Kentucky Wildcats football
The Kentucky Wildcats football program represents the University of Kentucky in the sport of American football. The Wildcats compete in the Football Bowl Subdivision of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Eastern Division of the Southeastern Conference; the Wildcats play their home games at Kroger Field in Lexington and are led by head coach Mark Stoops. Until about 1913, the modern University of Kentucky was referred to as "Kentucky State College" and nearby Transylvania University was known as "Kentucky University". In 1880, Kentucky University and Centre College played the first intercollegiate football game in Kentucky. Kentucky State first fielded a football team in 1881, playing three games against rival Kentucky University; the team was revived in 1891. Both the inaugural 1881 squad and the revived 1891 squad have unknown coaches according to university records in winning two games and losing three; the 1891 team's colors were blue and light yellow, decided before the Centre–Kentucky game on December 19.
A student asked "What color blue?" and varsity letterman Richard C. Stoll pulled off his necktie, held it up; this is still held as the origin of Kentucky's shade of blue. The next year light yellow was changed to white; the 1892 team was coached by A. M. Miller, went 2–4–1; the greatest UK team of this era was the 1898 squad, known to Kentuckians as "The Immortals." To this day, the Immortals remain the only undefeated and unscored upon team in UK football history. The Immortals were coached by W. R. Bass and ended the year a perfect 7–0–0, despite an average weight of 147 pounds per player. Victories came for this squad, as the Immortals raced by Kentucky University, Company H of the 8th Massachusetts, Louisville Athletic Club, Centre, 160th Indiana and Newcastle Athletic Club. Head coach Jack Wright led the team to a 7–1 record in 1903, losing only to rival and southern champion Kentucky University. Fred Schacht died unexpectedly after his second season. J. White Guyn had success leading the Wildcats, posting a 17–7–1 record in his three years.
Edwin Sweetland resigned due to poor health. Sweetland served as Kentucky's first athletics director; the 1909 team upset the Illinois Fighting Illini. Upon their welcome home, Philip Carbusier said that they had "fought like wildcats," a nickname that stuck. John J. Tigert coached Kentucky for two seasons with each season having one loss. 1915 captain Charles C. Schrader was All-Southern; the 1916 team fought the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association co-champion Tennessee Volunteers to a scoreless tie. The year's only a loss, 45 to 0 to the Irby Curry-led Vanderbilt Commodores, was the dedication of Stoll Field. Quarterbacks Curry and Kentucky's Doc Rodes were both selected All-Southern at year's end. Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin stated "If you would give me Doc Rodes, I would say he was a greater player than Curry."Coach Harry Gamage had a 32–25–5 record during his seven seasons from 1927 to 1933. A. D. Kirwan, who would go on to be the president of the university, coached the Wildcats from 1938 to 1944 and posted a 24–28–4 record in those six seasons.
Longtime athletics director Bernie Shively served as Kentucky's head football coach for the 1945 season. Coach Paul "Bear" Bryant was Kentucky's head football coach for eight seasons. Bear Bryant came to Kentucky from Maryland. Under Bryant's tutelage, the Wildcats won the 1947 Great Lakes Bowl, lost the 1950 Orange Bowl, won the 1951 Sugar Bowl and the 1952 Cotton Bowl Classic. In final AP polls, the Wildcats were ranked No. 11 in 1949, No. 7 in 1950, No. 15 in 1951, No. 20 in 1952 and No. 16 in 1953. The final 1950 poll was taken prior to the bowl games. Bryant won SEC Coach of the Year honors in 1950 and left after eight seasons to accept the head football coach position at Texas A&M. Assistant coaches at Kentucky under Bryant who went on to become head coaches include Paul Dietzel, Frank Moseley, Jim Owens and Phil Cutchin. Notable players who played for Bryant at Kentucky include Howard Schnellenberger, Jim Mackenzie, Jerry Claiborne, Steve Meilinger, George Blanda, Vito Parilli, Bob Gain.
Cleveland Browns assistant Blanton Collier was hired to replace Bryant as head football coach at Kentucky in late 1953. After completing his first season at Kentucky, Collier was named SEC Coach of the Year after posting a 7–2 record. Collier's assistants during his tenure at Kentucky included the likes of Bill Arnsparger, Chuck Knox, Howard Schnellenberger, Don Shula. Despite having a winning record, 41–36–3 in eight seasons, Collier was fired. Collier struggled to recruit for much of his tenure, about which frustrated fans wrote letters of complaint to the university. Collier is the last Kentucky head football coach to leave the Wildcats with a winning record. Charlie Bradshaw, an Alabama assistant under Bear Bryant, was hired to replace the fired Collier. Despite all the hype about being a Bear Bryant assistant, Bradshaw's tenure turned out to be a disappointment, as he was unable to have much success with the Wildcats, he had a 25–41–5 record in seven seasons. Bradshaw is the last Kentucky coach to defeat Tennessee twice in Knoxville, the last Kentucky coach to defeat Auburn twice.
He was the last to defeat a No. 1 ranked team in the country until Rich Brooks in 2007. Bradshaw, a harsh, brutal coach, was the head coach of the infamous Thin Thirty Kentucky team. Kentucky had 88 players when Bradshaw arrived, but b
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce
The Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce is part of the University of Kentucky located in Lexington, Kentucky. It is a graduate program devoted to the study of international affairs and commerce; the vision to create a school of diplomacy and international commerce came from Dr. James Kennedy Patterson, the first president of the University of Kentucky; the 1898 Spanish–American War convinced Patterson a new school was needed that "shall have for its special object the preparation of young men for the diplomatic and consular service of the United States. It shall provide special training for those who may seek employment in extending upon rational and scientific lines the commercial relations of America." Patterson took as his model the programs he saw being established at Harvard, Chicago and Yale. Patterson understood the United States was becoming a political and commercial world power and believed new institutions were needed to properly prepare Americans for this role.
He had a clear vision about how they should be educated. In 1903, speaking in Washington, DC on "Education and Empire," Patterson declared students must be educated not only as scholars and scientists, but as citizens who will be engaged in shaping the destinies of the world; this philosophy - requiring that students be exposed to both theory and practice - has always been at the core of the Patterson School. Plans for a new institution centered on diplomatic and commercial training ran afoul of an abysmal budget situation at the start of the 20th century; the new state university Patterson led was struggling to survive. Indeed, he tapped his own personal resources to construct the university's first buildings; when he retired in 1910, his dream remained unfulfilled, but not forgotten. A trust established by Patterson's will in 1922 with his entire estate called for the creation of a college of diplomacy, he named the school after his only child, William Andrew Patterson, who died of illness as a young man.
To make his vision a reality, the funds had to be invested for decades. While the endowment was not large enough to fund Patterson's ambitious vision, by 1959 it had increased enough - with additional funding from the Commonwealth of Kentucky - to launch the Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce. From the beginning, the Patterson School program was designed for graduate students. Both masters and doctoral degrees were offered. In 1970, the decision was made to concentrate on training at the master's degree level for students seeking professional careers in international affairs. From three jointly appointed faculty members in 1960, the Patterson School acquired its first core faculty in 1972 and began a strengthening of its interdisciplinary nature that continues to this day; the program was housed on campus in a surplus army barracks, but moved to the Patterson Office Tower after its construction in 1969 where it remains today. Professor Amry Vandenbosch, 1959-1966 Professor Richard Butwell, 1966-1967 Professor Vincent Davis, 1971-1993 Professor John Stempel, 1993-2003 Professor Michael C.
Desch, 2003-2004 Professors George C. Herring and Karen Mingst, 2005 Ambassador Carey Cavanaugh, 2006–2016 Professor Karen Mingst, 2016 Professor Kathleen Montgomery, 2017-present The 30-hour program culminates in a M. A. in Diplomacy and International Commerce with a concentration in one of the following four areas: Diplomacy International Commerce / Trade International Security and Intelligence International organizations and DevelopmentIn addition, concurrent degree programs are offered with the University of Kentucky College of Law and the Gatton College of Business and Economics and the Department of Modern and Classical Languages. Ambassador Carey Cavanaugh, Professor Dr. Kathleen Montgomery, Interim Director and Associate Professor Dr. Robert Farley, Senior Lecturer Dr. Gregory Hall, Associate Professor Dr. John Charalambakis Senator Max Wise Ying-Juan Rogers Dr. Juste Codjo Dr. Michael Stanaitis Dr. Michael Cairo Dr. John Stempel Ambassador George Herring Dr. Karen MingstIn addition to classes taught by core faculty members, students in the program draw upon graduate-level courses offered across the full range of University of Kentucky departments including Law, Agricultural Economics, Marketing Management, History, Political Science, Public Health, Communications and Geography.
The Patterson School homepage
The Digital Classicist is a community of those interested in the application of Digital Humanities to the field of Classics and to ancient world studies more generally. The project claims the twin aims of bringing together scholars and students with an interest in computing and the ancient world, disseminating advice and experience to the Classics discipline at large; the Digital Classicist was founded in 2005 as a collaborative project based at King's College London and the University of Kentucky, with editors and advisors from the Classics discipline at large. Many notable Classicists and Digital Humanists are on the advisory board of the Digital Classicist, including Richard Beacham, Alan Bowman, Gregory Crane, Bernard Frischer, Michael Fulford, Willard McCarty, James O'Donnell, Silvio Panciera and Boris Rankov. A former member was the late Ross Scaife; the Digital Classicist community have taken an active role in posting news to the long-standing blog of the Stoa Consortium, which concerns itself with both Classical and Digital Humanities topics.
A particular focus seems to be the Open Source and Creative Commons movements, various communities of scholars with digital interests. The Digital Classicist discussion list is hosted by JISCmail in the UK. Most list traffic consists of announcements and calls, with occasional flurries of more involved discussion; the main website of the Digital Classicist is a gateway containing links to the Digital Classicist Wiki and other resources, including listings for seminars and conference panels. The seminar programmes include: abstract, audio and, from 2013, video recordings; the project Wiki contains lists of digital Classics projects, software tools that have been made available for classicists, a FAQ that solicits collaborative community advice on a range of topics from simple questions about, e.g. Greek fonts and Unicode, word-processing and printing issues, to more advanced Humanities Computing questions and project management advice; the Wiki is hosted on the servers of the Centre for Computing in the Humanities at King's College London The members of the Digital Classicist community report quite on any conference and seminar activity that they take to reflect well on the project as a whole.
Among the events cited are a series of summer seminars which have run each year since 2006 at the Institute of Classical Studies in London, panels at the Classical Association Annual Conference in Birmingham 2007 Glasgow 2009, Durham 2011 and the Digital Resources in the Humanities and Arts conference in September 2008. The Project was among the sponsors of the Open Source Critical Editions workshop in 2006. In 2008 the Digital Medievalist published a collaborative issue of Digital Classicist articles in memory of Ross Scaife. A collection of papers from the 2007 seminar series and conference panels have been published by Ashgate: Digital Research in the Study of Classical Antiquity. More recent papers have been collected together in a Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies: Mahony and Dunn 2013The Digital Classicist 2013 London BICS Supplement-122 Institute of Classical Studies. Digital Classics Digital Humanities Digital Medievalist EpiDoc Perseus Project Thesaurus Linguae Graecae The Stoa Consortium The Digital Classicist wiki Digitalclassicist discussion list Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London UCL Centre for Digital Humanities, University College London Digital Medievalist 4 a special joint issue with Digital Classicist Diotima: Women and Gender in the Ancient World
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
White House Correspondents' Association
The White House Correspondents' Association is an organization of journalists who cover the White House and the President of the United States. The WHCA was founded on February 25, 1914 by journalists in response to an unfounded rumor that a United States congressional committee would select which journalists could attend press conferences of President Woodrow Wilson; the WHCA operates independently of the White House. Among the more notable issues handled by the WHCA are the credentialing process, access to the President and physical conditions in the White House press briefing rooms, its most high-profile activity is the annual White House Correspondents' Dinner, traditionally attended by the President and covered by the news media. Not every member of the White House press corps is a member of the White House Correspondents' Association; the current leadership team of the White House Correspondents' Association includes: Officers President: Olivier Knox, Sirius XM Vice President: Jonathan Karl, ABC News Secretary: Alicia Jennings, NBC News Treasurer: Francesca Chambers, Daily Mail Board members Zeke Miller, Associated Press Doug Mills, The New York Times Todd Gillman, Dallas Morning News Anita Kumar, McClatchy Tamara Keith, NPR Executive Director Steven Thomma The WHCA is responsible for assigned seating in the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room in the West Wing of the White House.
The WHCA's annual dinner, begun in 1921, has become a Washington, D. C. is traditionally attended by the president and vice president. Fifteen presidents have attended at least one WHCA dinner, beginning with Calvin Coolidge in 1924; the dinner is traditionally held on the evening of the last Saturday in April at the Washington Hilton. Until 1962, the dinner was open only to men though WHCA's membership included women. At the urging of Helen Thomas, President John F. Kennedy refused to attend the dinner unless the ban on women was dropped. Prior to World War II, the annual dinner featured singing between courses, a homemade movie, an hour-long, post-dinner show with big-name performers. Since 1983, the featured speaker has been a comedian, with the dinner taking on the form of a'roast' of the president and his administration; the dinner funds scholarships for gifted students in college journalism programs. Many annual dinners have been downsized due to deaths or political crises; the dinner was cancelled in 1930 due to the death of former president William Howard Taft.
In 1981, Ronald Reagan did not attend because he was recuperating after the attempted assassination the previous month, but he did phone in and told a joke about the shooting. President Donald Trump did not attend the dinners in 2017 and 2018, but indicated in a tweet that he may attend in 2019 due to the dinner no longer featuring a comedian as the featured speaker. However, on April 5, 2019, he announced that he again would not attend, calling the dinner "so boring, so negative," and would instead host a political rally that evening; the WHCD has been criticized as an example of the coziness between the White House press corps and the administration. The dinner has included a skit, either live or videotaped, by the sitting U. S. president in which he mocks himself, for the amusement of the press corps. The press corps, in turn, hobnobs with administration officials those who are unpopular and are not cooperative with the press. Increasing scrutiny by bloggers has contributed to added public focus on this friendliness.
After the 2007 dinner, New York Times columnist Frank Rich implied that the Times would no longer participate in the dinners. Rich wrote that the dinner had become "a crystallization of the press's failures in the post-9/11 era" because it "illustrates how a propaganda-driven White House can enlist the Washington news media in its shows". Other criticism has focused on the amount of money raised for scholarships, which has decreased over the past few years; the dinners have drawn increasing public attention, the guest list grows "more Hollywood". The attention is given to the guest list and entertainers overshadows the intended purpose of the dinner, to "acknowledge award-winners, present scholarships, give the press and the president an evening of friendly appreciation"; this has led to an atmosphere of coming to the event only to "see and be seen". This takes place at pre-dinner receptions and post-dinner parties hosted by various media organizations, which are a bigger draw and can be more exclusive than the dinners themselves.
See footnote. Awarded for outstanding examples of deadline reporting. See footnote. Awarded for journalistic excellence. See footnote. Awarded for excellence on a story of national or regional significance. Gridiron Club Radio and Television Correspondents' Association Alfred E. Smith Memorial Foundation Dinner Not the White House Correspondents’ Dinner National Press Club Parliamentary Press Gallery List of dining events White House Correspondents' Association White House Correspondents' Association Dinner at C-SPAN Barack Obama Roasts Donald Trump At White House Correspondents' Association Dinner