James Maitland Stewart was an American actor and military officer, among the most honored and popular stars in film history. With a career spanning 62 years, Stewart was a major Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player, known for his distinctive drawl and down-to-earth persona, which helped him portray American middle-class men struggling in crisis. Many of the films in which he starred have become enduring classics. Stewart was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one for The Philadelphia Story, received an Academy Lifetime Achievement award in 1985. In 1999, Stewart was named the third-greatest male screen legend of the Golden Age of Hollywood by the American Film Institute, behind Humphrey Bogart and Cary Grant; the American Film Institute has named five of Stewart's films to its list of the 100 best American films made. He had a noted military career and was a World War II and Vietnam War veteran and pilot, who rose to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force Reserve, becoming the highest-ranking actor in military history.
In 1985, Stewart was promoted to Major General, reserve list by President Ronald Reagan, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, in Indiana, the son of Elizabeth Ruth and Alexander Maitland Stewart, who owned a hardware store. Stewart was raised as a Presbyterian, he was descended from veterans of the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the American Civil War. The eldest of three children, young Jimmy was expected to one day inherit his father's store and continue a business, in the family for three generations, his mother was an excellent pianist. When his father once accepted a gift of an accordion from a guest, Stewart learned to play the instrument, which became a fixture offstage during his acting career; as the family grew, music continued to be an important part of family life. Stewart attended Mercersburg Academy prep school, graduating in 1928, he was active in a variety of activities. He played on the football and track teams, was art editor of the KARUX yearbook, a member of the choir club, glee club, John Marshall Literary Society.
During his first summer break, Stewart returned to his hometown to work as a brick loader for a local construction company and on highway and road construction jobs where he painted lines on the roads. Over the following two summers, he took a job as an assistant with a professional magician, he made his first appearance as Buquet in the play The Wolves. A shy child, Stewart spent much of his after-school time in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing, chemistry—all with a dream of going into aviation, it was a dream enhanced by the legendary 1927 flight of Charles Lindbergh, whose progress 19-year-old Stewart stricken with scarlet fever, was avidly following from home, foreshadowing his starring movie role as Lindbergh 30 years later. However, he abandoned visions of being a pilot when his father insisted that instead of the United States Naval Academy he attend Princeton University. Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the class of 1932, he excelled at studying architecture, so impressing his professors with his thesis on an airport design that he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies, but he became attracted to the school's drama and music clubs, including the Princeton Triangle Club.
His acting and accordion talents at Princeton led him to be invited to the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company in West Falmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. The company had been organized in 1928 and would run until 1932, with Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust and Charles Leatherbee as directors. Stewart performed in bit parts in the Players' productions in Cape Cod during the summer of 1932, after he graduated; the troupe had included Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan. Stewart and Fonda became close friends over the summer of 1932 when they shared an apartment with Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick; when Stewart came to New York at the end of the summer stock season, which had included the Broadway tryout of Goodbye Again, he shared an apartment with Fonda, who had by finalized his divorce from Sullavan. Along with fellow University Players Alfred Dalrymple and Myron McCormick, Stewart debuted on Broadway in the brief run of Carry Nation and a few weeks – again with McCormick and Dalrymple – as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had two lines.
The New Yorker commented, "Mr. James Stewart's chauffeur... comes on for three minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause." The play was a moderate success. Many Broadway theaters had been converted to movie houses and the Depression was reaching bottom. "From 1932 through 1934", Stewart recalled, "I'd only worked three months. Every play I got into folded." By 1934, he was given more substantial stage roles, including the modest hit Page Miss Glory and his first dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard's Yellow Jack, which convinced him to continue his acting career. However and Fonda, still roommates, were both struggling. In the fall of 1934, Fonda's success in The Farmer Takes. Stewart attracted the interest of MGM scout Bill Grady who saw Stewart on the opening night of Divided by Three, a glittering première with many luminaries in attendance, including Irving
It's a Wonderful Life
It's a Wonderful Life is a 1946 American Christmas fantasy drama film produced and directed by Frank Capra, based on the short story and booklet The Greatest Gift, which Philip Van Doren Stern wrote in 1939 and published in 1943. The film is one of the most beloved in American cinema, has become traditional viewing during the Christmas season; the film stars James Stewart as George Bailey, a man who has given up his dreams in order to help others, whose imminent suicide on Christmas Eve brings about the intervention of his guardian angel, Clarence Odbody. Clarence shows George all the lives he has touched, how different life in his community of Bedford Falls would be if he had never been born. Despite performing poorly at the box office due to stiff competition at the time of its release, the film has become a classic and is a staple of Christmas television around the world. Theatrically, the film's break-even point was $6.3 million twice the production cost, a figure it didn't come close to achieving on its initial release.
An appraisal in 2006 reported: "Although it was not the complete box office failure that today everyone believes... it was a major disappointment and confirmed, at least to the studios, that Capra was no longer capable of turning out the populist features that made his films the must-see, money-making events they once were."It's a Wonderful Life is now considered one of the greatest films of all time. It was nominated for five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, has been recognized by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 best American films made, as number 11 on its initial 1998 greatest movie list, as number 20 on its revised 2007 greatest movie list, as number one on its list of the most inspirational American films of all time. Capra revealed that it was his personal favorite among the films he directed and that he screened it for his family every Christmas season. On Christmas Eve 1945, in Bedford Falls, New York, George Bailey contemplates suicide; the prayers of his family and friends reach heaven, where Clarence Odbody, Angel 2nd class, is assigned to save George, in return for which he will earn his angel wings.
To prepare him for his mission, Clarence is shown flashbacks of George's life. The first is from 1919, when 12-year-old George saves his younger brother Harry from drowning in a frozen lake. At his after-school job, George realizes that the druggist, Mr. Gower, distraught over his son's death from flu, has accidentally added poison to a child's prescription, intervenes to stop him from causing harm. In 1928, George plans to leave on a world tour and attend college. At Harry's high-school graduation party, George is reintroduced to Mary Hatch, who has had a crush on him from childhood, their walk home is interrupted by news that George's father, has died of a stroke. George postpones his travel so he can sort out the family business, Bailey Brothers' Building and Loan. Henry F. Potter, the richest and meanest man in town, wishes to dissolve the Building and Loan to eliminate it as a competitor; the board of directors votes to keep the Building and Loan open, on condition that George stay to run it.
George gives his college tuition to Harry on the condition that Harry take over the Building and Loan when he graduates. Four years in 1932, Harry returns from college married and with a job offer from his father-in-law. Although Harry is ready to honor his commitments to George and the Building and Loan, George learns that the job has excellent prospects and won't allow his brother to turn it down; as a result, George never does leave Bedford Falls but ends up falling in love with Mary and they marry. But on their way to their honeymoon, they witness a run on the bank and use their $2,000 honeymoon savings to keep the Building and Loan solvent and out of Potter's control until the panic subsides. George establishes Bailey Park, a development of modest houses financed by the Building and Loan that offers home ownership in contrast to rentals in Potter's overpriced slums; the unscrupulous Potter attempts to lure George into becoming his assistant, offering him $20,000 a year. During World War II, George is ineligible for service because of his deaf ear.
Harry becomes a Navy pilot and earns the Medal of Honor by shooting down a kamikaze plane headed for a troop transport. On Christmas Eve morning 1945, as the town prepares a hero's welcome for Harry, Uncle Billy goes to the bank to deposit $8,000 of the Building and Loan's cash; when Potter enters, Billy taunts him by grabbing the newspaper out of his lap and reading the headline about Harry aloud. Billy returns the newspaper to Potter; when the teller asks him for the money for the deposit, Billy discovers that he has misplaced the cash. Potter discovers the envelope and, seeing an opportunity to ruin the Baileys and quash the Building and Loan, says nothing; when a bank examiner arrives to review the Building and Loan's records, George realizes that scandal and criminal charges will follow. After retracing Billy's steps without success, George berates him goes home and takes out his frustration on his family. George appeals to Potter for a loan and offers his life insurance policy with only $500 in equity as collateral.
Based on the policy's $15,000 nominal value, Potter says that George is worth more dead than alive and phones the police to have him arrested. Geo
Indiana is a borough in and the county seat of Indiana County in the U. S. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; the population was 13,975 at the 2010 census, since 2013 has been part of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area after being a long time part of the Pittsburgh Media Market. Indiana is the principal city of the Indiana, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area; the borough and the region as a whole promotes itself as the "Christmas Tree Capital of the World" because the national Christmas Tree Grower's Association was founded there. There are still a large number of Christmas tree farms in the area; the largest employer in the borough today is Indiana University of Pennsylvania, the second-largest of 14 PASSHE schools in the state. The Indiana Weekly Messenger was published in the town between 1874 and 1946; the Downtown Indiana Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. Listed on the National Register are Breezedale, Rochester & Pittsburgh Railway Indiana Passenger Station, Silas M. Clark House, Graff's Market, James Mitchell House, Old Indiana County Courthouse, Indiana Borough 1912 Municipal Building, Indiana Armory, Old Indiana County Jail and Sheriff's Office, John Sutton Hall.
Indiana Mall is the area's major shopping center. For decades the major industry of the town was coal mining, but as mines closed throughout the latter half of the 20th-century the area has had ongoing economic difficulty. Natural gas surveying and production have picked up some of the slack, Indiana serves as the home of the largest owned drilling company in the United States, S. W. Jack Drilling Company, it counts a number of other production and service firms as members of the community, as well as three publicly traded companies: S&T Bancorp, Inc. First Commonwealth Financial Corporation, Superior Well Services Inc; as well, it holds one of the nation's largest independent insurance agencies: The Reschini Group, founded by the nation's first female insurance agent, Rose Reschini, in 1938. A large section of the southern part of the town, bordering the university is occupied by Kovalchick Salvage Co; the land was purchased by the university and it plans to rejuvenate part of what is considered the largest eyesore in the community.
Kovalchick holds large amounts of railroad aluminum. As of December 2008 fifty percent of the salvage materials held by Kovalchick Corporation have been cleared or otherwise removed from publicly viewable land. Indiana was the birthplace and hometown of actor Jimmy Stewart, born there and lived at 104 North 7th Street. Despite the fact that he left the area upon graduating from high school, the town always followed his career with the local newspaper periodically publishing rumors in his years that Stewart planned to return there to live. On May 20, 1983, Stewart was given a 75th birthday celebration by the town. Before Stewart's death, a museum to his memory was opened on the third floor of the local public library, a bronze statue of Stewart was erected in his honor at the county courthouse during his 75th birthday; the town annually holds a Jimmy Stewart film festival as part of the town's "It's a Wonderful Life" holiday celebration. Environmentalist author Edward Abbey was born at the Indiana hospital and raised in Indiana and near the Indiana County towns and villages of Saltsburg and Tanoma.
His first novel, Jonathan Troy, is set in a thinly disguised Indiana, his novel The Fool's Progress, which he called his "fat masterpiece", is an autobiographical account of his growing up in this area and his imagined attempt to return home after a lifetime spent in the desert Southwest. His nonfiction book Appalachian Wilderness lovingly describes Home. There is a Pennsylvania state historical marker for Abbey. James H. Bronson, Medal of Honor recipient in American Civil War Renée Fleming, Lyric Soprano and National Medal of Arts recipient who has sung in world's most prestigious opera houses; the borough is an independent municipality surrounded by White Township. For some time in the 1990s there was discussion of merging the borough and township, but the matter was never acted upon. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 13,975 people, 4,624 households residing in the borough; the population density in 2000 was 8,440.0 people per square mile.
There were 5,096 housing units at an average density of 2,887.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 91.51% White, 5.19% African American, 0.07% Native American, 1.89% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.20% of the population. There were 4,804 households, out of which 14.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.5% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present