Halifax Harbour is a large natural harbour on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, located in the Halifax Regional Municipality. The harbour is called Jipugtug by the Mi'kmaq first nation, anglicized as Chebucto, it runs in a northwest-southeast direction. Based on average vessel speeds, the harbour is strategically located one hour's sailing time north of the Great Circle Route between the Eastern Seaboard and Europe; as such, it is the first inbound and last outbound port of call in eastern North America with transcontinental rail connections. The harbour is formed by a drowned glacial valley which succumbed to sea level rise since glaciation; the Sackville River now empties into the upper end of the harbour in Bedford Basin. The harbour includes the following geographic areas: Northwest Arm: Another drowned river valley now used by pleasure boats; the Narrows: A constricted passage to Bedford Basin. Bedford Basin: A sheltered bay and the largest part of the harbour; the harbour is home to several small islands.
The harbour limit is formed by the northern end of its largest island - McNabs Island. The largest island within the harbour limits is Georges Island, a glacial drumlin similar to its dryland counterpart at Citadel Hill. Several small islands are located in the Bedford Basin near Burnside. In the Northwest Arm, there is a small peninsula known as Deadman's Island, named for the burial location of War of 1812 prisoners of war. Just 200 m west of Deadman's Island is the small Melville Island, connected to the mainland by road. Melville Island forms the eastern boundary of Melville Cove and is the location of the Armdale Yacht Club. Melville Cove is the name of the adjacent residential community. Although outside the defined harbour limits, Lawlor Island and Devils Island are frequently included in descriptions of Halifax Harbour and the surrounding area. Halifax's official harbour limit for navigational purposes is delineated by a line running from Herring Cove on the west side of the main channel, to the northern end of McNabs Island from McNabs Island across the Eastern Passage to the actual community of Eastern Passage on the east side of the island.
The harbour is marked by an extensive network of buoys and lighthouses, starting with Sambro Island Lighthouse at the harbour approaches, the oldest operating lighthouse in North America. Deep draught vessels must use the main channel into the harbour, which runs on the west side of McNabs Island; the west entrance point marking the beginning of the inner approach using this channel is located near Chebucto Head 12 kilometres south of the limit. Shallow draught vessels may use the Eastern Passage. Large vessels have compulsory pilotage, with harbour pilots boarding at the pilot station off Chebucto Head. Vessels wishing to transit The Narrows between the outer harbour and Bedford Basin must travel one at a time; the Royal Canadian Navy maintains a large base housing its Atlantic fleet, Maritime Forces Atlantic, along the western side of The Narrows, as well as an ammunition depot on the northeastern shore of Bedford Basin. There are strict security regulations relating to vessels navigating near RCN facilities and anchorages.
There are two large suspension bridges crossing The Narrows: the Angus L. Macdonald Bridge, opened in 1955 the A. Murray MacKay Bridge, opened in 1970 After Confederation in 1867, boosters of Halifax expected federal help to make the city's natural harbor Canada's official winter port and a gateway for trade with Europe. Halifax's advantages included its location just off the Great Circle route made it the closest to Europe of any mainland North American port, but the new Intercolonial Railway took an indirect, southerly route for military and political reasons, the national government made little effort to promote Halifax as Canada's winter port. Ignoring appeals to nationalism and the ICR's own attempts to promote traffic to Halifax, most Canadian exporters sent their wares by train though Boston or Portland. Harbour promoters fought an uphill battle to finance the large-scale port facilities Halifax lacked, succeeding just before the First World War with the start of construction of the large docking facilities at Ocean Terminals in Halifax's South End.
The war at last boosted Halifax's harbor into prominence on the North Atlantic. The Halifax Port Authority is a federally appointed agency which administers and operates various port properties on the harbour. Run by the National Harbours Board, the HPA is now a locally run organization. HPA facilities include: South End Container Terminal - Piers 36-42 Halifax Grain Elevator Ocean Terminals - Piers 23-34 Piers 20 -22: Pier 20, Halifax Seaport Farmers Market, The Cruise Ship Pavilion and Pier 21 Museum Richmond Terminals - Piers 9 and 9A Richmond Offshore Terminals - Piers 9B-9D Fairview Cove Container Terminal - National Gypsum Wharf - Woodside Atlantic Wharf - Imperial Oil Wharves - (
Canadian Register of Historic Places
The Canadian Register of Historic Places known as Canada's Historic Places, is an online directory of historic sites in Canada which have been formally recognized for their heritage value by a federal, territorial and/or municipal authority. The Canadian Register of Historic Places was created as part of Canada's "Historic Places Initiative". Commencing in 2001, the Historic Places Initiative was a collaboration between the federal and territorial governments to improve protection of the country's historic sites and to "promote and foster a culture of heritage conservation in Canada"; the CRHP and the Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada are the two major tools developed to assist in achieving the initiative's main objectives. The CRHP was launched in May 2004 as a single access point for members of the public to learn about historic sites across Canada, it is a work in progress, as of 2011, the CHRP included 12,300 of the country's estimated 17,000 designated historic sites.
The directory was designed to be both flexible, in order to accommodate information from the wide range of heritage authorities across the country, as well as uniform, so as to provide a consistent means of searching and a consistent form of documentation for sites regardless of location or heritage designation. Historic sites that have been recognized by more than one level of government for differing reasons, are linked in the directory. For example, the CRHP contains two listings for the Halifax Public Gardens in Nova Scotia, these two listings in the CRHP are connected in order to highlight the many heritage values that have been ascribed to this particular site; the Canadian Register of Historic Places does not have its own criteria for inclusion in the directory, but relies on federal, provincial and local designations of historic sites. A site must be designated by one or more of these levels of government in order to be eligible for inclusion in the CRHP; the CRHP does not replace existing heritage designation programs in place across the country, nor does it replace local, provincial and federal databases, some of which are available online.
The CRHP is not a designatory or regulatory mechanism. Inclusion in the directory does not confer historic or legal status, nor does it impose legal restrictions or obligations. Inclusion does not affect how the designating level of government manages its own heritage designations or policies. Given that the CRHP is publicly available on the internet and provides locations details for historic sites, a number of sensitive and/or sacred First Nations sites have not been included in the directory in order to lessen the likelihood of vandalism and other forms of damage by visitors; the CRHP partner governments are working on other tools through the Historic Places Initiative in order to recognize sites related to Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Heritage conservation in Canada Lists of historic places in Canada Official website
National Historic Sites of Canada
National Historic Sites of Canada are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, as being of national historic significance. Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program; as of October 2018, there are 987 National Historic Sites, 171 of which are administered by Parks Canada. The sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France. There are related federal designations for National Historic Persons. Sites and Persons are each marked by a federal plaque of the same style, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given; the Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site. Emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canada's historic sites. There were galvanizing precedents in other countries. With the support of notables such as Victor Hugo and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, the Commission des monuments historique was created in France in 1837.
In the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that country's historic and natural heritage. While there was no National Park Service in the United States until 1916, battlefields of the Civil War were designated and managed by the War Department: Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Shiloh, Gettysburg and Chalmette. Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canada's historic sites, he was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, he was the first public official to call for the creation of a park on the lands next to Niagara Falls. The 1908 tricentennial of the founding of Quebec City, the establishment that same year of the National Battlefields Commission to preserve the Plains of Abraham, acted as a catalyst for federal efforts to designate and preserve historic sites across Canada. At the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada.
The more populated east did not have the same large expanses of undeveloped Crown land that had become parks in the west, so the Dominion Parks Branch looked to historic features to act as focal points for new national parks. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of historic sites in Canada, with the objective of creating new recreational areas rather than preserving historic places. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a national historic park in 1914, named the "Fort Howe National Park"; the fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, but its designation provided a rationale for the acquisition of land for a park. Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was designated in 1917. In 1919, William James Roche, the Minister of the Interior, was concerned over the fate of old fur trade posts in Western Canada, he was being lobbied by historical associations across Canada for federal funds to assist with the preservation and commemoration of local landmarks.
At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, the associated expenses, to the Parks Branch. Roche asked James B. Harkin, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. Harkin believed that the Parks Branch did not have the necessary expertise to manage historic resources. On Harkin's recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites. Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, a noted authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Board's first chairman, a post he held for twenty years; the first place designated and plaqued under the new program was the "Cliff Site" in Port Dover, where two priests claimed sovereignty over the Lake Erie region for Louis XIV of France in 1670. Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, the focus of the program was on commemoration rather than on preservation.
Benjamin Sulte, a member of the HSMBC, wrote to Harkin in 1919 about the significant ruins at the Forges du Saint-Maurice, demonstrating his preference for the installation of a plaque over restoration: "All that can be done in our days is to clear away the heap of stones, in order to reach the foundation walls and plant a sign in the centre of the square thus uncovered."In the early years of the program, National Historic Sites were chosen to commemorate battles, important men, the fur trade and political events. Of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943, 105 represented military history, 52 represented the fur trade and exploration, 43 represented famous individuals (almo
Richmond, Nova Scotia
Richmond was a Canadian urban neighbourhood comprising part of the North End of the Halifax Peninsula in Nova Scotia's Halifax Regional Municipality. A separately incorporated part of Halifax County, the village of Richmond grew north of North Street, the traditional dividing line with the City of Halifax's original North End. Located on the western shore of The Narrows of Halifax Harbour, Richmond soon industrialized after the Nova Scotia Railway built along the shore to serve the navy dockyard and various shipping piers and warehouses. Richmond was amalgamated into the City of Halifax during the late 19th century and its traditional boundary was blurred as the area became absorbed into the expanding North End. Richmond was devastated on December 6, 1917 when the Halifax Explosion levelled much of its structures and waterfront; the rising slope of Fort Needham protected some areas from the immediate effects of the shock wave. The Halifax Relief Commission, formed by an order-in-council on 22 January 1918, was subsequently incorporated and given broader powers as a result of an act passed by the Nova Scotia Legislature.
Aside from its mandate to compensate victims of the explosion, the $21,000,000 donated by various governments and the public would be used to rebuild the devastated areas as the commission saw fit. Thomas Adams, a renowned town planner and his assistant, H. L. Seymour were called upon to plan the reconstruction and were joined by architect George Ross of Montreal; the rebuilt area called Merkelsfield, is now known as The Hydrostone District because of the use of a stone-faced concrete material known as hydrostone for the exterior building material. Timber and stucco were used for roofing materials. Although most of the work was carried out by the firm of Ross and Macdonald, several local architects were awarded projects. Most of the work was completed by 1921
Ross and Macdonald
Ross and Macdonald was one of Canada's most notable architecture firms in the early 20th century. Based in Montreal, the firm operated as a partnership between George Allen Ross and David MacFarlane from 1907 to 1912. MacFarlane withdrew from the firm in 1912, Robert Henry Macdonald became a partner; the Ross and Macdonald name was used until 1944, after which it became Ross & Ross, when John Kenneth Ross joined his father as partner. Following George Allen Ross's death in 1946, the firm continued as Ross, Townsend & Heughan. By 1970, the firm was known as Ross, Duschenes & Barrett. Since 2006, it has operated as DFS Inc. Architecture & Design. Ross was born in Montreal, studied at the High School of Montreal, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Ross was apprenticed to Brown, MacVicar & Heriot in Montreal, become a draftsman for the Grand Trunk Railway, he did work with Parker & Thomas in Boston and Carrere & Hastings in New York before partnering with MacFarlane in Montreal.
He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. He was a member of the Royal Institute of British Architects, becoming an Associate in 1904 and a Fellow in 1913. Macdonald was born in Australia, he articled to Richard B. Whitaker, M. S. A. of Melbourne, became a junior draftsman to Robert Findlay in Montreal in 1895. After positions as a draftsman for George B. Post starting in 1903, a senior draftsman with Crighton & McKay in Wellington, New Zealand in 1905, head draftsman with W. W. Bosworth in New York in 1906, Macdonald joined Ross and MacFarlane in Montreal as a junior partner and draftsman in 1907, he became a partner of the firm in 1912. He was a Fellow of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada and of the Royal Institute of British Architects, he served as president of the Quebec Association of Architects in 1939, was a recipient of the association's Award of Merit. Commercial Buildings: Bank of Toronto branch, Montreal, 1908 Complexe Les Ailes, Montreal, 1925-27 Saskatoon Board of Education offices, Saskatoon, 1928-29 Calgary Eaton's Store, Calgary, 1928-29 Dominion Square Building, Montreal, 1928–1930 College Park, Toronto, 1928-30 Holt Renfrew Montreal at 1300 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, 1937Hotels: Château Laurier Hotel, Ottawa, 1909-12 Lord Elgin Hotel, Ottawa, 1940–41 Royal York Hotel, Toronto, 1927-29 Fort Garry Hotel, Winnipeg, 1910–14 Hotel Saskatchewan, Regina, 1926–27 Hotel Macdonald, Edmonton, 1912–14 Les Cours Mont-Royal, Montreal, 1920-24 Public Buildings: Government Conference Centre, Ottawa, 1911-1912 Union Station, Toronto 1914-1920 Office Buildings: Architects' Building, Montreal, 1929-34 Confederation Building, Montreal, 1927–28 Castle Building, Montreal, 1924–27 Dominion Square Building, Montreal, 1928–40 Montreal Star Building, Montreal, 1926–31 Royal Bank Building, Toronto, 1913–15 Édifice Price, Quebec City, 1929-1930.
Medical Arts Building, Montreal, 1922Residential: Le Chateau Apartments, Montreal, 1926 The Gleneagles, Montreal, 1929Other: Central Technical School, Toronto, 1915 The Hydrostone, Halifax, 1918 Maple Leaf Gardens, Toronto, 1931–32 Le fantasme métropolitain: l'architecture de Ross et Macdonald: bureaux, magasins et hôtels 1905‑1942 Ross career summary Ross bio, McGill University Macdonald career summary Macdonald bio, McGill University Photos of Ross and MacDonald buildings in Montreal
Eastern Passage, Nova Scotia
Eastern Passage is an unincorporated suburban community in Halifax Regional Municipality Nova Scotia, Canada. Eastern Passage has been tied to the fishing industry, its waterfront has several small piers. The construction of CFB Shearwater, a military air base, at the northern boundary of the community during World War I, the construction of the Imperial Oil, Texaco oil refineries, the Volvo Halifax Assembly plant and automobile import/export facility following World War II redefined the local economy. New highway connections have resulted in the majority of area residents commuting to Downtown Halifax or Dartmouth. Located at the southeastern edge of Halifax Harbour, fronting the Atlantic Ocean, Eastern Passage derives its name from the narrow strait separating the mainland from McNabs Island and Lawlor Island, both of which lie several hundred metres west of the community; this "Eastern Passage" into the harbour is not the main shipping channel due to its shallow depths. The Eastern Passage is used by small recreational boats and fishing vessels during inclement weather as the island affords shelter from prevailing winds.
Prior to the European settlers, Eastern Passage was a season home to the Mi'kmaq for thousands of years. Europeans began seasonal use of the channel starting about 1712 while the Mi'kmaq shifted to McNab's island; the Eastern Passage area was granted to ranger Joseph Gorham, but he did not settle the passage and the land was regranted in 1798 to Jacob Horn, the first recorded settler, soon followed by other families. The first European settlers who moved there were German, French and English; these ethnic groups continue to make up a large portion of the population of Eastern Passage. Fort Clarence, a large gun battery was constructed beside Eastern Passage in 1754 at the beginning of the French and Indian War. Built to defend the harbour, the battery provided a cross fire with batteries on Georges Island and McNabs Island. In the late 1790s a Martello Tower was built at each of the three sites. During the American Civil War, The iron Confederate naval cruiser Tallahassee sailed into Halifax Harbour on August 18, 1864 to take on bunker coal and water and used the Eastern Passage channel to escape, for it was believed that Union naval forces were waiting at the main harbour entrance.
An American naval air station was constructed at Eastern Passage during World War I to patrol against German submarines. It was taken over by the Royal Canadian Air Force in the 1920s and became a large air base during World War II. In the 1920s and 1930s, a number of Eastern Passage residents from the Hartlan and Henneberry families proved important sources of Canadian folk songs and stories to Nova Scotia folklorist Helen Creighton. Serious reductions to the CFB Shearwater base in the 1990s and the shutdown of the Ultramar Refinery challenged the economy of Eastern Passage in the 1990s. One response was the redevelopment of the small craft harbour, long known as "the Crick" or "the cove" but rechristened in 1996 as "Fisherman's Cove", a tourist attraction which combines a working fishing harbour with gift shops and restaurants. In 1996 Fishermans Cove opened as a tourist attraction; the attraction had things such as restaurants. In the summer of 2003, the fourth season of Trailer Park Boys was filmed in Eastern Passage.
It was the last season of the show filmed in a held park. Population: 8,872 Population: 13,000+ Total Area: 29.38 km² Latitude: 44.614296 Longitude: -63.470833 Type: Elementary Grades: Primary to 3Constructed: 1954 Current Square Footage: 44,061 sq ft. Website: http://www.oves.ednet.ns.ca/ Type: Elementary Grades: Primary to 3, including French Immersion Constructed: 1991 Current Square Footage: 64,600 sq ft. Website: http://www.tcs.ednet.ns.ca/ Whether elementary students attend Ocean View or Tallahassee is dependent on where they live in the respective school's catchment area or are enrolled in the French Immersion programme. Type: SR. Elementary Grades: 4, 5 Constructed: 1974 Current Square Footage: 44,737 sq ft. Website: http://ses.hrsb.ca/ Type: Junior High Grades: 6 to 8 Constructed: 1999 Current Square Footage: 82,645 sq ft. Website: http://www.epe.hrsb.ca/ High school approx. 450 students are bused out of the community to neighbouring Cole Harbour District High School. An announcement was made in April 2012 that a high school could open in September 2014.
Though it has been discussed many times over the past decade, as of October 2016 Eastern Passage Students still attend Cole Harbour District High School. The new school is scheduled to be completed and turned over to the HRSB in time for opening in September 2018; the cost to build the new school will be 21 million dollars. Website: https://www.hrsb.ca/about-hrsb/operations-services/capital-projects/island-view-high-school There are several parks and playgrounds in the area. Two are located in the Heritage Hills subdivision, there are playgrounds at Tallahassee and Seaside schools. In August 2006, a new skateboard park opened near Seaside Elementary. Around 2016 a dirt BMX park promised by at the time MLA, Becky Kent. There is a large playing field at Eastern Passage Education Centre, numerous baseball and general purpose fields located within the vicinity of the three elementary schools. A public tennis court is located near Seaside Elementary; the Tallahassee Recreation Centre has various activities going on year-
North End, Halifax
The North End of Halifax is a subdivision of Halifax, Nova Scotia occupying the northern part of Halifax Peninsula north of Downtown Halifax. The area once included historic Africville, parts of it were damaged in the Halifax Explosion during World War I. More the area has undergone gentrification, now has many trendy shops and restaurants; the northern part of the Halifax Peninsula comprises thin soil resulting from glacial deposits, as well as outcroppings of a dark sedimentary shale known as ironstone. The entire peninsula has no significant surface water, unlike the areas northeast and southwest of Halifax Harbour. At 60 m in elevation, Citadel Hill is the highest point on the peninsula and when combined with the expansive undeveloped parkland of the North Common, creates a physical boundary that separates the various neighbourhoods. Fort Needham is another glacial drumlin located in the heart of the North End; the subdivision referred to as the "North End" by Halifax residents was bounded on the east by "The Narrows" of Halifax Harbour and on the north by Bedford Basin.
Its other boundaries as not as defined, but the western limit of the subdivision is agreed to be Windsor street. The southern boundary was, the northern limit of General Cornwallis's original Halifax settlement along the slope of Citadel Hill, continuing along the northern edge of the North Common to Quinpool Road; the northern boundary has migrated toward the Bedford Basin since Halifax's founding. The boundary ended at North Street, just as the South End ended at South Street. A Neighbourhood further to the north was Richmond, was located on the eastern slope of Fort Needham. Further north of Richmond, at the end of the Campbell Road, was the black community of Africville. By the end of the 19th century, the perception of the North End had come to include Richmond as well. Following its total destruction in the Halifax Explosion, Richmond never again regained its individual identity; the area underwent significant redevelopment during the inter-war period and became an extension of the original North End.
Africville held out as a separate community until the 1960s when it was demolished by city authorities and its residents were relocated, many to public housing projects such as Uniacke Square. With the removal of Africville, public perception of the northern boundary extended to the shores of the Bedford Basin. During the same time period, the perception of the southern boundary became less clear, with some contending the North End starts at North Street, that the original north suburb is in fact a part of central Halifax; the North End of Halifax began as an agricultural expansion north from central Halifax as German Foreign Protestant settlers arrived. It became the focus of industry in Halifax with the construction of the Nova Scotia Railway in the 1850s which located its terminal in the north end. Factories such as the Acadia Sugar Refinery, Hillis & Sons Foundry, the Nova Scotia Cotton Manufacturing Company followed making the North End the focus of manufacturing in Halifax. Railway growth intensified with the extension of railways further into the North End and construction in 1878 of the grand North Street Station, the largest station east of Montreal.
Wharves warehouses lined the waterfront, along with the city's prison at Rockhead and major defence installations such as HMC Dockyard and Stadacona. Much of this infrastructure, along with the neighbourhood of Richmond, was damaged or destroyed in a disastrous accident on 6 December 1917 referred to as the Halifax Explosion; the explosion's aftermath saw the area north of North Street razed and a new street grid was superimposed over the old street patterns. New residential construction saw the creation of the historic Hydrostone neighbourhood, built during the relief construction following the disaster. Today the memorial bells at Fort Needham, which were recovered from a church that didn't survive the event, may be heard in the carillon and monument to the disaster; the Memorial was designed by Nova Scotia architect Keith L. Graham; the Halifax Shipyard was built in 1918 beside the Naval Dockyard, further entrenching the industrial character of the North End. The Halifax North Memorial Public Library designed by Graham, was opened in 1966 in memory of the victims of the explosion.
Located on Göttingen Street, south of North Street, the library offers a welcoming environment as well as programs that reflect the diverse make-up of the community. Seaview Park on the Bedford Basin is the site of Africville, the former African-Canadian community, a safe haven for African slaves coming to Canada; the community was torn down in the 1960s preceding a proposed urban redevelopment of the region which would see new highways and the construction of the A. Murray MacKay Bridge, although the lands of the community were never used in a proposed port expansion. In the ensuing controversy it was designated as parkland; the Africville expropriation is characterized as an example of institutional racism in Halifax. The municipal government justified the destruction of Africville by citing the poor living conditions of the community, despite having refused to extend those services to the community; the razing of Africville allowed for industrial development in the area and for the progress of the city's traffic grid, with the construction of the'new' bridge.
The Africville residents and descendants were dispersed among some of the North End's public housing projects, as well as into other parts of Halifax and Dartmouth. Gottingen Str