A baritone is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types. It is the most common male voice, the baritone voice type is generally divided into the baryton-Martin baritone, lyric baritone, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, and the bass-baritone. The first use of the term baritone emerged as baritonans, late in the 15th century, at this early stage it was frequently used as the lowest of the voices, but in 17th-century Italy the term was all-encompassing and used to describe the average male choral voice. Baritones took roughly the range as it is today at the beginning of the 18th century. Indeed, many works of the 18th century have roles marked as bass that in reality are low baritone roles. Examples of this are to be found, for instance, in the operas, the greatest and most enduring parts for baritones in 18th-century operatic music were composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. They include Count Almaviva in The Marriage of Figaro, Guglielmo in Così fan tutte, Papageno in The Magic Flute and these included the likes of Filippo Galli, Giovanni Inchindi, and Henri-Bernard Dabadie.
The basse-taille and the bass were commonly confused because their roles were sometimes sung by singers of either actual voice part. The bel canto style of vocalism which arose in Italy in the early 19th century supplanted the castrato-dominated opera seria of the previous century and it led to the baritone being viewed as a separate voice category from the bass. More often than not, baritones found themselves portraying villains, the principal composers of bel canto opera are considered to be, Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, Giacomo Meyerbeer, and the young Giuseppe Verdi. Figaro in Il barbiere is often called the first true baritone role, however and Verdi in their vocal writing went on to emphasize the top fifth of the baritone voice, rather than its lower notes—thus generating a more brilliant sound. The major international baritone of the first half of the 19th century was the Italian Antonio Tamburini and he was a famous Don Giovanni in Mozarts eponymous opera as well as being a Bellini and Donizetti specialist.
Commentators praised his voice for its beauty and smooth tonal emission, Tamburinis range, was probably closer to that of a bass-baritone than to that of a modern Verdi baritone. His French equivalent was Henri-Bernard Dabadie, who was a mainstay of the Paris Opera between 1819 and 1836 and the creator of several major Rossinian baritone roles, including Guillaume Tell. Dabadie sang in Italy, where he originated the role of Belcore in Lelisir damore in 1832, the most important of Tamburinis Italianate successors were all Verdians. In France, Paul Barroilhet succeeded Dabadie as the Paris operas best known baritone, like Dabadie, he sang in Italy and created an important Donizetti role, in his case, Alphonse in La favorite. Antonio Pini-Corsi was the standout Italian buffo baritone in the period between about 1880 and World War I, reveling in comic roles by Rossini and Paer. In 1893, he created the part of Ford in Verdis last opera, notable among their contemporaries were the cultured and technically adroit French baritones Jean Lassalle, Victor Maurel, Paul Lhérie, and Maurice Renaud
Other considerations are physical characteristics, speech level, scientific testing, and vocal register. A singers voice type is identified by a known as voice classification, by which the human voice is evaluated. The discipline of voice classification developed within European classical music and is not generally applicable to other forms of singing, voice classification is often used within opera to associate possible roles with potential voices. Voice classification is a tool for singers, venues, while useful, voice classification systems have been used too rigidly, i. e. a house assigning a singer to a specific type and only casting him or her in roles they consider belonging to this category. A singer will choose a repertoire that suits his or her instrument, many different voice types are used in vocal pedagogy in a variety of voice classification systems. Most of these types, are grouped into seven major categories that are, for the most part. Women are typically divided into three groups, mezzo-soprano, and alto, men are usually divided into four groups, tenor and bass.
Some women fall into the tenor or baritone groups, while men identified as countertenors can be grouped as contralto, mezzo-soprano, when considering the pre-pubescent voice, an eighth term, treble, is applied. Within each of these categories, subcategories identify specific vocal qualities such as coloratura facility. The vocal range of classical performance covers about five octaves, from a low G1 to a high G6, any individuals voice can perform over a range of one and a half to more than two octaves. Vocal ranges are grouped into overlapping types that each span two octaves. Many singers fall between groups and can perform some parts in either type, soprano range, The soprano is the highest singing voice. The typical soprano voice lies between C4 and C6, the low extreme for sopranos is roughly A3. Most soprano roles do not extend above C6 although there are several standard soprano roles that call for D6, at the highest extreme, some coloratura soprano roles may reach to F6. Soprano tessitura, The tessitura of the soprano voice lies higher than all the other voices except the sopranino, in particular, the coloratura soprano has the highest tessitura of all the soprano subtypes.
Soprano subtypes, As with all types, sopranos are often divided into different subcategories based on range, vocal color or timbre, the weight of voice. Sopranos are often broken down into five subcategories, coloratura soprano, lyric soprano, spinto soprano, two types of soprano especially dear to the French are the Dugazon and the Falcon, which are intermediate voice types between the soprano and the mezzo soprano. A Dugazon is a darker-colored soubrette, a Falcon a darker-colored soprano drammatico
Bass (voice type)
A bass is a type of classical male singing voice and has the lowest vocal range of all voice types. According to The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, a bass is typically classified as having a range extending from around the second E below middle C to the E above middle C. Its tessitura, or comfortable range, is defined by the outermost lines of the bass clef. Categories of bass voices vary according to style and classification system. Italians favour subdividing basses into the basso cantante, basso buffo, the American system identifies the bass-baritone, comic bass, lyric bass, and dramatic bass. The German fach system offers further distinctions, Spielbaß, Schwerer Spielbaß, Charakterbaß, rare is the performer who embodies a single fach without touching repertoire from another category. Cultural influence and individual variation create a variation in range. Many British composers such as Benjamin Britten have written parts for bass that center far higher than the bass tessitura as implied by the clef, the Harvard Dictionary of Music defines the range as being from the E below low C to middle C.
The bass has the lowest vocal range of all voice types, the low extreme for basses is generally C2. However, several extreme bass singers, referred to as basso profondos, within opera, the lowest note in the standard bass repertoire is D2, sung by the character Osmin in Mozarts Die Entführung aus dem Serail, but few roles fall below F2. The high extreme, a few roles in the standard repertoire call for a high F♯ or G. In the operatic repertoire, the highest notes are a G♯4 and, in the aria Fra lombre e glorrori in Handels serenata Aci. Basso cantante is a higher, more lyrical voice and it is produced using a more Italianate vocal production, and possesses a faster vibrato, than its closest Germanic/Anglo-Saxon equivalent, the bass-baritone. Hoher Bass or high bass or often a dramatic bass-baritone, jugendlicher Bass denotes the role of a young man sung by a bass, regardless of the age of the singer. They are usually the blustering antagonist of the hero/heroine or the fool in bel canto operas.
English equivalent, dramatic bass Basso profondo is the lowest bass voice type, steane in Voices, Singers & Critics, the basso profondo voice derives from a method of tone-production that eliminates the more Italian quick vibrato. In its place is a kind of tonal solidity, a front, which may nevertheless prove susceptible to the other kind of vibrato. Dramatic basso profondo is a basso profondo voice
Tenor is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is one of the highest of the male voice types. The tenors vocal range lies between C3, the C one octave below middle C, and A4, the A above middle C, in solo work, this range extends up to C5, or tenor high C. The low extreme for tenors is roughly A♭2, at the highest extreme, some tenors can sing up to two Fs above middle C. The tenor voice type is divided into the leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor, heldentenor. The name tenor derives from the Latin word tenere, which means to hold, in medieval and Renaissance polyphony between about 1250 and 1500, the tenor was the structurally fundamental voice, vocal or instrumental. All other voices were normally calculated in relation to the tenor, until the late 16th century introduction of the contratenor singers, the tenor was usually the highest voice, assuming the role of providing a foundation. It was in the 18th century that tenor came to signify the male voice that sang such parts, for earlier repertoire, a line marked tenor indicated the parts role, and not the required voice type.
Indeed, even as late as the century, partbooks labelled tenor might contain parts for a range of voice types. The vocal range of the tenor is one of the highest of the voice types. Within opera, the lowest note in the tenor repertoire is probably A♭2 in Rossinis rarely performed La donna del lago in the role of Rodrigo di Dhu. Within more frequently performed repertoire and Herod both call for an A2, a few tenor roles in the standard repertoire call for a tenor C. Some of the few top Cs in the operatic repertoire are either optional or interpolated by tradition. However, the highest demanded note in the standard operatic repertoire is D5. Some operatic roles for tenors require a darker timbre and fewer high notes, in the leggero repertoire, the highest note is F5, very few tenors can, given the raising of concert pitch since its composition, have this role in their repertoire without transposition. Within the tenor voice type category are seven generally recognized subcategories, leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor, Mozart tenor, Also known as the tenore di grazia, the leggero tenor is essentially the male equivalent of a lyric coloratura.
This voice is light and capable of executing difficult passages of fioritura, the typical leggero tenor possesses a range spanning from approximately C3 to E♭5, with a few being able to sing up to F5 or higher in full voice. In some cases, the chest register of the leggero tenor may extend below C3, voices of this type are utilized frequently in the operas of Rossini, Bellini and in music dating from the Baroque period. Leggero tenor roles in operas, The lyric tenor is a warm voice with a bright, full timbre that is strong but not heavy
Songs from Liquid Days
Songs from Liquid Days is a collection of songs composed by composer Philip Glass with lyrics by Paul Simon, Suzanne Vega, David Byrne and Laurie Anderson. Glass began the project scoring lyrics by Byrne and thought to collaborate with additional songwriters, on the project, Glass said, The words come first. From these I fashioned a set of six songs which, after the music was written, I — along with producer Kurt Munkacsi and conductor Michael Riesman— began the long and difficult process of casting singers for the individual songs. We felt that the interpretation a singer brings to a song is a contribution to its character — contributing their own personality to the work perhaps more than any other performer. The recording features performances by Bernard Fowler, Kronos Quartet, Janice Pendarvis, Douglas Perry, The Roches, Linda Ronstadt, the recording was released in 1986 by CBS Records. The song Lightning was performed by the Philip Glass Ensemble on Saturday Night Live, the cycle begins with Paul Simons Changing Opinion, a mock-solemn meditation on the possible sources of an electrical hum in a room.
Mr. Holden concludes, But with all its charms, Songs From Liquid Days is still minor Glass, allMusic wrote that Songs From Liquid Days became Philip Glass most popular and successful recording, and concluded that Songs From Liquid Days may be their single greatest achievement. Changing Opinion –9,57 Lightning –6,42 Freezing –3,16 Liquid Days –4,45 Open the Kingdom –6,59 Forgetting –8,10 All songs feature the Philip Glass Ensemble under direction of Michael Riesman. Cover photo of Philip Glass is by Robert Mapplethorpe, Songs from Liquid Days, official website Full recording & performance credits at Discogs
In the Penal Colony (opera)
In the Penal Colony is a chamber opera in one act and 16 scenes composed by Philip Glass to an English-language libretto by Rudy Wurlitzer. The opera is based on Franz Kafkas German-language short story In the Penal Colony and it was commissioned by ACT Theatre in Seattle, where it premiered on August 31,2000. It has a time of approximately 80 minutes and is scored for two singers and a string quintet. Kafkas harrowing story In the Penal Colony was adapted as a play by Steven Berkoff in 1969, Glass chose to use it as the basis for an opera and selected the creative team. He and his collaborator and former wife JoAnne Akalaitis worked on the idea on. Akalaitis worked closely with the librettist, Rudy Wurlitzer, in adapting the story for the musical stage, Glass referred to the work as a pocket opera and deliberately chose the small-scale format of a chamber opera to increase the likelihood that it would be frequently performed. In Kafkas story, only two of the four characters speak, The Officer and The Visitor, whose roles in the opera are assigned to a bass-baritone, as in the story, The Prisoner and The Guard remain silent.
Akalaitis added a character for the premiere production, Kafka himself. The texts for the narration were chosen by Akalaitis from Kafkas diaries, the operas music is played by a string quintet. In the original production, they appear as musicians from the colony where the story takes place and are costumed variously as soldiers. The world premiere performance of the opera on August 31,2000 at ACT Theatre was a co-production with the Court Theatre in Chicago who staged it that year, perrys identical twin brother, alternated with him in the role. Alan O. Johnson conducted the Metropolitan String Ensemble, the sets were designed by John Conklin, with costumes by Susan Hilferty and lighting by Jennifer Tipton. In the Penal Colony ran at the ACT Theatre until October 1, the production, directed by JoAnne Akalaitis with the same singers, opened in Chicago at the Court Theatre in December 2000. Its New York City premiere followed in June 2001 when it was performed by the Classic Stage Company, the German premiere was produced in November 2002 by the Berliner Kammeroper, directed by Kay Kuntze, conducted by Peter Aderhold.
The work premiered in France at the Opéra National de Lyon on January 23,2009, the UK premiere took place at the Linbury Studio Theatre in Londons Royal Opera House on September 15,2010. On that occasion, it was performed in a production by Music Theatre Wales who took it on tour to several British cites. After the original Akalaitis production performed in Seattle and New York City, subsequent ones have varied the number of non-speaking roles, the Opéra National de Lyon production directed by Richard Brunel added a second non-speaking guard. The Music Theatre Wales production directed by Michael McCarthy eliminated the role completely
American Repertory Theater
The American Repertory Theater is a professional not-for-profit theater in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Over the past thirty years it has garnered many of the nations most distinguished awards, including a Pulitzer Prize, a Tony Award, the A. R. T. is housed in the Loeb Drama Center at Harvard University. Houses the Institute for Advanced Theater Training at Harvard University and the Harvard-Radcliffe Drama Club, in 2002 Robert Woodruff replaced founder Robert Brustein as the A. R. T. s Artistic Director. After Woodruffs departure in 2007, Associate Artistic Director Gideon Lester took the reins for 2008-09 season, Paulus, a Harvard alum, is widely known as a director of theater and opera. The appearance of the American Repertory Theater at Harvard in 1979 was a groundbreaking event and it represented the establishment of the only permanent professional arts organization on campus. These are offered and accepted on the assumption that the best teachers in any field are its practitioners. In the 1920s George Pierce Baker gave his celebrated 47 Workshop Playwriting course at Harvard as an elective in the English department, bakers dramatic instruction was effective enough to attract the likes of Eugene ONeill, Philip Barry, and S. N.
But when Baker requested a space in which to stage scenes from the plays of his students, a wealthy donor from the Harkness family thereupon offered Harvard what was the munificent sum of a million dollars to build a theatre and a drama department for Baker. In one of the few such actions in its long history, Baker took the money to Yale where he founded what was soon to be called the Yale School of Drama. The American Repertory Theater came to Harvard from Yale in 1979, in 2008, Diane Paulus became the A. R. T. s Artistic Director. The A. R. T. is the recipient of other awards including the Tony Award for Outstanding Regional Theater, the Pulitzer Prize. Its recent premiere production of Death and The Powers, The Robots’ Opera was a 2012 Pulitzer Prize finalist, during its 32-year history, the A. R. T. The A. R. T. has performed throughout the U. S. the A. R. T. is a training ground for young artists. The Theater’s artistic staff teaches undergraduate classes in acting, dramatic literature, voice, founded the Institute for AdvancedTheater Training at Harvard University.
Graduate program that operates in conjunction with the Moscow Art Theater School, the Institute provides world-class professional training in acting, since becoming Artistic Director, Diane Paulus has enhanced the A. R. T. Notes from the Field, Doing Time in Education, written, abbey Theatres The Plough and the Stars, written by Seán OCasey. Fingersmith, Based on the novel by Sarah Waters, written by Alexa Junge, trans Scripts, Part I, The Women, Written by Paul Lucas. The Night of the Iguana, Written by ], directed by Michael Wilson and featuring James Earl Jones
Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada and the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Quebec is Canadas largest province by area and its second-largest administrative division and it shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canadas second-most populous province, after Ontario, most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, the Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited primarily by Aboriginal peoples. Even in central Quebec at comparatively southerly latitudes winters are severe in inland areas, Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995, in 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the Québécois as a nation within a united Canada.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, early variations in the spelling of the name included Québecq and Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the seat for the French colony of New France. The province is sometimes referred to as La belle province, the Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years War. The proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River, the Treaty of Versailles ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly, in 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867, each became one of the first four provinces. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the aboriginal peoples. This was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec. In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Located in the part of Canada, and part of Central Canada. Its topography is very different from one region to another due to the composition of the ground, the climate. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Canadian Shield are the two main regions, and are radically different
Passages (Ravi Shankar and Philip Glass album)
Passages is a collaborative chamber music studio album co-composed by Ravi Shankar and Philip Glass, released in 1990 through Atlantic Records. The albums content is a hybrid of Hindustani classical music and Glass distinct American minimal contemporary classical style, the album reached a peak position of number three on Billboards Top World Music Albums chart. After a slow introduction saxophone plays the Shankar raga melody, subsequently enriched by the two other saxes, a long middle section in quicker tempo treats the material more freely in several parts, concluded with a shorter recapitulation of the opening theme. The title based on the notes, SA DHA NI PA from the Indian octave based on the first four tones of the Glass melody. An opening ad lib trumpet statement, echoed in the bamboo flute. Then the chamber orchestra develops the theme in 4/8-6/8-7/8, the Finale recapitulates the original Glass theme. Channels and Winds. is a work with vocalists in A-B-A-B-A-B form which was conceived as a bridge between the two Shankar compositions based on the Glass melodies.
The Glass theme is introduced, after the introduction, by the cello. The opening section is in 6/8, middle section 4/8, closing in 4/8. A fast-paced work based on, 1) a Middle Eastern sounding Shankar theme in 7, 2) a second theme by Ravi and in 7 but of a different length. Glass added an Introduction and other rhythmic ideas, the themes are stated and combined in the Finale. An extended orchestral work in two parts, Musical depiction of people living in harmony. Slowly, envy and violence creep into their contented lives, out of this chaos a voice sings out in Vedic prayer, Hey Nath, hama para kripa kijiye. Allmusics Jim Brenholts awarded the four of five stars, calling the music brilliant. Benholts wrote that Shankars smooth style and Glass dissonant orchestrations mixed well, and recommended Passages to fans of other minimalist composers such as John Cage, Steve Reich and Terry Riley. Offering –9,47 Sadhanipa –8,37 Channels, in the United States, Passages reached a peak position of number three on Billboards Top World Music Albums chart.
List of compositions by Philip Glass Ravi Shankar discography
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, masque, cantata or musical. The term libretto is used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass and sacred cantata. Libretto, from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro, sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot. The relationship of the librettist to the composer in the creation of a work has varied over the centuries, as have the sources. In the context of a modern English language musical theatre piece, Libretti for operas and cantatas in the 17th and 18th centuries generally were written by someone other than the composer, often a well-known poet. Metastasio was one of the most highly regarded librettists in Europe and his libretti were set many times by many different composers.
Another noted 18th-century librettist was Lorenzo Da Ponte, who wrote the libretti for three of Mozarts greatest operas, as well as for other composers. Eugène Scribe was one of the most prolific librettists of the 19th century, providing the words for works by Meyerbeer, Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi. The French writers duo Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy wrote a number of opera and operetta libretti for the likes of Jacques Offenbach, Jules Massenet. Arrigo Boito, who wrote libretti for, among others, Giuseppe Verdi and Amilcare Ponchielli, the libretto is not always written before the music. Some composers wrote their own libretti, Richard Wagner is perhaps most famous in this regard, with his transformations of Germanic legends and events into epic subjects for his operas and music dramas. Hector Berlioz, wrote the libretti for two of his works, La Damnation de Faust and Les Troyens. Alban Berg adapted Georg Büchners play Woyzeck for the libretto of Wozzeck, sometimes the libretto is written in close collaboration with the composer, this can involve adaptation, as was the case with Rimsky-Korsakov and his librettist Belsky, or an entirely original work.
In the case of musicals, the music, the lyrics, thus, a musical such as Fiddler on the Roof has a composer, a lyricist and the writer of the book. In rare cases, the composer writes everything except the dance arrangements - music and libretto, Other matters in the process of developing a libretto parallel those of spoken dramas for stage or screen. A famous case of the latter is Wagners 1861 revision of the original 1845 Dresden version of his opera Tannhäuser for Paris, since the late 19th century some opera composers have written music to prose or free verse libretti. The libretto of a musical, on the hand, is almost always written in prose
Koyaanisqatsi, known as Koyaanisqatsi, Life Out of Balance, is a 1982 American experimental film directed by Godfrey Reggio with music composed by Philip Glass and cinematography by Ron Fricke. The film consists primarily of slow motion and time-lapse footage of cities, the visual tone poem contains neither dialogue nor a vocalized narration, its tone is set by the juxtaposition of images and music. Reggio explained the lack of dialogue by stating its not for lack of love of the language that these films have no words and its because, from my point of view, our language is in a state of vast humiliation. It no longer describes the world in which we live, in the Hopi language, the word Koyaanisqatsi means unbalanced life. The film is the first in the Qatsi trilogy of films, the trilogy depicts different aspects of the relationship between humans and technology. Koyaanisqatsi is the best known of the trilogy and is considered a cult film, because of copyright issues, the film was out of print for most of the 1990s.
The first image in the film is of the Great Gallery pictograph in Horseshoe Canyon, the section shown depicts several tall, shadowed figures standing near a taller figure adorned with a crown. The next image is a close-up of a Saturn V rocket during its launch, the film fades into a shot of a desolate desert landscape. From there, it progresses to footage of natural phenomena such as waves. The films introduction to human involvement in the environment is a low aerial shot of choppy water, after aerial views of monumental rock formations partly drowned by the artificial Lake Powell, we see a large mining truck causing billows of black dust. This is followed by shots of power lines in the desert, mans continued involvement in the environment is depicted through images of mining operations, oil fields, the Navajo Generating Station, the Glen Canyon Dam, and atomic bomb detonations in a desert. Following the atomic bomb detonations, the sequence begins with a shot of sunbathers on a beach. Shots of taxiing United Airlines Boeing 747 aircraft and traffic patterns during rush hour are seen on a freeway and this is followed with stock footage of Soviet tanks lined up in rows and a military aircraft, and an aircraft carrier.
Time-lapse photography of shadows of clouds are seen moving across the skyscrapers, shots of various housing projects in disrepair, and includes footage of the decay and demolition of the Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis. The sequence ends with footage of the destruction of large buildings, a time-lapse shot of a crowd of people who appear to be waiting in a line. This is followed by shots of people walking along streets in slow motion, the next sequence begins with shots of buildings and a shot of a sunset reflected in the glass of a skyscraper. The sequence uses time-lapse photography of the activity of modern life, the events captured in this sequence involve people interacting with modern technology. The first shots are traffic patterns as seen from skyscrapers at night and this is followed by a composite shot of the moon passing behind a skyscraper