The Independent

The Independent is a British online publisher of news, established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning printed newspaper published in London. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet and changed to tabloid format in 2003; the last printed edition was published on Saturday 26 March 2016. It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Irish Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to the Russian businessman and former KGB officer Alexander Lebedev in 2010. In June 2015, the newspaper had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. The website and mobile app have a combined monthly reach of 22,939,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format, it was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds.

All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.

Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.

In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.

Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.

In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst, editor of The Independent, told the Leveson in

Radical ion

A radical ion is a free radical species that carries a charge. Radical ions are encountered in organic chemistry as reactive intermediates and in mass spectrometry as gas phase ions. Positive radical ions are called radical cations whereas negative radical ions are called radical anions. In organic chemistry, a radical ion is indicated by a superscript dot followed by the sign of the charge: M ∙ + and M ∙ −. In mass spectrometry, the sign is written first, followed by the superscripted dot: M + ∙ and M − ∙. Many aromatic compounds can undergo one-electron reduction by alkali metals. For example, the reaction of naphthalene with sodium in an aprotic solvent yields the naphthalene radical anion - sodium ion salt. In an ESR spectrum this compound shows up as a quintet of quintets. In the presence of a proton source the radical anion is protonated and hydrogenated as in the Birch reduction; the electron is transferred from the alkali metal ion to an unoccupied antibonding p-p п* orbital of the aromatic molecule.

This transfer is only energetically favorable if the aprotic solvent efficiently solvates the alkali metal ion. Effectiveness for this is in the order diethyl ether < THF < 1,2-dimethoxyethane < HMPA. In principle any unsaturated molecule can form a radical anion, but the antibonding orbitals are only energetically accessible in more extensive conjugated systems. Ease of formation is in etc.. On addition of a proton source, the structure of the resulting hydrogenated molecule is defined by the charge distribution of the radical anion. For instance, the anthracene radical anion forms 9,10-dihydroanthracene. An example of a non-carbon radical anion is the superoxide anion, formed by transfer of one electron to an oxygen molecule. A effective way to remove any traces of water from THF is by reflux with sodium wire in the presence of a small amount of benzophenone. Benzophenone is reduced to the ketyl radical anion by sodium which gives the THF solution an intense blue color. However, any trace of water in THF will further reduce the ketyl to the colourless alcohol.

In this way, the color of the THF signals the dryness and the distilled THF contains less than 10 ppm of water. This treatment effectively removes any peroxides in the THF. Radical anions of this type are involved in the Acyloin condensation. Cyclooctatetraene is reduced by elemental potassium all the way to the dianion because the 10 electron system is aromatic. Quinone is reduced to a semiquinone radical anion. Semidiones are derived from the reduction of dicarbonyl compounds. Cationic radical species are much less stable, they appear prominently in the mass spectrometry. When a gas-phase molecule is subjected to electron ionization one electron is abstracted by an electron in the electron beam to create a radical cation M+.. This species represents the molecular parent ion. A typical mass spectrum shows multiple signals because the molecular ion fragments into a complex mixture of ions and uncharged radical species. For example, the methanol radical cation fragments into a methenium cation CH3+ and a hydroxyl radical.

In naphthalene the unfragmented radical cation is by far the most prominent peak in the mass spectrum. Secondary species are generated from proton proton loss; some compounds containing the dioxygenyl cation can be prepared in bulk. Radical cations figure prominently in the chemistry and properties of conducting polymers; such polymers are formed by the oxidation of heterocycles to give radical cations, which condense with the parent heterocycle. For example, polypyrrole is prepared by oxidation of pyrrole using ferric chloride in methanol: n C4H4NH + 2 FeCl3 → n + 2 FeCl2 + 2 HClOnce formed, these polymers become conductive upon oxidation. Polarons and bipolarons are radical cations encountered in doped conducting polymers

Mojave fringe-toed lizard

The Mojave fringe-toed lizard is a species of medium-sized, white or grayish, black-spotted diurnal lizard in the family Phrynosomatidae. It is adapted to living in sand dunes in the Mojave Desert, it ranges from Los Angeles County, Riverside County, San Bernardino County in California to extreme western Arizona in La Paz County. The Mojave fringe-toed lizard is omnivorous. Dumont Dunes page for Mojave fringe-toed lizard. Includes detailed description and photos. Mojave fringe-toed lizard Close-up image of fringed toes. Center for Biological Diversity page for Mojave fringe-toed lizard. Discusses basis and recent history of efforts to protect the lizard