McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV; the university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College. McGill's main campus is at Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with the second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue on the Montreal Island, 30 kilometres west of the main campus; the university is one of two universities outside the United States who are members of the Association of American Universities and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum within the World Economic Forum. McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Medicine and Management. McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the incumbent prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, 14 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, other national legislatures, several billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, 28 Olympic medalists, all of varying nationalities.
McGill alumni were instrumental in inventing or organizing football and ice hockey. McGill University or its alumni founded several major universities and colleges, including the Universities of British Columbia and Alberta, the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dawson College; the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province. In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal; this was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools; when James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.
Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college; the RIAL continues to exist today. Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL comprise the Board of Governors of McGill University. James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813, he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.
On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada, added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada. As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death. On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family, McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV; the Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school.
The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833. The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing; the university historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is m
MySQL is an open-source relational database management system. Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, "SQL", the abbreviation for Structured Query Language. MySQL is free and open-source software under the terms of the GNU General Public License, is available under a variety of proprietary licenses. MySQL was owned and sponsored by the Swedish company MySQL AB, bought by Sun Microsystems. In 2010, when Oracle acquired Sun, Widenius forked the open-source MySQL project to create MariaDB. MySQL is a component of the LAMP web application software stack, an acronym for Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python. MySQL is used by many database-driven web applications, including Drupal, phpBB, WordPress. MySQL is used by many popular websites, including Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. MySQL is written in C and C++, its SQL parser is written in yacc. MySQL works on many system platforms, including AIX, BSDi, FreeBSD, HP-UX, eComStation, i5/OS, IRIX, macOS, Microsoft Windows, NetBSD, Novell NetWare, OpenBSD, OpenSolaris, OS/2 Warp, QNX, Oracle Solaris, SunOS, SCO OpenServer, SCO UnixWare and Tru64.
A port of MySQL to OpenVMS exists. The MySQL server software itself and the client libraries use dual-licensing distribution, they are offered under a proprietary license. Support can be obtained from the official manual. Free support additionally is available in different IRC forums. Oracle offers paid support via its MySQL Enterprise products, they differ in price. Additionally, a number of third party organisations exist to provide support and services, including MariaDB and Percona. MySQL has received positive reviews, reviewers noticed it "performs well in the average case" and that the "developer interfaces are there, the documentation is very good", it has been tested to be a "fast and true multi-user, multi-threaded sql database server". MySQL was created by a Swedish company, MySQL AB, founded by David Axmark, Allan Larsson and Michael "Monty" Widenius. Original development of MySQL by Widenius and Axmark began in 1994; the first version of MySQL appeared on 23 May 1995. It was created for personal usage from mSQL based on the low-level language ISAM, which the creators considered too slow and inflexible.
They created a new SQL interface, while keeping the same API as mSQL. By keeping the API consistent with the mSQL system, many developers were able to use MySQL instead of the mSQL antecedent. Additional milestones in MySQL development included: First internal release on 23 May 1995 Version 3.19: End of 1996, from www.tcx.se Version 3.20: January 1997 Windows version was released on 8 January 1998 for Windows 95 and NT Version 3.21: production release 1998, from www.mysql.com Version 3.22: alpha, beta from 1998 Version 3.23: beta from June 2000, production release 22 January 2001 Version 4.0: beta from August 2002, production release March 2003. Version 4.01: beta from August 2003, Jyoti adopts MySQL for database tracking Version 4.1: beta from June 2004, production release October 2004. Version 5.0: beta from March 2005, production release October 2005. The developer of the Federated Storage Engine states that "The Federated Storage Engine is a proof-of-concept storage engine", but the main distributions of MySQL version 5.0 included it and turned it on by default.
Documentation of some of the short-comings appears in "MySQL Federated Tables: The Missing Manual". Sun Microsystems acquired MySQL AB in 2008. Version 5.1: production release 27 November 2008 Version 5.1 contained 20 known crashing and wrong result bugs in addition to the 35 present in version 5.0. MySQL 5.1 and 6.0-alpha showed poor performance when used for data warehousing – due to its inability to utilize multiple CPU cores for processing a single query. Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems on 27 January 2010; the day Oracle announced the purchase of Sun, Michael "Monty" Widenius forked MySQL, launching MariaDB, took a swath of MySQL developers with him. MySQL Server 5.5 was available. Enhancements and features include: The default storage engine is InnoDB, which supports transactions and referential integrity constraints. Improved InnoDB I/O subsystem Improved SMP support Semisynchronous replication. SIGNAL and RESIGNAL statement in compliance with the SQL standard. Support for supplementary Unicode character sets utf16, utf32, utf8mb4.
New options for user-defined partitioning. MySQL Server 6.0.11-alpha was announced on 22 May 2009 as the last release of the 6.0 line. Future MySQL Server development uses a New Release Model. Features developed for 6.0 are being incorporated into future releases. The general availability of MySQL 5.6 was announced in February 2013. New features included performance improvements to the query optimizer, higher transactional throughput in InnoDB, new NoSQL-style memcached APIs, improvements to partitioning for querying and managing large tables, TIMESTAMP column type that stores milliseconds, improvements to replication, better performance monitoring by expanding the data available through the PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA; the InnoDB storage engine included support for full-text search and improved group commit performance. The general availability of MySQL 5.7 was a
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor is a general-purpose programming language designed for web development. It was created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994. PHP stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code may be executed with a command line interface, embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, web frameworks. PHP code is processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in a web server or as a Common Gateway Interface executable; the web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control; the standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been ported and can be deployed on most web servers on every operating system and platform, free of charge.
The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014, work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification. PHP development began in 1994 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage, he extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with databases, called this implementation "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI. PHP/FI could be used to build dynamic web applications. To accelerate bug reporting and improve the code, Lerdorf announced the release of PHP/FI as "Personal Home Page Tools version 1.0" on the Usenet discussion group comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi on June 8, 1995. This release had the basic functionality that PHP has today; this included Perl-like variables, form handling, the ability to embed HTML. The syntax was simpler, more limited and less consistent.
Early PHP was not intended to be a new programming language, grew organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language I have no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way." A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing released PHP/FI 2 in November 1997. The fact that PHP was not designed, but instead was developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. In some cases, the function names were chosen to match the lower-level libraries which PHP was "wrapping", while in some early versions of PHP the length of the function names was used internally as a hash function, so names were chosen to improve the distribution of hash values. Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language's name to the recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.
Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans started a new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999, they founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan, Israel. On May 22, 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. As of August 2008 this branch reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 will any security updates be released. On July 14, 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for object-oriented programming, the PHP Data Objects extension, numerous performance enhancements. In 2008, PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from PHP and was added in version 5.3. Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code as of February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5. Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems, either by building them from the PHP source code, or by using pre-built binaries.
For PHP versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only available Microsoft Windows binary distributions were 32-bit x86 builds, requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet Information Services on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP version 5.5 made. Official security support for PHP 5.6 ended on 31 December 2018, but Debian 8.0 Jessie will extend support until June 2020. PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking native Unicode support at the core language level. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to bring native Unicode support throughout PHP, by embedding the International Components for Unicode library, representing text strings as UTF-16 internally. Since this would cause major changes both to the internals of the language and to user code, it was planned to release this as version 6.0 of the language, along with other major features in development. However, a shortage of developers who understood the necessary changes, performance problems arising from conversion to and from UTF-16, used in a web context, led to delays in the project.
As a result, a PHP 5.3 release was created in 2009, with many non-Unicode f
TU Wien is one of the major universities in Vienna. The university has received extensive international and domestic recognition in teaching as well as in research, it is a esteemed partner of innovation oriented enterprises, it has about 26,200 students, eight faculties and about 4,000 staff members. The university's teaching and research is focused on engineering, computer science, natural sciences; the university's educational offerings have achieved wide domestic recognition. The institution was founded in 1815 by Emperor Francis II as the kaiserlich-königliches Polytechnisches Institut, it was renamed the Technische Hochschule in 1872. When it began granting doctoral and higher degrees in 1975, it was renamed the Vienna University of Technology. TU Wien is one of the most prestigious universities of technology in the world by presenting a top level of research and education. TU Wien is among the most successful technical universities in Europe and is Austria’s largest scientific-technical research and educational institution.
As a university of technology, TU Wien covers a wide spectrum of scientific concepts from abstract pure research and the fundamental principles of science to applied technological research and partnership with industry. For 200 years, TU Wien has been a place of research and learning in the service of progress. TU Wien is ranked 199th by the QS World University Ranking as of 2019, positioned among the best 251-300 higher education institutions globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Over the years the university has retained a good positioning of their Engineering and Computer Science departments; the has been ranked among the top 80 computer science departments in the world by the QS World University Ranking and The Times Higher Education World University Rankings respectively. In 2014, U. S. News ranked Computer Science at TU Wien as number 14 in Europe, equaling number 3 within German speaking universities. TU Wien has eight faculties led by deans: Architecture and Planning, Civil Engineering, Computer Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology and Geoinformation, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Physics.
The University is led by four Vice Rectors. The Senate has 26 members; the University Council, consisting of seven members, acts as a supervisory board. Development work in all areas of technology is encouraged by the interaction between basic research and the different fields of engineering sciences at TU Wien; the framework of cooperative projects with other universities, research institutes and business sector partners is established by the research section of TU Wien. TU Wien has sharpened its research profile by defining competence fields and setting up interdisciplinary collaboration centres, clearer outlines will be developed. Research focus points of TU Wien are introduced as computational science and engineering, quantum physics and quantum technologies and matter, information and communication technology and energy and environment; the EU Research Support provides services at TU Wien and informs both researchers and administrative staff in preparing and carrying out EU research projects.
Siegfried Becher, professor of economics Ottó Titusz Bláthy, Hungarian mechanical engineer Günter Blöschl, Austrian hydrologist Christian Andreas Doppler, Austrian mathematician and physicist Hugo Ehrlich, Croatian architect Paul Eisler, inventor of the printed circuit Tillman Gerngross, Professor of Engineering at Dartmouth College, leading entrepreneur and bioengineer, founder of GlycoFi and Adimab Princess Marie-Therese of Hohenberg, Austrian architect and princess Adolph Giesl-Gieslingen, Austrian locomotive designer and engineer Karl Gölsdorf, Austrian engineer and locomotive designer Edmund Hlawka, Austrian mathematician Ingeborg Hochmair, electrical engineer, developed the first microelectronic, multi-channel cochlear implant Viktor Kaplan, inventor of the Kaplan turbine Leon Kellner, grammarian and Zionist Hermann Knoflacher, Austrian engineer Benno Mengele, Austrian electrical engineer Milutin Milanković, Serbian geophysicist and civil engineer Yordan Milanov, one of the leading Bulgarian architects from the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century Richard von Mises, scientist Hubert Petschnigg, architect Ferdinand Piëch, Austrian business magnate and executive, the chairman of the supervisory board of Volkswagen Group Franz Pitzinger, Constructor General of the Austrian Navy Herman Potočnik, Slovene space pioneer Alfred Preis, designer of the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor Zvonimir Richtmann, Croatian physicist, philosopher and publicist Peter Schattschneider, Austrian physicist Rudolph Michael Schindler, early Modern architect Paul Schneider-Esleben, visiting professor of architecture Edo Šen, Croatian architect Camillo Sitte, Austrian architect Peter Skalicky, rector of the Vienna University of Technology from 1991-2011 Irfan Skiljan, author of the image viewer software Irfanview Hellmuth Stachel, Austrian mathematician Rud
A website or Web site is a collection of related network web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are identified with a common domain name, published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, amazon.com. Websites can be accessed via a public Internet Protocol network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network, by a uniform resource locator that identifies the site. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are part of an intranet. Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language, they may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, which may optionally employ encryption to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content; some websites require user subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers and smart TVs; the World Wide Web was created in 1990 by the British CERN physicist Tim Berners-Lee.
On 30 April 1993, CERN announced. Before the introduction of HTML and HTTP, other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server; these protocols offer a simple directory structure which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most presented as plain text files without formatting, or were encoded in word processor formats. Websites can be used in various fashions. Websites can be the work of an individual, a business or other organization, are dedicated to a particular topic or purpose. Any website can contain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individual sites, as perceived by the user, can be blurred. Websites are written in, or converted to, HTML and are accessed using a software interface classified as a user agent. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range of computer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones.
A website is hosted on a computer system known as a web server called an HTTP server. These terms can refer to the software that runs on these systems which retrieves and delivers the web pages in response to requests from the website's users. Apache is the most used web server software and Microsoft's IIS is commonly used; some alternatives, such as Nginx, Hiawatha or Cherokee, are functional and lightweight. A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format, sent to a client web browser, it is coded in Hypertext Markup Language. Images are used to effect the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is non-interactive; this type of website displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text and other content and may require basic website design skills and software.
Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, animations, audio/video, navigation menus. Static websites can be edited using four broad categories of software: Text editors, such as Notepad or TextEdit, where content and HTML markup are manipulated directly within the editor program WYSIWYG offline editors, such as Microsoft FrontPage and Adobe Dreamweaver, with which the site is edited using a GUI and the final HTML markup is generated automatically by the editor software WYSIWYG online editors which create media rich online presentation like web pages, intro, blogs, an
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems; some wiki engines are open source. Some permit control over different functions. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content; the online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, is one of the most viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007.
Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work". "Wiki" is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered'fit', which results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page." Some wikis have an Edit button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode.
An example of this is the VisualEditor on Wikipedia. WYSIWYG controls do not, always provide