Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Isaac Shelby was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also, a soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the American Revolutionary War, while governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action, that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinsons The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto United we stand, divided we fall. Issac Shelbys military service began, when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant and he gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina and he played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain.
For his service, Shelby was presented with a sword and a pair of pistols, by the North Carolina legislature. Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky, on lands awarded to him for his military service and his heroism made him popular with the states citizens and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky, from Indian attacks and organized its first government and he used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River. At the end of his term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict and he was elected easily, and at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroes offer to become Secretary of War, in his last act of public service and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe.
Isaac Shelby died, at his estate in Lincoln County, Isaac Shelby was born in the Province of Maryland on December 11,1750, near Hagerstown in Frederick County. He was the child and second son of Evan and Letitia Shelby. Though the family had been loyal to the Church of England, they became Presbyterians after coming to British America, Shelby was educated at the local schools in his native colony. He worked on his fathers plantation and occasionally work as a surveyor. At age eighteen he was appointed deputy sheriff of Frederick County, Shelbys father lost a great deal of money when Pontiacs Rebellion disrupted his lucrative fur trade business, and two years later, the business records were destroyed in a house fire. Consequently, in December 1770 the family moved to the area near Bristol, where they built a fort, here and his father worked for three years herding cattle
Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson
Bloody Bloody Andrew Jackson is a rock musical with music and lyrics written by Michael Friedman, and a book by its director Alex Timbers. The show is a comedic historical rock musical about the founding of the Democratic Party and it redefines Andrew Jackson, Americas seventh President, as an Emo rock star and focuses on populism, the Indian Removal Act, and his relationship with his wife Rachel. The show opens when the cast, dressed as 19th-century American cowboys and they are led by Andrew Jackson. They sing about their eagerness to strip the English, French, most importantly, along with this, they sing of the desire to bring political power back to the public and away from the elite. Jacksons childhood is shown in the Tennessee hills during the late 18th century and his family and the local shoe cobbler die of cholera and in Indian attacks. This leads him to join the military, where he is imprisoned by the British, Jackson begins to express his disdain for the US government’s lack of involvement with the people of the frontier and how he wishes someone would stand up to them.
Jackson is shown as an adult, regaling local tavern goers with his short meeting with George Washington. He is interrupted and attacked by several Spaniards, Jackson defeats them, but is injured in the process. A woman named Rachel helps him to recover from his injuries and they fall in love during his recovery and eventually marry, though Rachel is not yet divorced from her current husband. At the end of the song, news comes that British, meanwhile, the US government continues to do nothing to stop the attacks. Jackson realizes that if he wants this cycle to end, he must change things himself, Jackson organizes a militia to remove Indian Tribes throughout the Southeast both by force and negotiation. John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, John Calhoun, and Martin Van Buren are introduced as they express their concern over Jacksons unauthorized territorial expansion, Jackson rebuffs their pleas, explaining how he has driven out the French and the Spanish, while acquiring more land than Thomas Jefferson.
The Battle of New Orleans transforms Jackson into a national hero and he becomes Governor of Florida and decides to run for United States President in 1824. Although he receives the most popular and Electoral votes, he is not elected President, Jackson spends the four years after the election at his home, The Hermitage. He returns from exile and forms the Democratic Party. During the presidential election of 1828, Andrew Jackson becomes a surprise candidate and this is grueling both publicly and personally to Jackson and his family. Rachel, feeling as if she has no life, questions Andrews love for her versus the American People. Days before the election, a Senate panel led by Clay investigates Jacksons past wrongdoings, despite this, Jackson ends up winning the election and becomes the 7th President of the United States
Richard Mentor Johnson
Richard Mentor Johnson was the ninth Vice President of the United States, serving in the administration of Martin Van Buren. He is the vice president ever elected by the United States Senate under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment. Johnson represented Kentucky in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate, he began, Johnson was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives in 1806. He became allied with fellow Kentuckian Henry Clay as a member of the War Hawks faction that favored war with Britain in 1812. At the outset of the War of 1812, Johnson was commissioned a colonel in the Kentucky Militia and he and his brother James served under William Henry Harrison in Upper Canada. Johnson participated in the Battle of the Thames, some reported that he personally killed the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, which he used to his political advantage. After the war, Johnson returned to the House of Representatives, the legislature appointed him to the Senate in 1819 to fill the seat vacated by John J.
Crittenden. As his prominence grew, his relationship with Julia Chinn. It worked against his political ambitions, unlike other upper class leaders who had African American mistresses but never mentioned them, Johnson openly treated Chinn as his common law wife. He acknowledged their two daughters as his children, giving them his surname, much to the consternation of some of his constituents. The relationship is believed to have led to the loss of his Senate seat in 1829, in 1836, Johnson was the Democratic nominee for vice-president on a ticket with Martin Van Buren. Campaigning with the slogan Rumpsey Dumpsey, Rumpsey Dumpsey, Colonel Johnson killed Tecumseh, virginias delegation to the Electoral College went against the states popular vote and refused to endorse Johnson, abstaining instead. However, he was elected to the office by the Senate, Johnson proved such a liability for the Democrats in the 1836 election that they refused to renominate him for vice-president in 1840. President Van Buren campaigned for re-election without a running mate and he lost to William Henry Harrison, a Whig.
Johnson tried to return to office but was defeated. He finally was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1850, Richard Mentor Johnson was born on October 17,1780, the fifth of Robert and Jemima Johnsons eleven children. At the time, the family was living in the newly founded settlement of Beargrass, near present-day Louisville, by 1782, the Johnsons had moved to Bryans Station in Fayette County. Johnsons mother was considered among the women of the community because of her actions during Simon Girtys raid on Bryans Station in August 1782
Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans was an engagement fought between January 8 and January 18,1815, constituting the final major battle of the War of 1812, and the most one-sided battle of that war. Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Lieutenant Thomas ap Catesby Jones, on December 14, around 1,200 British sailors and Royal Marines under Captain Nicholas Lockyer set out to attack Jones force. Lockyers men sailed in 42 longboats, each armed with a small carronade, Lockyer captured Jones vessels in a brief engagement known as the Battle of Lake Borgne. 17 British sailors were killed and 77 wounded, while 6 Americans were killed,35 wounded, the wounded included both Jones and Lockyer. On the morning of December 23, Keane and a vanguard of 1,800 British soldiers reached the east bank of the Mississippi River,9 miles south of New Orleans. During the afternoon of December 23, after he had learned of the position of the British encampment, Andrew Jackson reportedly said and this intelligence had been provided by Colonel Thomas Hinds Squadron of Light Dragoons, a militia unit from the Mississippi Territory.
That evening, attacking from the north, Jackson led 2,131 men in a brief three-pronged assault on the unsuspecting British troops, Jackson pulled his forces back to the Rodriguez Canal, about 4 miles south of the city. The Americans suffered 24 killed,115 wounded, and 74 missing, while the British reported their losses as 46 killed,167 wounded, historian Robert Quimby says, the British certainly did win a tactical victory, which enabled them to maintain their position. However, Quimby goes on to say, It is not too much to say that it was the battle of December 23 that saved New Orleans, the British were disabused of their expectation of an easy conquest. The unexpected and severe attack made Keane even more cautious. he made no effort to advance on the twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth, as a consequence, the Americans were given time to begin the transformation of the canal into a heavily fortified earthwork. On Christmas Day, General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and that evening, General Pakenham met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation, angry with the position that the army had been placed in.
General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the route, but he was overruled by Admiral Cochrane. Admiral Cochrane believed the veteran British soldiers would easily destroy Jacksons ramshackle army, whatever Pakenhams thoughts on the matter, the meeting settled the method and place of the attack. When the British reconnaissance-in-force withdrew, the Americans immediately began constructing earthworks to protect the artillery batteries and these defenses were christened Line Jackson. The Americans installed eight batteries, which included one 32-pound gun, Jackson sent a detachment to the west bank of the Mississippi to man two 24-pounders and two 12-pounders on the grounded warship USS Louisiana. Even so, Jacksons force was outnumbered by the attacking forces. The main British army arrived on New Years Day 1815, and this began an exchange of artillery fire that continued for three hours. Several of the American guns were destroyed or silenced, including the 32-pounder, a 24-pounder, the British artillery finally exhausted its ammunition, which caused Pakenham to cancel the attack
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 36th largest and the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, Tennessees capital and second largest city is Nashville, which has a population of 654,610. Memphis is the states largest city, with a population of 655,770, the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1,1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.
Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia and this sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. This city was established to house the Manhattan Projects uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the worlds first atomic bomb, Tennessees major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, the town was located on a river of the same name, and appears on maps as early as 1725. The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain, some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean meeting place, winding river, according to ethnographer James Mooney, the name can not be analyzed and its meaning is lost.
The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, the spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlakes Draught of the Cherokee Country in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created Tennessee County, the county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new out of the Southwest Territory. Other sources differ on the origin of the nickname, according to the Columbia Encyclopedia. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states, the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet, Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessees eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The long rifle, known as longrifle, Kentucky rifle, or Pennsylvania rifle, was one of the first commonly used rifles for hunting and warfare. It is characterized by a long barrel, which is widely believed to be a largely unique development of American rifles that was uncommon in European rifles of the same period. The longrifle is an example of a firearm using rifling. This gave the projectile a spiraling motion, increasing the stability of the trajectory, a more stable trajectory meant dramatically improved accuracy over the more commonly available smooth bore muskets used in the period. Rifled firearms saw their first major use in the American colonies during the French and Indian War. The adoption of the Minié ball essentially nullified these disadvantages and allowed the rifle to replace the musket. The longrifle was made popular by German gunsmiths who immigrated to America, the accuracy achieved by the longrifle made it an ideal tool for hunting wildlife for food in colonial America. The American Longrifle, more commonly, but less correctly, known as the Kentucky rifle, was described by Captain John G.
W, the longrifle was developed on the American frontier in south eastern Pennsylvania, in the early 1700s. It continued to be developed technically and artistically until it passed out of fashion in the 19th century, the longrifle was the product of German gunsmiths who immigrated to new settlements in south eastern Pennsylvania in the early 1700s, and in Virginia and other territories. Tax records from these locales indicate the dates these gunsmiths were in business, longrifles could be made entirely by hand and hand-operated tooling, in a frontier setting. Initially the weapon of choice on the frontier was the smooth bore musket, or trade gun, built in factories in England and France, longrifles became more popular due to their longer effective range. While the smooth bore musket had a range of less than 100 yards. The price for this accuracy was longer reloading time, while the musket could be reloaded in approximately 20 seconds, the longrifle required more time for the average hunter.
In Pennsylvania, the earliest gunsmiths that can be documented are Robert Baker, Robert Baker formed a partnership with his son, Caleb and on August 15,1719 erected a gun boring mill on Pequea Creek. In the tax records of Berks County, there were several gunsmiths plying their trade along the banks of the Wyomissing Creek. Martin Meylins Gunshop was built in 1719, and it is here that the Mennonite gunsmith of Swiss-German heritage crafted some of the earliest, no single rifle has been found to date to be signed by Martin Meylin. The Martin Meylin Gunshop still stands today in Willow Street and this particular rifle was analyzed and the barrel removed during the Lancaster Long Rifle Exhibit at Landis Valley Farm Museum, Pennsylvania in 2005. The six experts on hand found the barrel was European and the stock itself dated from a period than 1710-1750
Henry Clay, Sr. was an American lawyer and planter and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. He served three terms as Speaker of the House of Representatives and served as Secretary of State under President John Quincy Adams from 1825 to 1829. Clay ran for the presidency in 1824,1832 and 1844, however, he was unsuccessful in all of his attempts to reach his nations highest office. Despite his presidential losses, Clay remained a dominant figure in the Whig Party, Clay was a dominant figure in both the First and Second Party systems. After serving two stints in the Senate, Clay won election to the House of Representatives in 1810 and was elected Speaker of the House in 1811. Clay would remain a prominent public figure until his death 41 years in 1852, a leading war hawk, Speaker Clay favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation into the War of 1812. In 1814, Clays tenure as Speaker was interrupted when Clay traveled to Europe, Clay ran for president in 1824 and lost, finishing fourth in a four-man contest.
No candidate received a majority, and so the election was decided in the House of Representatives. Clay maneuvered House voting in favor of John Quincy Adams, who appointed him as Secretary of State. Opposing candidate Andrew Jackson denounced the actions of Clay and Adams as part of a corrupt bargain, Clay returned to the Senate in 1831. He continued to advocate his American System, and become a leader of the opposition to President Andrew Jackson, President Jackson opposed federally-subsidized internal improvements and a national bank as a threat to states rights, and the president used his veto power to defeat many of Clays proposals. In 1832, Clay ran for president as a candidate of the National Republican Party, following the election, the National Republicans united with other opponents of Jackson to form the Whig Party, which remained one of the two major American political parties until after Clays death. In 1844, Clay won the Whig Partys presidential nomination, Clays opposition to the annexation of Texas, partly over fears that such an annexation would inflame the slavery issue, hurt his campaign, and Democrat James K.
Polk won the election. Clay opposed the Mexican–American War, which resulted in part from the Texas annexation, Clay returned to the Senate for a final term, where he helped broker a compromise over the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession. Known as The Great Compromiser, Clay brokered important agreements during the Nullification Crisis, as part of the Great Triumvirate or Immortal Trio, along with his colleagues Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun, he was instrumental in formulating the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise Tariff of 1833, and he was viewed as the primary representative of Western interests in this group, and was given the names Harry of the West and The Western Star. As a plantation owner, Clay held slaves during his lifetime, Henry Clay was born on April 12,1777, at the Clay homestead in Hanover County, Virginia, in a story-and-a-half frame house. It was a home for a common Virginia planter of that time
Nathaniel G. S. Hart
Nathaniel Gray Smith Hart, often Nathaniel G. S. Hart, was a Lexington, Kentucky lawyer and businessman, who served with the states volunteer militia during the War of 1812. Hart was especially well-connected politically and socially, in addition to reading law with Henry Clay, Harts wife Anna and Clays wife Lucretia were sisters. Many other members of Harts Kentucky militia unit and its troops came from the elite of Lexington. The mens deaths in the two Battles of Frenchtown, but especially in the subsequent Massacre captured state and national attention, the phrase Remember the Raisin. became an American call to arms for the duration of the War. Nathaniel Hart was one of seven children, the son of Colonel Thomas Hart, a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Originally from North Carolina, the family had moved to Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1794 they settled in Lexington, Kentucky as part of the postwar migration west. His father was a successful businessman, achieving wealth. Hart attended Princeton College, where his classmates included William Elliott from western Ontario, elliotts father was a Loyalist who had resettled in Canada after the Revolutionary War.
The two young men were close enough that Elliot stayed with Harts parents for a time to recover from a serious illness, after Harts return to Lexington, he read law under Henry Clay, passed the bar, and set up a law practice in the city. Like his father, he became a businessman, a ropewalk in the city being among his ventures. Hemp was a commodity crop of central Kentucky, on January 7,1812, Hart duelled with Samuel E. Watson at a location on the Indiana side of the Ohio River, near where Silver Creek emptied into the river. This was the site where Henry Clay had duelled with fellow state legislator Humphrey Marshall in 1809, at the start of the War of 1812, Hart was commissioned as Captain of the Lexington Light Infantry Company a volunteer unit of the Fayette County, Kentucky militia. He served as either a Deputy Inspector or as Inspector General of William Henry Harrisons Army of the Northwest, in January 1813, a detachment was sent to the defense of Frenchtown, Michigan Territory as part of an effort to retake Detroit from the British.
Frenchtown residents had sent word to the Americans asking for relief from a force of the British. During the First Battle of Frenchtown on January 18,1813, the British commander of the Fort Malden garrison in Amherstburg, Colonel Henry Procter, made plans to take back Frenchtown and he ordered troops to the area. The Kentucky militia under the command of Major George Madison on the left flank fought on, during this second Battle of Frenchtown,397 Americans were killed. Hart was wounded and was among the 547 survivors who surrendered to Procter upon orders of Winchester, not many more than 30 Kentucky troops escaped death or capture. William Elliott, Harts former Princeton classmate who had become a Captain in the British Army, promised the wounded man safe passage to Fort Malden, but did not carry out his pledge
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through the words, movement, since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, musicals. These were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan. Musicals are performed around the world and they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller fringe theatre, Off-Broadway or regional theatre productions, musicals are often presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia, the three main components of a book musical are its music and book. The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its team, which includes a director. A musicals production is characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties, lighting.
The creative team and interpretations generally change from the production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the production, for example. There is no fixed length for a musical, while it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours. Musicals are usually presented in two acts, with one intermission, and the first act is frequently longer than the second. A book musical is usually built four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show. Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades, moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are often performed in song. Proverbially, when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing, many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length.
Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the characters, the material presented in a musical may be original, or it may be adapted from novels, classic legends, historical events or films. On the other hand, many musical theatre works have been adapted for musical films, such as West Side Story, My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, Oliver