The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Genesis (Genesis album)
Genesis is the twelfth studio album by the English rock band Genesis, released on 3 October 1983 by Charisma and Virgin Records. Following the band's tour in support of their 1982 live album Three Sides Live, Genesis took an eight-month break before they regrouped in the spring of 1983 to record a new studio album, their first since Abacab, it marks their first written and mixed in its entirety at their own recording facility named The Farm. Its title derives from the fact. According to AllMusic, the album established that Genesis were "now a pop band", although "art rock functions as coloring". Genesis was a commercial success upon its release; the album reached No. 1 on the UK Albums Chart and No. 9 on the US Billboard 200, where it sold over 4 million copies. Five singles were released between 1983 and 1984, with "Mama" being the band's highest-charting single in the UK at No. 4. Genesis was remastered in 2007 with new stereo and 5.1 surround sound mixes as part of the Genesis 1983–1998 box set.
In October 1982, the Genesis line-up of drummer/singer Phil Collins, keyboardist Tony Banks, guitarist/bassist Mike Rutherford, with live drummer Chester Thompson and guitarist Daryl Stuermer, wrapped their two-month tour of North America and Europe in support of the band's third live album, Three Sides Live. They had performed a one off gig titled Six of the Best with original Genesis frontman and singer Peter Gabriel and former guitarist Steve Hackett to raise funds for Gabriel's world music festival WOMAD after it ran into financial trouble. Genesis entered a period of inactivity, during which the band pursued their solo projects. In the spring of 1983, the band reconvened at their studio, named The Farm in Chiddingfold, Surrey, to start work on a new studio album, their first since Abacab. Genesis became their first album written and mixed in its entirety at the studio room. Having the group work in their own space without the additional pressure of booking studio time and fees resulted in a more relaxed environment.
They were joined by engineer Hugh Padgham, who had worked on Abacab, but this time carried out production duties themselves with Geoff Callingham offering technical assistance. Rutherford recalled an initial period of slow and sluggish progress, but after a productive session on the third day they had "two or three" songs worked out which increased their interest and excitement towards the album and in performing the new material on stage. Before the sessions began, the group considered the idea of Banks or Rutherford taking on a lead vocal on the album, but opted out as they had developed material with Collins's voice in mind. Banks said that he and Rutherford take a more prominent role in the backing vocals on Genesis than previous albums. Banks explained the album was the result of the group's decision to "write an album and record it in one go, from start to finish"; the group considered their strongest material had been put together collectively, so they decided to make an entire album in such a way as opposed to developing someone's pre-arranged ideas.
Before, each member would contribute or arranged songs which restricted development or suggestions from the other members. This time tracks came about through jamming and improvisations in the studio that were recorded onto tape, ensuring the band remained unified and kept songs fresh. Banks noted that this made recording more spontaneous; this collaborative effort marked a return for Genesis crediting each member for writing the album as opposed to listing individual credits, which they had not done since The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway. The collaborative effort had an influence on the album's title as the group were unable to come up with a suitable name, so they used Genesis to emphasise the fact that it was written collectively. Genesis displays the group moving towards shorter, more straightforward, radio friendly songs. Rutherford said that the band had gone as far as they could with their progressive and art rock direction that they had adopted since the early 1970s and wanted to write and record in a more relaxed approach as the band were more driven to present what they had to offer.
Banks considered the music, overall sound of Genesis, something that the band had longed for many years prior its more aggressive edge. He described side one as the "main act", while side two has the "character pieces"; the main keyboards that Banks used on the album are the Prophet 10, Synclavier, an E-mu Emulator, a Yamaha CP-70 electric grand piano, an ARP Quadra on "Mama". At one point on the album, a sample the soundtrack to 2001: A Space Odyssey is used. Collins said: "You play a chord and a half of it's going at half the speed and part at twice the speed, sounds beautiful". Collins plays on a Simmons electronic drum kit. "Mama" originated during a group jam session where Rutherford was experimenting with a Linn LM-1 electronic drum machine fed through a gated reverb and a Mesa Boogie amplifier, "turned up loud" to the point of amplifiers jumping off the studio floor. Collins was influenced to go for a vocal that resembled John Lennon's style on his cover of "Be-Bop-A-Lula" on the song's verses.
His laugh was influenced by the 1982 song "The Message" by rap band Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five which features a similar sound. Padgham had brought the single to the band and upon hearing it, Collins did the laugh during the subsequent improvisation session for "Mama" which the band liked and wished to use in the song; the group had no problems. When it came to picking a song as the album's lead single
Prison Break is an American television serial drama created by Paul Scheuring, broadcast on Fox for four seasons, with 81 episodes from August 29, 2005 to May 15, 2009, a fifth season which aired from April 4, to May 30, 2017. The series revolves around Lincoln Burrows and Michael Scofield; the series was produced by Adelstein-Parouse Productions, in association with Original Television and 20th Century Fox Television. Along with creator Paul Scheuring, the series is executive produced by Matt Olmstead, Kevin Hooks, Marty Adelstein, Dawn Parouse, Neal H. Moritz, Brett Ratner who directed the pilot episode; the series' theme music, composed by Ramin Djawadi, was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in 2006. The series was turned down by Fox in 2003, concerned about the long-term prospects of such a series. Following the popularity of serialized prime time television series Lost and 24, Fox decided to back production in 2004; the first season received positive reviews, performed well in the ratings.
The first season was planned for a 13-episode run, but was extended to include an extra nine episodes due to its popularity. Prison Break was nominated for several industry awards, including the 2005 Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series Drama and the 2006 People's Choice Award for Favorite New TV Drama, which it won. In the United States, all five seasons have been released on DVD and released on Blu-ray internationally; the success of the series has inspired short videos for mobile phones, several official tie-ins in print and on the Internet, as well as a video game. A spin-off series, Prison Break: Proof of Innocence, was produced for mobile phones; the series has spawned a tie-in novel. The fourth season of Prison Break returned from its mid-season break in a new timeslot on April 17, 2009, for the series' last six episodes. Two additional episodes, titled "The Old Ball and Chain" and "Free" were produced, were transformed into a standalone feature, titled The Final Break; the events of this feature take place before the last scene of the series finale, are intended to conclude unfinished plotlines.
The feature was released on DVD and Blu-ray July 21, 2009. A nine-episode fifth season was announced by Fox in January 2016; the revival series, dubbed Prison Break: Resurrection, premiered on April 4, 2017, aired on Tuesdays at 9:00 pm. The season concluded on May 30, 2017. On December 12, 2017, Dominic Purcell announced via Instagram that season 6 is "in the works." On January 4, 2018, Fox confirmed that season 6 is in early development. The first season follows the rescue of Lincoln Burrows, accused of murdering Terrence Steadman, the brother of Vice President of the United States, Caroline Reynolds. Lincoln is sentenced to death and is incarcerated in Fox River State Penitentiary where he awaits his execution. Lincoln's brother, brilliant structural engineer Michael Scofield, is convinced of Lincoln's innocence and formulates an escape plan. In order to gain access to Fox River, Michael commits an armed robbery which results in him being sentenced to Fox River. In prison, Michael befriends the prison doctor Sara Tancredi when he pretends to suffer from Type 1 diabetes, in order to gain daily access to the prison's infirmary, when he receives his daily insulin shots.
The brothers' fight to ward off the execution is aided by their lifelong friend Veronica Donovan, who begins to investigate the conspiracy that put Lincoln in jail. However, they are hindered by members of an organization known as The Company; the Company was responsible for framing Lincoln, they did so because of Lincoln's father Aldo Burrows, his former connections with The Company. The brothers, along with six other inmates, Fernando Sucre, Theodore "T-Bag" Bagwell, Benjamin Miles "C-Note" Franklin, David "Tweener" Apolskis, John Abruzzi, Charles "Haywire" Patoshik, who come to be known as the Fox River Eight, escape in the episode prior to the season finale, after using their prison industry privileges to dig an escape tunnel underneath the prison; the second season begins eight hours after the escape, focusing on the eight escapees. Series creator Paul Scheuring describes the second season as "The Fugitive times eight" and likens it to the "second half of The Great Escape." The fugitives split up and journey to locations across the country with the authorities close behind them as they each pursue their individual goals.
Brad Bellick gets fired from the prison where he worked as the main guard and chases after the inmates himself for the reward money. Several of the escapees reunite in search of a large cache of money buried long ago by another Fox River inmate, Charles Westmoreland. Federal agent Alexander Mahone is assigned to track down and capture the eight fugitives, but is revealed to be working for The Company, which wants all eight men dead; when Sara discovers her father, Governor Frank Tancredi, has been killed, she meets with Michael, remaining with him as the brothers try to bring down now-President Reynolds, a Company member. To ensure the brothers' safety, Sara faces trial. During the trial, the testimony of former Secret Service agent Paul Kellerman, who used to work for The Company-controlled President, exonerates Lincoln and Sara. Half of the escapees are killed or recaptured. Michael, T-Bag and Bellick are arrested by the Panamanian authorities and imprisoned at the Penitenciaría Federal de Sona.
The third season follows Michael ins
Michael Joseph Jackson was an American singer and dancer. Dubbed the "King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest entertainers of all time, he was known for his unorthodox lifestyle, residing in a private amusement park he called Neverland Ranch, becoming the focus of tabloid scrutiny. Jackson's contributions to music and fashion, along with his publicized personal life, made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades; the eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records, in the early 1980s, became a dominant figure in popular music, his music videos, including those for "Beat It", "Billie Jean", "Thriller" from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool.
Their popularity helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Bad was the first album to produce five US Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles, he continued to innovate throughout the 1990s with videos such as "Black or White" and forged a reputation as a touring artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized complicated dance techniques such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name, his sound and style have influenced artists of various genres. Jackson is one of the best-selling music artist of all time, with estimated sales of over 350 million records worldwide, his other albums, including Off the Wall, HIStory rank among the world's best-selling. He won hundreds of awards, has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, is the only pop or rock artist to have been inducted into the Dance Hall of Fame, his other achievements include Guinness world records, 15 Grammy Awards, 26 American Music Awards, 13 number-one US singles. Jackson was the first artist to have a top ten single in the Billboard Hot 100 in five different decades.
In the late 1980s, Jackson became a figure of controversy due to his changing appearance and behavior. In 1993, he was accused of sexually abusing the child of a family friend; the case led to an investigation and was settled out of court for $25 million in 1994. In 2005, he was tried and acquitted of further child sexual abuse allegations and several other charges. In 2009, while preparing for a series of comeback concerts, This Is It, Jackson died from an overdose of propofol and benzodiazepine given to him by his personal physician, Conrad Murray. Jackson's fans around the world expressed their grief, his public memorial service was broadcast live. In 2019, the documentary Leaving Neverland detailed renewed allegations of child sexual abuse and led to an international backlash against Jackson. Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, near Chicago, on August 29, 1958, he was the eighth of ten children in the Jackson family, a working-class African-American family living in a two-bedroom house on Jackson Street.
His mother, Katherine Esther Jackson, played clarinet and piano, had aspired to be a country-and-western performer, worked part-time at Sears. His father, Joseph Walter "Joe" Jackson, a former boxer, was a crane operator at U. S. Steel and played guitar with a local rhythm and blues band, the Falcons, to supplement the family's income, his father's great-grandfather, July "Jack" Gale, was a Native American medicine man and US Army scout. Michael grew up with five brothers. A sixth brother, Marlon's twin Brandon, died shortly after birth. Joe acknowledged that he whipped Michael, he recalled that Joe sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and his siblings rehearsed, ready to physically punish any mistakes. Katherine Jackson stated that although whipping is considered abuse in more modern times, it was a common way to discipline children when Michael was growing up. Jackie, Tito and Marlon have said that their father was not abusive and that the whippings, which were harder on Michael because he was younger, kept them disciplined and out of trouble.
In an interview with Oprah Winfrey in 1993, Jackson said that his youth had been lonely and isolating. In 1964, Michael and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by their father which included Jackie and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and tambourine. In 1965, Michael began sharing lead vocals with Jermaine, the group's name was changed to the Jackson 5; the following year, the group won a talent show. From 1966 to 1968 they toured the Midwest; the Jackson 5 performed at clubs and cocktail lounges, where striptease shows were featured, at local auditoriums a
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Nicholas Campbell is a Canadian actor and filmmaker, who won three Gemini Awards for acting. He is known for such films as Naked Lunch, Prozac Nation, New Waterford Girl and the television series Da Vinci's Inquest. Campbell was raised in Montreal, he went to Toronto's Upper Canada College and Kingston's Queen's University where he studied pre-Law but switched to English and Drama. He continued his studies in England studying five years at the London Drama Studio and at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Campbell spent 40 weeks touring the country with the York Theatre Royal Repertory Company, his debut film role was in The Omen, released in 1976. After he returned from England he divided his time between Toronto, Los Angeles, New York. In the 1990s he moved back to Canada, his starring film and television credits include series leads on The Hitchhiker. Starting his acting career in the movies he had small roles in A Bridge Too Far, The Eagle Has Landed and in the Bond movie The Spy Who Loved Me.
Campbell was third-billed in the 1985 movie Certain Fury. Playing Billy Quinn in CBC's Major Crime he won a Gemini Award for best actor for his work, his television credits include the role of Bobby Kennedy in Hoover vs. The Kennedys, Going Home, The Valour and the Horror. Other works include The Sleep Room, Diana Kilmury: The Diary of Evelyn Lau. Campbell has worked extensively with David Cronenberg, appearing in such films as Naked Lunch, The Dead Zone, Fast Company, The Brood. Campbell has made guest appearances on TV shows including Space: 1999, Blue Murder, A Nero Wolfe Mystery, Street Legal, Republic of Doyle, Highlander: The Series. In addition to his acting career, Campbell is an accomplished filmmaker, he directed the documentary Stepping Razor. Da Vinci's Inquest was nominated for many Gemini Awards. Of the 11 Geminis the show won, it received three for best writing in a dramatic series and three for best dramatic series. Campbell received the Gemini Award for best performance in a continuing leading dramatic role for his work on the series.
Campbell directed a number of episodes of Da Vinci’s Inquest. In 2005, Da Vinci's Inquest ended its run. In Da Vinci's City Hall, which ran the following season, the character followed his real-life inspiration, Vancouver Mayor Larry Campbell, into municipal politics. No more episodes are planned, but there is talk of a series of TV films that would continue the narrative. Nicholas Campbell on IMDb Filmbug Canoe.ca Interview CBC Digital Archives – Nicholas Campbell, Canada Reads advocate
Miami Vice is an American television crime drama series created by Anthony Yerkovich and executive produced by Michael Mann for NBC. The series starred Don Johnson as James "Sonny" Crockett and Philip Michael Thomas as Ricardo "Rico" Tubbs, two Metro-Dade Police Department detectives working undercover in Miami; the series ran for five seasons on NBC from 1984 to 1989. The USA Network began airing reruns in 1988, broadcast an unaired episode during its syndication run of the series on January 25, 1990. Unlike standard police procedurals, the show drew upon 1980s New Wave culture and music; the show became. It has been called one of the "Top 50 TV Shows". People magazine stated that Miami Vice was the "first show to look new and different since color TV was invented". Michael Mann directed a film adaptation of the series, released July 28, 2006. Vin Diesel and Chris Morgan are working on a TV series reboot that could be part of the NBC 2018–19 TV season. Legend has it that the head of NBC's Entertainment Division, Brandon Tartikoff, wrote a brainstorming memo that read "MTV cops", presented it to series creator Anthony Yerkovich a writer and producer for Hill Street Blues.
Yerkovich, indicates that he devised the concept after learning about asset forfeiture statutes that allowed law enforcement agencies to confiscate the property of drug dealers for official use. The initial idea was for a movie about a pair of vice cops in Miami. Yerkovich turned out a script for a two-hour pilot, titled Gold Coast, but renamed Miami Vice. Yerkovich was drawn to South Florida as a setting for his new-style police show. In keeping with the show's namesake, most episodes focused on combating drug trafficking and prostitution. Episodes ended in an intense gun battle, claiming the lives of several criminals before they could be apprehended. An undercurrent of cynicism and futility underlies the entire series; the detectives reference the "Whac-A-Mole" nature of drug interdiction, with its parade of drug cartels replacing those that are apprehended. Co-executive producer Yerkovich explained: Even when I was on Hill Street Blues, I was collecting information on Miami, I thought of it as a sort of a modern-day American Casablanca.
It seemed to be an interesting socio-economic tide pool: the incredible number of refugees from Central America and Cuba, the extensive Cuban-American community, on top of all that the drug trade. There is a fascinating amount of service industries that revolve around the drug trade—money laundering, bail bondsmen, attorneys who service drug smugglers. Miami has become a sort of Barbary Coast of free enterprise gone berserk; the choice of music and cinematography borrowed from the emerging New Wave culture of the 1980s. As such, segments of Miami Vice would sometimes use music-based stanzas, a technique featured in Baywatch; as Lee H. Katzin, one of the show's directors, remarked, "The show is written for an MTV audience, more interested in images and energy than plot and character and words." These elements made the series into an instant hit, in its first season saw an unprecedented fifteen Emmy Award nominations. While the first few episodes contained elements of a standard police procedural, the producers soon abandoned them in favor of a more distinctive style.
Influenced by an Art Deco revival, no "earth tones" were allowed to be used in the production by executive producer Michael Mann. A director of Miami Vice, Bobby Roth, recalled: There are certain colors you are not allowed to shoot, such as red and brown. If the script says'A Mercedes pulls up here,' the car people will show you three or four different Mercedes. One will be white, one will be black, one will be silver. You will not get a brown one. Michael knows. Miami Vice was one of the first American network television programs to be broadcast in stereophonic sound, it was mixed in 4 channel stereo for its entire run. Nick Nolte and Jeff Bridges were considered for the role of Sonny Crockett, but since it was not lucrative for film stars to venture into television at the time, other candidates were considered. Mickey Rourke was considered for the role, but he turned down the offer. Larry Wilcox, of CHiPs, was a candidate for the role of Crockett, but the producers felt that going from one police officer role to another would not be a good fit.
After dozens of candidates and a twice-delayed pilot shooting, Don Johnson and Philip Michael Thomas were chosen as the vice cops. For Johnson, by 34 years old, NBC had particular doubts about the several earlier unsuccessful pilots in which he had starred. After two seasons, Johnson threatened to walk from the series as part of a publicized contract dispute; the network was ready to replace him with Mark Harmon, who had departed St. Elsewhere, but the network and Johnson were able to resolve their differences and he continued with the series until its end. Jimmy Smits played Crockett's partner in the pilot episode. Before production started, the idea was to do all or most of the exterior filming in Los Angeles, pass it off to viewers as urban Miami—an approach put into practice two decades during the filming of CSI: Miami, but instead, nearly all filming, both exterior and interior, was done in Florida. Many episodes of Miami Vice were filmed in the South Beach section of Miami Beach, an area which, at the time, was blighted by poverty and crime, with its demographic so deteriorated that there "simply weren't many people on the street.
Ocean Drive's hotels were filled with elderly Jewish retirees, many of them frail, subsisting on