and the Italian Arditi were the first modern shock troops. They were both elite assault units trained to a much higher level than that of average troops and tasked to carry out daring attacks and bold raids against enemy defenses. Unlike Stormtroopers, Arditi were not units within infantry divisions, but were considered a separate combat arm. Modern special forces emerged during the Second World War.
In 1940, the British Commandos were formed following Winston Churchill's call for "specially trained troops of the hunter class, who can develop a reign of terror down the enemy coast." A staff officer, Lieutenant Colonel Dudley Clarke, had submitted such a proposal to General Sir John Dill, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff. Dill, aware of Churchill's intentions, approved Clarke's proposal and on 23 June 1940, the first Commando raid took place. By the autumn of 1940 more than 2,000 men had volunteered and in November 1940 these new units were organised into a Special Service Brigade consisting of four battalions under the command of Brigadier J. C. Haydon; the Special Service Brigade was expanded to 12 units which became known as Commandos. Each Commando numbered around 450 men. In December 1940 a Middle East Commando depot was formed with the responsibility of training and supplying reinforcements for the Commando units in that theatre. In February 1942 the Commando training depot at Achnacarry in the Scottish Highlands was established by Brigadier Charles Haydon.
Under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Charles Vaughan, the Commando depot was responsible for training complete units and indivi